From SikhiWiki
(Redirected from Sikh Saini)
Jump to navigationJump to search
For Information only
ਜਾਣਹੁ ਜੋਤਿ ਨ ਪੂਛਹੁ ਜਾਤੀ ਆਗੈ ਜਾਤਿ ਨ ਹੇ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥ (ਪੰਨਾ 349, ਸਤਰ 13, Nanak)

Sikhism does not endorse caste based distinctions in society that lead to unequal opportunities for some people. In fact, Sikhism completely rejects class or race based distinctions between humans, that leads us to make an inequitable society. Such distinctions have surfaced only due to ill interests of certain section of people, who, on the pretext of making a society more manageable through these classifications, eventually paved the way to an unequal grouping within the human race. This article is just for information purpose and to share how people from different castes came into the Sikh fold. So, please treat this article as a source of general information about this issue and kindly do not amend this article to highlight this important underlying Sikh principle. If you have any comments, please discuss them appropriately here

"In the Punjab in the sub- mountainous region the community came to be known as 'Saini'. It maintained its Rajput character despite migration." [1]

"The Sainis trace their origin to a Rajput clan of Chandravanshi Lineage who came from their original home near Mathura [sic] on the Jamuna, south of Delhi,They came to Panjab to thwart the repeated attacks of Ghazni's generals on this area on Hindus in the first Muhammadan invasions from there Origin land Mathura.These specific battles are said to be duly recorded in Tarikh-i-Alfi. "[2][16]


Saini(Gurmukhi-ਸੈਣੀ/Devnagri-सैनी) is a warrior caste of India and a prominent group among Sikhs. Sainis, also known as Shoorsaini in Puranic literature.The name "Shoor" Means 'Valiant' and "Saini" means 'Warrior'.Now the it has been Reduced to "Saini" Translating to 'Warrior'. Shoorsaini was the name of a Tomara-Yaduvanshi tribe which ruled areas surrounding Delhi, Mathura, Bayana and Bharatpur. They are now found by their original name only in Punjab(Shoorsainis had moved to Punjab after Mahabharata war) and in the neighboring states of Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.Sainis of Punjab and contiguous region trace their origin to a sub-tribe of the Yaduvanshi Kshatriyas/Jadon/Jadauns/Yādu/Yadava(Not to be Confused by Yadav Ahirs of Shudra Varna which embraced the Yadav Surname and started claimimg association with the Ancient Yādu Dynasty much like the Mali Community did with The Saini Community) who were further a sub-division of Chandravanshi/Somavanshi/Candravaṃśa/Lunar(Indu) Dynasty Kshatriyas. In this sense they also share their with origin with Bhati Rajputs of Rajputana, Jadeja Rajputs of Gujrat and Seuna Yadavas of Devgiri in South India. Though it may appear strange how such culturally and geographically diverse groups could possibly have common origin, one has to keep in mind that the descendants of Yādu were a huge warrior clan distributed and diversified in many tribes and sub tribes. After a common origin in Mathura, each Yadava tribe set on their own journey meeting varied fortunes as they chalked their unique destinies along a path of history that is at least three thousand years old. The Saini Sikhs are found in the sub-mountainous region of Punjab. They dominate in a significant number of villages in Hoshiarpur, Nawanshehr, Jalandhar, Ropar and Gurdaspur. The neighboring sub-mountainous districts of Haryana and Himachal Pradesh also have considerable Saini Sikh population. They are not found in any significant numbers in the lower and the interior Punjab, although the descendants of Sardar Nanu Singh Saini of Phulkian, who were a part of the Patiala nobility, at one time held one of the largest estates in the erstwhile princely state. Their real strongholds , however, are in the areas of Jalandhar and Bari Doabs where they exclusively own a large number of villages, and where they also held the Zaildari in the British era. They are descendant from Rajputs [3] of the Yaduvanshi [4] "In a four-fold division of the Hindu social order, the Sainis are of Kshatriya origin. Among different groups of Kshatriya, the Sainis are the ones who are Rajputs.[5]Surasena[6] [7] lineage, originating from Yadava King Shoorsen, who was the grandfather of both Krishna and the legendary Pandava warriors and also by their folk memory of origin from Mathura which was the theo-political capital of the Shoorsaini kingdom founded by Yadava king Shoorsen in the time of Mahabharata. Sainis relocated to Punjab from Mathura and surrounding areas over different periods of time.[3] [8]

The ancient Greek traveller and ambassador to India, Megasthenes, also came across this clan in its glory days as the ruling tribe with its capital in Mathura. There is also now an academic consensus that the ancient King Porus, the celebrated opponent of Alexander the Great, belonged to this once most dominant Yadava sect. [9] [10][11] Megasthenes described this tribe as Sourasenoi. [12]

Šúraséna was the grandfather of Krishna, and from him Krishna and his descendants, who held Mathura after the death of Kansa(Krishna's Uncle), derived their name as Šúrasénas or Shoorsainis.

Sainis ruled this kingdom ruled Mathura in a period ranging between 700 and 1100 CE(right up to the time of earliest Muhammadan invasions), is recorded by historians such as Cunningham. As per the historical and local accounts, when these Rajputs lost these battles and Lost there Rule during the war they had no choice other than facing slaughter or conversion to Islam. Now the Other Rajputs with Rule over a Province or State believed that A Rajput Without a Jagir is Not a Rajput(Jagir=Manor). And Some Rajputs converted under duress and started being addressed with the names such as Ranghars, Khanzadas, Ghauri Pathans, etc. Some, desperate to retain their estates and influence, started marrying their women to the Muslim conquerors as part of the prevalent "Dola" culture. This was considered a reprobate practice by the orthodox Hindus. These Rajputs among Mahtons were thus considered degraded and the inter-marriage between them and the other Rajputs stopped. This led to the birth of various endogamous groupings within the Rajputs.

Before the formation of Bharatpur state the capital of Sinsinwars was at Sinsini. Sinsini earlier was known as 'Shoor saini' and its inhabitants were known as 'Saur Sen'. The influence of Saur Sen people can be judged from the fact that the dialect of the entire north India at one time was known as 'Saursaini'. Shoor Sain people were Chandra Vanshi kshatriyas. Lord Krishna was also born in vrishni branch of Chandravansh. A group of Yadavas was follower of Shiv and Vedic God in Sindh. Some inscriptions and coins of these people have been found in 'Mohenjo Daro'. ' Shiv Shani Sevi' words have been found engraved on one inscription. Yajur Veda mentions 'Shinay Swah'. 'Sini Isar' was found on one gold coin. Atharva Veda mentions 'Sinwali' for Sini God. The above group of Yadavas came back from Sindh to Brij area and occupied Bayana in Bharatpur district. After some struggle the 'Balai' inhabitants were forced by Shodeo and Saini rulers to move out of Brij land and thus they occupied large areas.

Some Rajputs living under the sword in the Muslim-ruled areas , however, took to nuancing their identities in various ways to escape conversion and "Dola" enforced ritual pollution targeted at the rebellious Rajput groups (and also Brahmins in some cases) . The Sainis are said to be one such Rajput group who took up agriculture in this era. Many of their clan names such as Badwal, Tirotia, Salaria, Dhamrait, Mangar, Darar, Gehlon, Tambar, Banwait and others are identical or very similar to those of the Rajputs found on the neighboring hills which suggests that both were at one time part of the same stock which later got fragmented into separate groups due to the reasons already mentioned. The comparative ABO distribution studies conducted on both the groups, which were published in the prestigious American Journal of Physical Anthropology in 1961, had confirmed identical genetic markers of both the groups, while at the same time showing significant differences between them and those of other leading castes of the area such as Jats, Aroras, etc. This also strongly indicates a common ancestry. The oral and historical accounts thus do have some scientific corroboration in this particular case.

Like most other Rajput origin tribes of Punjab [13] , Saini's also took up farming during medieval period due to the Turko-Islamic political domination, and have been chiefly engaged in both agriculture and military service since then until the recent times.[14] During British period Saini's were enlisted as a statutory agricultural tribe as well as a martial class. [15] [16] [17]

"Sainis fought first as part of Rajputs and then as Sikhs. So their attire as warriors would have been indistinctive from them. Modern Sainis in the Indian Army wear the colors of their regimental units. In British era Sainis fought largely in Grenadiers , Sappers and Sikh Regiments. Subedar-Major Jagindar Singh Saini who was a hero of Battle of Loos in the World War 1 won Order of Brithish India and the title of 'Bahadur'. He wore gray and red stripes on the shoulders. Gurmukh Singh Saini won the Cross of St. George in the same battle which was worn around the neck. But these decorations were worn by all members of all groups who won military awards for gallantry.

Until recent times Saini's were strictly an endogamous Kshatriya group and inter-married only within select clans. [18] They also have a national level organization called Saini Rajput Mahasabha located at Delhi which was established in 1920. [19]

Since 1931 the surname Saini is also used by Mali groups of Rajasthan and some other states. Officially started being known as Saini in 1937.These however are different from the Sainis that are found in Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu-Kashmir ,and Parts of Haryana. And have no marital links with them.


Puranic and epical etymology

Visnu Purana records the migration of some of the Yadava descendants and kinsmen of Lord Krishna from Mathura to Dwarka and from Dwarka to Punjab with the help of Prince Arjuna. [Visnu Purana , Section 5] These descendants and kinsmen of Lord Krishna are also referred in Puranic literature as Shaursaini or Shoorseni after Shoorsena (also spelt Sursena) who was paternal grandfather of Krishna and maternal grandfather of legendary Pandava warriors of Kuru clan." Saini appears to be etymologically derived from this Puranic and Mahabharta term and seems to be an abbreviated version of it."

The area around Mathura was also named "Shaursena" or Surasena in ancient time after this prominent Yadu clan chieftain. This suggests that Shoorsena , the claimed mythico-historical founder of Saini clan, must have had enough influence to have the entire principality, or "Janapada", named after him.

Note: A later name of Surasena was also Sinsini. From which the Now Jat Clan of Sinsinwar orignated. The name Sinsinwar literally mean 'sons of Sinsini/Surseni'. The Sinsinwar clan trace their origin Maharaj Shursain of Vrishni clan. Vrishni was a clan of the ancient Yadu tribe. The Ancient Vrishni clan founded the kingdom of Suirsani in the Braj region. They abandoned the Braj region due to the frequent raids of Jarasanda (the King of Magadha) and under the leadership of Krishna migrated to the city of Dwarka (located on the Saurashtra coast). When the city of Dwarka submerged in the sea, a group of Vrishnis migrated to the Lower Sindh Valley. By the 3rd century A. D, the Vrishni made themselves master of a tract of country around Ludhiana, Punjab (several Vrishni coin dating to that era are discovered from Sunet. Ludhiana). During the 9th century this group resettled in the Braj region and made Bayana their headquarters.

Before the formation of Bharatpur state the capital of Sinsinwars was at Sinsini. Sinsini earlier was known as 'Shoor saini' and its inhabitants were known as 'Saur Sen'. The influence of Saur Sen people can be judged from the fact that the dialect of the entire north India at one time was known as 'Saursaini'. Shoor Sain people were Chandra Vanshi kshatriyas. Lord Krishna was also born in vrishni branch of Chandravansh. A group of Yadavas was follower of Shiv and Vedic God in Sindh. Some inscriptions and coins of these people have been found in 'Mohenjo Daro .... The above group of Yadavas came back from Sindh to Brij area and occupied Bayana in Bharatpur district. After some struggle the 'Balai' inhabitants were forced by Shodeo and Saini rulers to move out of Brij land and thus they occupied large areas."

-Encyclopaedia Indica: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Volume 100, pp 119 - 120, SS Sashi, Anmol Publications, 1996

The etymology and origin of the term can be broken down as follows:

Devi Bhagvat Purana describes Kunti as the princess of Shoorseni Pradesh [Devi Bhagwat Purana, Chapter2, pp 41, Published by Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.] :

  • Shaursen (also spelt in English as Surasena) ---> The kingdom ruled by Shoorsen or Sursen
  • Shaurseni (also spelt variously in English as Shoorseni and Shaursaini) ---> The Yadava clansmen and lineal descendants of Shoorsen or Sursen.
  • Saini---> Abbreviated version of Shoorsaini or Shoorseni.

In the Mahabharta, Sage Vyasa clearly identifies Krishna as Shoorseni [Mahabharata, Book 13, Chapter 147] :

"Foremost among all the Shoorsenis , the powerful one, Krishna, residing at Dwaraka, will rule and protect the whole earth after vanquishing all her lords, conversant as he will be with the science of polity." It is noteworthy that Ved Vyasa identifies Krishna as Shoorseni even though he was to be in Dvarka which was far away from Shaursena, or Shoorseni Pradesh, the "janapada" . This signifies that Ved Vyasa is referring to a dynasty and a clan, not merely to a geographical region. It is the migration of some of the members of this very clan to Punjab that Visnu Purana records in section 5.

Devi Bhagvat Purana describes Kunti as the princess of Shoorseni Pradesh [Devi Bhagwat Purana, Chapter2, pp 41, Published by Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd.] :

"....while the names of Pandus wives were , Kunti, the princess of Shoorseni Pradesh..." Srimad Bhagvat Purana identifies Shoorsena as the chief of Yadu dynasty [SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM by Krsna-Dwaipayana Vyasa (Translation: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada & others, Cantos 10, Chapter Seventeen - The Supreme Lord Agrees to Become Aditi's Son, verse 27] :

"...Formerly, Shoorsena (Surasena), the chief of the Yadu dynasty, had gone to live in the city of Mathura. There he enjoyed the places known as Mathura and Shoorsena (Surasena)..." Srimad Bhagvat Purana identifies descendants of Shoorsena as a distinct Yadava clan and Krishna's kinsmen [SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM by Krsna-Dwaipayana Vyasa (Translation: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada & others, Cantos 9, Chapter Twenty-four Krsna the Supreme Personality of Godhead, verse, 63] :

"... Assisted by the descendants of Bhoja, Vrsni, Andhaka, Madhu, Shoorsena, Dasarha, Kuru, Srnjaya and Pandu, Lord Krsna performed various activities..." Yudhisthra identifies Shoorsena as his grandfather, and Krishna's father, Vasudeva, as his maternal uncle in Srimad Bhavat Purana [SRIMAD BHAGAVATAM by Krsna-Dwaipayana Vyasa (Translation: A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada & others, Chapter Eleven, Lord Krsna's Entrance into Dvaraka, verse 26] :

"...Is my respectable grandfather Shoorsena in a happy mood? And are my maternal uncle Vasudeva and his younger brothers all doing well?..."

Other Name:-(Shura Rajputs,Surasenas,Sourasenoi,Shoorsainis,Suraseni)


Kansa(brother of Krishna's mother Devaki), the first major king of Northern India, was from this dynasty. By virtue of his might, he declared himself as the first king of Mathura. Acknowledging his superiority, the famous king Jarasandha of Magadha, who had established his lordship in the eastern region of India by subduing many independent kingdoms, offered his two daughters in marriage to Kansa. Thus, the first empire of pre-historic or Proto-history India was established by Kansa, the scion of Shoorsaini dynasty. Kansa performed the famous Ashwamedha Yagna and set his horse moving and his armies followed the horse under his personal command and was away for twelve years from the capital “Shoorpur” in the city of Mathura. The site of king Kansa's capital city was discovered by Colonel James Todd, the author of the Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan.

In the Mahabharata's 18th Parva ("Chapter"), the sons of king Kansa are mentioned to be alive. Moreover even after the killing of Kansa the kingdom was given back to his father, Ugrasena who ruled Mathura. Mathura still teems with the remains and relics of king Kansa. In the city of Jhajjar (Haryana), there are about 150-200 families who trace their descent from Kansa.

Sourasenoi: Greek account of ancient Saini royal clan

A Non-Indian account of this ancient royal tribe has also survived. Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador to India in 4 BCE transliterated the name Shoorsaini into 'Greek' as 'Sourasenoi', saying that they were worshipers of Lord Krishna whom he identified as none other than the Greek Demi-God 'Herakles' (ed. Hercules).[20][17] [12]:

Megasthenes Book Indica and His Statue
"This Herakles is held in special honour by the Sourasenoi, an Indian tribe, who possess two large cities, Methora and Cleisobora"

Source: James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan [12]

Evidence from Puranas and Mahabharata

Ibbetson's account does not reference Puranic sources.[21] [22] which provide a more compelling theory for the origin of the term 'Saini'. One thing Ibbetson's account does very well on is providing the evidence that his informant had distinct recollection of the origin of his community in Mathura, which falls in a principality originally known as Shaursena or Surasena. It would appear that if both Ibbetson and his informant had been aware of the ancient name of the region where Mathura is located, they would have been able to easily connect the term, 'Saini' with 'Shaursaini', rather than offering an unnecessary spin around the term 'Rasaini' which leaves a lot more to be explained [ There is no such word as "Rasai" in Hindi or Punjabi vocabularies , meaning "skill". It simply appears to be a concoction of the colonial informant. The term 'Saini' appears to be an abbreviated version of the term 'Shaursaini' which is used in Mahabharta and Puranas to describe the Yadava clan Krishna was born in. The term 'Saini', based on both phonetics and the geographical location of Mathura, appears to have more uncanny resemblance with the Mahabharta term 'Shaursaini' than any other term that can be imagined [Interestingly the geogpraphical location of Sainis appears to be totally corroborated by Mahabharta account of west ward migration of Shoorsenis (Shoorsainis): "...The eighteen tribes of the Bhojas, from fear of Jarasandha, have all fled towards the west; so also have the Shoorsenis..."("Mahabharata, Book 2, Chapter 14) ] [Even if Ibbetson's speculation is held to be valid for argument sake. It is contradicted by Amir Khusro's Ghurratu-L-Kamal account which records a senior Saini General in a Sisodia Rajput force as late as 14th century CE. Based on Amir Khusro's Ghurratu-L-Kamal narrative, the Rajput origin of Sainis assertion, sceptically expressed in Ibbetson's own anecdotal account, becomes more valid and plausible. Incidentally, Seuna Yadavas of Maharashtra and Karnataka also claim their descent from the Mathura region of the ancient Shaursena, whence Sainis also claim their descent. According to the Visnu Purana account cited in an ensuing section of this article, Arjuna settled "some" of the Yadava families in Punjab, implying that there were most likely other Yadavas from the submerged city of Dwaraka who dispersed away in other parts of the country.

It appears neither Ibbetson nor his informant were properly trained in the textual sources of ancient Indian history and mythology to make these irrisistible connections and to carry out a deeper and more informed analysis.

Ghazni invasion theory also indicates Rajput background of Sainis

Ibbetson's non-primary and non-secondary source account hints that Sainis migrated to Punjab due to Ghazni's attack on Mathura. But Ibbetson insinuates in the ensuing text that Sainis were probably Malis even in Mathura. Apart from its orgin from a non-primary or non-original textual source , this view is rendered untenable by a serious logical and factual contradiction inherent in it.

For Sainis to be targeted by Mahmud of Ghazni, they would have to be a Rajput tribe. Based on strong historical evidence, it would be highly unusual for an invading Turk army to target a Mali tribe which had no history of combat. Quite to the contrary of Ibbetson's theory, there have been recorded instances in Rajputana where Rajputs escaped the Turk and Moghul genocides by claiming to be Malis. [ The instances of Rajput gotras such as Bhati, Gehlot, Chauhan, etc among Malis of Rajputana is an example of this and points to absurdity of Ibbetson's theory. There is well recorded account about how Rajputs escaped conversion to Islam and genocide by the Turks by claiming to be Malis in the captivity of Sahabuddin Ghori after the defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan. See 'Rajasthan', pp 614, by Kumar Suresh Singh, B. K. Lavania, Dipak Kumar Samanta, S. K. Mandal, N. N. Vyas,1998, Anthropological Survey of India] [It is also noteworthy that "Agnivanshi" and "Suryavanshi" Rajput gotras found in Malis of Rajasthan are not found among the Sainis of Punjab.] This view confirms the fact that had Sainis been deemed to be a Mali tribe by invading Turks they would have had no cause to flee Mathura as Ibbetson's anecdotal account suggests. For Sainis to be caught in the crosshairs of Ghazni's army, they would necessarily have to be a Rajput tribe which was a threat to Turks in some way.

Migration of Saini Rajputs to Punjab: Visnu Purana and Mahabharata provide vital clues

From Mathura to Dwaraka and from Dwaraka to Punjab

According to Puranic sources, the Yadava kashatriya tribes in the Shaursena principality had to be relocated to the port city of Dwarka in Gujrat due to frequent invasions by Kalyavana and Jarasandha. There they ruled for sometime under the leadership of Lord Krishna and participated in the Mahabharta war from there. But according to the same Puranic legend , the Yadava kshatriyas in Dwaraka became intoxicated with the power and acted in such manner that caused them to be cursed by the by sages.

Visnu Purana records the aftermath of this event as follows:

"....As soon as Krishna died, the parijata tree and the assembly hall named Sudharma returned to heaven. The kali era began. And the city of Dvaraka was swallowed up by the sea, with the exception of Krishna’s own dwelling."

"Arjuna settled some of the Yadavas in Punjab. But when he was taking the Yadava women with him, the party was set upon by a band of dacoits. Arjuna tried to repel the dacoits but found that he had lost all his powers. His strength had left him with Krishna’s death." [Section 5, Visnu Purana]

The above passage from Visnu Purana provides the vital clue about history of Sainis. It can be acutally regarded as the slam dunk evidence of "Yaduvanshi" origin of Sainis of Punjab.

Relative strength of Saini claim on Shoorsaini Yadava descent

Apart from Bhati , Bhatias and Saini clans in Punjab there is no other community which claims to be of Yadava origin. It can be ruled out that the above reference from Visnu Purana could easily apply to Bhatis as they appear on the historical scene much later as a distinct version of Yaduvanshis. Visnu Purana or any other epical source contains no reference whatsoever to the existence of a Bhati clan among Yaduvanshis. So Bhatis, if their claim of being Yaduvanshi is historically accuate, were probably a much later offshoot from some textually unaccounted for Yadava tribe, which may or may not have included Shoorsaini tribe of Yadavas. The mercantile community of Bhatias further claim their origin from Bhati Rajputs who took to commerce. So it can be ruled out that their existence could be older than Bhati Rajputs who do not appear on historical scene until 9th or 10th century CE.

It is not difficult to conclude that based on textual evidence that the Saini tribe of Punjab best fits the description of the Puranic Shoorsaini Yadavas who, according to section 5 of Visnu Purana, migrated to Punjab from Dwarka. This is because Visnu Purana and Mahabharta distinctly acknowledge the existence of Shoorsaini or Shoorseni Yadavas as Krisna's kinsmen, as opposed to anything remotely familiar with the term 'Bhati". It is the movement of Krishna's immediate kinsmen, Shoorsainis, to Punjab that is referred in the section 5 of Visnu Purana. [Section 5, Visnu Purana] It appears implausible that Shoorsaini tribe of Yadavas vanished for at least couple of thousand years and later reappeared suddenly on the scene as Bhatis around 9th or 10th century CE [ The history of Bhati clan is shrouded in mystery. According to the most plausible view , which has been accepted by James Tod and Alexander Cunningham, Mamnenez, the King of Khorasan, drove out King Shal Bahan from Ghazni. He then established his capital at Sialkot. One of his sons was Bhatti Rao and his descendants came to be called Bhattis. However the last ruler of Ghazni is named as Subhag Sen. One can conclude from the above legend that ancestors of the Bhatti gotra, on being driven of Ghazni, came and settled down in the Punjab and their descendants came to be called Bhattis . ] . On the other hand the relation of Saini tribe with the Puranic Shoorsaini Yadavas, based on both phonetics, geography and textual evidence, appears to be much more organic and historically plausible. Bhatis, based on all the extant textual evidence, would apprear to be much later offshoot of Yaduvanshis to claim any direct continuity from Shoorsaini Yadavas whose migration to Punjab is recorded in Visnu Purana.

It is would appear from the way the Sainis are populated and distributed in Punjab, they probably settled down there as part of mass migration after their kingdom was supposedly destroyed in Dwarka. In Hoshiarpur , Ropar and Gurdaspur districts there are villages that are entirely populated with Sainis, with a Saini "Chaudhary" or a "lambardar". Living in largely self-governing villages , they do not seem to have been subordinate to any other caste in their villages, including any other tribes claming Rajput origin.

Porus: An Ancient Saini King

Porus or Puru, the son of King Chandra Sen, was a Shoorsaini king. He was the overlord of the fertile area of the Punjab between the rivers Jhelum and Beas. Porus is a Zoroastrian name. He was a Kshatriya Descendant of Maharaja Shoorsen of Mathura,i.e, a Shoorsaini. Porus is also known in history as the 'Lord of the Mountains.' His bravery and gallantry has become an embodiment of Indian heroism. Prof. P.D. Oak rather argues and advocates and has tried to prove in his book – “Blunders of Indian History” – (Bhartiya Itihas ki Bhari Bhulein), that in the war with Alexander the Great, Porus had in fact won and Alexander had been defeated. That is why Porus did not allow Alexander to return by the route he arrived. Alexander had to carve out a new path for his return. Prof. Oak has tried his best and has dished out very powerful and convincing arguments.

The most shrewd politician of ancient India – Chanakya (Kautilya), the architect of the Mauryan Empire heavily depended on the military help of Porus to groom and raise Chandragupta as the future ruler of Patliputra. Chanakya's plan was based on the military might of Porus and they agreed to partition the Empire into equal halves. Porus sent his son as the commander of his army to pursue the task of ousting the Nanda ruler of Patliputra. It was the fearful might of Porus' forces that cowed Nanda’s army allowing Chanakya's successful siege of the city that ended in securing a victory. But as was the temperament of Chanakya, he betrayed the son of Porus and had him treacherously assassinated. The brave Shoorsaini, true to his royal lineage fell victim to Chanakya's intrigues and evil designs.

  • An interesting aspect to note here, is that in addition to the Sainis, three other tribes of the Punjab claim King Porus to be one of their own. These include Janjuas, Kukhran Khatris and Mohyal Brahmins of the Vaid clan.

However historians have now a firm consensus that Porus was a Saini in light of the following references:

'"....we have elsewhere assigned to Yadus of the Punjab the honour of furnishing the well known king named Porus"'

Source: James Tod, Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan , pp 283 [9]

There were no known Hindu textual sources regarding Porus indicating the tribe or ethnic group he belonged to. As would be evident from further analysis of scholarly opinion the academic consensus seems to be that he was a Yadava Shoorsaini king. Col. Tod was the proponent of this view which was also held by Dr. Ishwari Prashad, another renowned historian. [9] [23][24]

Col. Tod went on further specifically point out Shoorsainis as the Puru tribe whose king was called Porus, the legendary Indian adversary of Alexander the Great:

Porus Shoorsaini
"Puru became the patronymic of this branch of the Lunar race. Of this Alexander's historians made Porus. The Suraseni of Methoras (descendants of the Soor Sen of Mathura) were all Purus, the Prasioi of Megasthenes..."
Source: Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han, Or, The Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, James Tod, pp 36 [25]

After careful analysis a body of scholars at the Indian History Congress (…the largest professional and academic body of Indian historians with over 10,000 members. It was established in 1935.) declared that king Porus, known for his legendary bravery, belonged to the Shoorsaini tribe ('Sourasenoi' in Greek) also based on the fact that his infantry carried the image of Lord Krishna (Herakles as per the Greeks) on their banners. Lord Krishna was both the ancestor and patron deity of Shoorsainis. [10] [11][26][27] More info:-Porus

Saini Yadavas and Kushan rule

After the fall of Porus and his sons, a new barbaric tribe of Central Asia, the Kushans, crossed the Indus and established their rule in India. During this period Saini or Shoorsaini Yadava dynasty lost prominence for a few centuries only to reappear again in Mathura around the 8th century CE.

Post-Kushan Saini rule of Mathura & Kaman: Chaunsat-Khamba inscription

"They had their kingdom in Karauli in Rajasthan. They were called Shoorsainis. Sri Krishna's grandfather was Shoorsen because of which the region around Mathura was known as Shoorsen and Yadavas of this region were called Shoorsainis." -Mangi Lal Mahecha, Rājasthāna ke Rājapūta (The Rajputs of Rajasthan) , Rajasthan, 1965 In addition to Shoorsaini genealogies received through the bards of Rajasthan, a Sanskrit inscription was dicovered on a pillar by one Pandit Bhagvan Lal Indraji in 19th century [28] on one of the well-known Chaonsat-khamba , or " sixty-four pillars ", in Kaman. This inscription was dated by Cunningham to be of around 8th CE[3][28]

The inscription gives following genealogy of the Surasena (or Saini) dynasty extending over seven kings[29] :

1. — Phakka, married Deyika.
2. — Kula-abhata (son), married Drangeni.
3. — Ajita (son), married Apsarapriya.
4. — Durgabhata (son), married Vachchhalika.
5. — Durgadaman (son), married Vachchhika.
6. — Devaraja (son), married Yajnika.
7. — Vatsadaman (son).

Sanskrit Transcript of Inscription giving Genealogy of Shoorsaini Rulers of Kaman ( Skt. Kadamb Vana) as recorded by Pandit Bhagwan Lal Indraji in 19th Century.

The old fort of Kaman lies between two low ranges of hills on the high road from Delhi to Bayana. Owing to its position it is conjectured that it must have fallen an early prey to the Muhammadan conquerors.[28]. This account explains well the native accounts of the Sainis of Punjab that their forefathers were the Rajputs of Mathura and migrated to Punjab after Muslim invasions of Mathura region.[30][3][31][32]

Kaman is situated in the Bharatpur territory, 39 miles to the north-west of Mathura, and 14 miles to the North of Dig.

Estimating the probable dates of this Surasena or Saini dynasty kings, writes Cunningham [29]:

"If we place Vatsadaman in A.D. 750 to 775, the head of the family, Phakka, will date from A.D. 600, reckoning twenty five years to each generation. As none of the names agree with those of the Yadava princes of Bayana, as recorded by the bards, it seems probable that these chiefs of Kaman, or Kadamba-vana, were only a branch of the famous Surasenas of Mathura."

It is also believed by the archaeologists that the Visnu temple of Kaman was built by a ShoorSaini Queen — Vachchhika [29].

Medieval India

Banveer, the son of Queen Sheetla Saini ruled as the Rana of Mewar, from Chittor for eight years till the consecration of Udai Singh as Rana. Eventually, "Shoorsaini" was shortened to "Saini".

Saini militancy during Muslim rule: Guru Har Gobind's call

It is understandable, being devout Hindus mostly, Sainis turned largely to agriculture in preference to serving the Muslim masters , or converting to Islam , until they saw a ray of hope again in the sixth Sikh Master, Guru Har Gobind.

According to Sikh historical tradition, Guru Hargobind extensively toured the region that now falls in the present day Hoshiarpur and Ropar districts to put together a Sikh army to fight the religiously intolerant Mogul empire. All of these areas, which had a predominantly Saini population along with Jats , Kambojs and Labanas, responded with great enthusiasm to Guru's call for soldiers. After this period, all of the rekindled Saini militant prowess was totally allied with and absorbed in the Sikh forces, which were to be formally institutionalized into the Khalsa Order by tenth Sikh Master , Guru Gobind Singh. The impact of Sikh military ideal on Saini villages could be gauged from the fact that one of the volunteers for "Panj Pyaras" , Sahab Chand [According to some accounts , Sahab Chand , belonged to Bidar in Karnataka. However, according to another account, he was from Nangal Shahidan. See If the former view is held to be valid , it simply means that there were other significant martyrs from this Saini village.], later Sahab Singh, was a barber from the village Nangal Shahidan. The village Nangal Shahidan in Hoshiarpur district was historically always entirely owned by Saini Chaudhries of Mangar "got", with a handful other castes in the village. Many Saini warriors were martyred from this village as part of the Khalsa army , earning the title of "Shahidan" or "Martyrs" for the village . Nihang cantonment of Harian Belan is also surrounded by Saini villages. Traditionally, Nihangs have drawn good number of recruits from Saini community of the region.

Sainis as a 'martial race' during British India

The martial race theory [Rand, Gavin (March 2006). "Martial Races and Imperial Subjects: Violence and Governance in Colonial India 1857–1914". European Review of History 13 (1): 1-20. Routledge. doi:10.1080/13507480600586726. ] propagated by British colonialists has been a very controversial subject and has rightfully been disregarded as an instrument of recruitment policy for armed forces by Government of India since the independence. It was based on the now challenged assumption that there were communities India that were naturally warlike 'races' which possessed qualities such as courage, loyalty, self sufficiency, physical strength, resilience, orderliness and fighting tenacity and were hard-working and skilled in military tactics. Further it was the assumption that these 'martial races' tended to be hunting or agricultural cultures from hilly or mountainous regions with a history of conflict, whether internally or with external groups, who were considered better capable of enduring hardship than the inhabitants of the hot, flat plains of the country who were thought to be unwarlike and unfit for military service.

Writes Mazumdar [The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab, pp 15, Rajit K. Mazumder, Orient Blackswan, 2003] citing Frederick Roberts, British commander- in-chief in India (1885-1893):

" Roberts was one of the main proponents of this new policy.The main argument of the 'martial races theory' was that all natives were not equal in soldierly qualities. Some races were superior to others. 'It is not a question of efficiency' wrote Roberts, ' but of courage and physique: in these essentials sepoys of Lower India are wanting'. As he bluntly put it , ' no comparison can be made between the martial values of a regiment recruited amongst the Gurkhas of Nepal and the warlike races of nothern India, and those recruited from the effeminate peoples of the south." British colonialists were obviously quite impressed by the physical attributes and fighting instincts of Sainis and accordingly listed them as a martial class along with other tribes such as Janjuas, Dogras, Pashtuns, Gurkhas, etc. [The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab, By Rajit K. Mazumder, pp 99, 205] [Annual Class Return, 1919, pp 364-7] [Annual Class Return,1925, pp 96-9] . It is noteworthy that merchant castes such as Khatris and Aroras did not make it to this list. [Annual Class Return, 1925, pp 96-99] More significantly the Mali community beyond Jamna , referred in Ibbetson's controversial account [Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1990, Page 346] , did not make it to this list either. Muslim Arains made it to this list only in 1925. This is another testimony to the fact that British officially regarded Sainis to be distinct from either of these communities.

Sainis in Indian National Army (INA)

According to a native account a village in the now Nawanshahr district of Punjab was composed of almost 80-90% Saini population in 1930s. As per the unverified anecdotal account almost 300 men out of the total population of 1800-2000 were enrolled in the British Indian Army and fought in different theatres of war across Europe, Africa and Asia during the World War II. If true, this would mean that every able bodied Saini man of the village was signed up for services in the armed forces. A large number of Saini volunteers , along with these Saini armymen, some of whom ended up POWs, eventually joined Indian National Army (INA) of Subash Chandra Bose [Late Ajit Saini , the emiment Punjabi journalist was one such INA veteran and was a close lieutinant of Subash Chandra Bose , See [18] and courted martyrdom and incarceration for the independence of their motherland.

The British Period

During British period Sainis were enlisted as a statutory agricultural tribe as well as a martial class.Sainis have a distinguished record as soldiers in the armies of pre-British princely states, British India and independent India. Sainis fought in both the World Wars and won some of the highest gallantry awards for 'conspicuous bravery'.[33] [34] [35]Subedar Joginder Singh, who won Param Vir Chakra, Indian Army's highest war time gallantry award, in 1962 India-China War was also a Saini of Sahnan sub clan.

During the British era, several influential Saini landlords were also appointed as Zaildars, or revenue-collectors, in many districts of Punjab and modern Haryana. [36] [37][38] [39]

Saini's also took active part in the freedom movement of India and many insurgents from Saini community were either martyred or imprisoned during the days of British Raj. [40][41] [42] [43] [44]

During the revolt of 1857, the Sainis of Kurukshetra and the Rors of Karnal were among the Hindu and Muslim elements who, valiantly fought the British seeking to re-establish the sovereignty of their Princely rulers.

The principalities of Sirmaur in Himachal Pradesh as well as Jagadhri, Kirada and Hansi in Haryana are Saini strongholds.

Known Saini freedom-fighters and martyrs

  • Gurdan Saini (Rajput General- martyred in Ranthambore)
  • Mayya Singh Saini (imprisoned) [45]
  • Gurmukh Singh Saini (IOM, Cr St Geo) , a Sikh soldier from the village Gadram Badi of Ropar in district Ambala of the province of Punjab in British India, won the Indian Order of Merit 1st Class in World War I for splendid courage on the battlefield on the night of March 1, 1916.
  • Gulab Singh Saini (martyred-hanged on January 9, 1858 ) [44] [46]
  • Chaudhary Yograj Saini of Gambhowal (Kuka Movement, 13 years imprisonment) [47]
  • Bhai Bela Singh (martyr of Nankana Sahib)[19][48]
  • Harnam Singh of village Baghpur (Jaito Morcha, martyred, died in Jail) [47]
  • Dasondha Singh Saini (martyred- died in jail) [40]
  • Kehar Singh Saini (martyred- killed in police encounter) [40]
  • Basant Singh s/o Prabhu Saini of Mahilpur (imprisoned) [49][47]
  • Dal Singh (imprisoned) [49]
  • Gurdial Singh of village Urapar (imprisoned, INA veteran) [49]
  • Amar Singh s/o Sant Ram of village Orhpur (INA veteran) [47]
  • Gian Singh of village Bajidpur (imprisoned, INA veteran)[49]
  • Bhan Singh of village Jalowal (imprisoned) [49]
  • Battan Singh of village Haveli (INA veteran, imprisoned)[49]
  • Nama Saini of Fatehgarh (Ghadar movement, martyred - hanged on January 5, 1917 after 3rd Lahore Conspiracy case trial) [47][50]
  • Pritam Saini (Ghadar movement, imprisoned) [51]
  • Bachan Singh Saini (Ghadar movement, imprisoned) [52]
  • Naik Gurdial Singh Saini (imprisoned, INA veteran)[53]
  • Gonda Singh (Babbar Akali, imprisoned and tortured) [54]
  • Mohinder Singh Saini of Pandori Ganga Singh (Babbar Akali, martyred, killed in Babeli Police encounter)[54][47]
  • Chinta Singh Saini of Pandori Ganga Singh (Babbar Akali, martyred, hanged)[54][47]
  • Harnam Singh Saini s/o Sunder Singh of Pandori Ganga Singh (National Movement, imprisoned for 1.5 years)[54][47]
  • Harnam Singh Saini s/o Rajmal of Pandori Ganga Singh (imprisoned for 2 years, INA veteran)[54] [47]
  • Hazara Singh Saini of Pandori Ganga Singh (Civil Disobedience, Babar Akali, imprisoned for 6 years)[54] [47]
  • Inder Singh Saini of Pandori Ganga Singh (Babar Akali, imprisoned for 7 years)[54] [47]
  • Kartar Singh Saini of Pandori Ganga Singh (Babar Akali, sentence not known)[54] [47]
  • Arjan Singh of village Sujjon, Banga (Ghadar movement activist)[55]
  • Satya Pal Saini of Lahore (tortured and imprisoned) [56]
  • Narain Singh Nanua (INA veteran, imprisoned)[56]
  • Ishar Singh (Babbar Akali, imprisoned and tortured)[54]
  • Labh Singh Saini (Akali leader, martyred)
  • Harnam Singh Saini (Ghadar movement, martyred - hanged on March 16 , 1917 after Lahore Conspiracy Case trial) [41] [57]
  • Mahan Singh Gahunia of Phillipines (noted INA civilian organizer-donated his entire wealth to INA) [42]
  • Sadhu Ram Saini (veteran Gandhian, imprisoned) [58] [59]
  • Ajit Saini of Punjab (INA veteran, imprisoned) a Freedom fighter and an acclaimed writer and columnist, also a close lieutenant of Subhas Chandra Bose who assigned him the duty to propagate the slogan “Jai hind,” among the common masses. [43]
  • Amar Singh (imprisoned)[58] [59]

Note: This list is not exhaustive.

Inam-holding Saini feudals during British era

Zaildar was a native officer in charge of a Zail in the colonial rural administration of Punjab in British India. Each Zail was an administrative unit, extending between 2 to 40 villages.

A Zaildar was more influential than a lambardar (village headman) because a Zail included many villages under it. Zaildars represented the Chaudharis of the former times and were hand picked by the deputy commissioner only after consideration of ‘caste’ or ‘tribe’ , local influence, extent of landholding, services rendered to the state by him or his family, and lastly personal character and ability.

Zaildars were essentially revenue collectors and village level representatives of the state who enjoyed remuneration for their duties, life grants equal to one per cent, of the revenue of their zails from the assessment of any single village that they chose.

The following is the list of some of the known Saini Zaildars of 1880s of British Punjab:

  • Chaudhari Jawahir Singh of Hoshiarpur [36] had 19 villages under him.
  • Chaudhari Jaimal Singh of Dasuya [36] had 22 villages under him.
  • Chaudhari Mohan Lal of Hissar
  • Chaudhari Nand Ram Saini of Hissar.[38]
  • Sardar Surjan Singh Saini of Phulkiyan Riyasat (Patiala State) was among the biggest landlords in Phulkiyan. He was the son of Sardar Jai Singh Saini who was a part of nobility of Patiala state. Sardar Jai Singh was a descendant of Sardar Nanu Singh Saini and was the royal poet and a close advisor of Maharaja Karam Singh. Sardar Sujan Singh’s estate was the second largest in Phulkiyan riyasat in terms of land that any nobleman owned.
  • Chaudhari Bhola Ram of Bhola Chak 178 , Baria (Punjab-Pakistan) Retired Saini soldiers from British Indian Army owned as much as 20 villages in Lyallpur. Such great was their influence these these areas were called Saini Bar, with a Saini as their Zaildar (Chaudhary Bhola Ram).
  • Chaudhary Takth Mal Bhondi of Bhogpur Bhondiyan in Jalandhar District. Chaudhary Takth Mal was a Saini of Bhondi got and a leading Zamindar of Jalandhar district. He and his brother Chaudhary Raj Mal owned 5 villages between them around Bhondiyan and Bhogpur. Chaudhary Raj Mal was built like a wrestler and stood well over 6 feet . He had a dominating persona and it is said that local freebooters and robbers of Jalandhar would spare these villages because of his fear. Noted Bollywood song writer and former Dean of Kurukshetra University, Dr. M.G. Hashmat, who wrote the lyrics of award winning film “Kora Kagaz” was in Chaudhary Takth Mal’s line. This Saini zamindar family patronized the local Sufi shrine of Madali Sharif. Madali Sharif was equally patronized by Hindu and Muslim populaces of Jalandhar. Under the influence of this shrine, the eldest son of every Hindu family had a Muslim name and the eldest son of every Muslim family had Hindu name. Some of the descendants of Chaudhary Takth Mal were accordingly named as Mehtab Gulshan Hashmat, Chaudhary Khidmat Rai, Chaudhary Mushtaq Rai , etc even though they were all observant Hindus. Chaudhary Takth Mal’s decendants are now settled in western countries and are very prosperous. In 1992 a scholar wrote the following about the Sainis of Bhogpur: “The village Sarpanch belongs to Saini caste. The Sainis are not very large in numbers but they play significant role in village as they are very rich and also well educated.”
  • Zaildar Chaudhary Ganda Ram Saini of Haveli Khurd, Ropar. Chaudhary Ganda Ram Saini of Haveli Khurd was a Zaildar of Ropar in 19th century.
  • Saini Rai Bahadur-Besides the above the below mentioned Saini personality received the title of ”Rai Bahadur”. The rank of the Rai Bahadur was much higher than that of Zaildar. Only one person per district received this title.
    • Rai Bahadur Chaudhari Dewan Chand Saini of Gurdaspur [37] [39] was a well-known Saini safedposh during 20th century.[60] He was a highly reputed criminal lawyer of Lahore High Court who later became the leader of Criminal Bar. He was also subsequently awarded the title of 'Rai Bahadur' by the British government.[37] [39]

Note: This list is not exhaustive. More information is needed for Ropar , Jalandhar, and Gurdaspur districts, and also for Hoshiarpur, over different periods of time before 1947.

Epical Saini warriors

Lord Krishna and Balrama

cquote| "Foremost among all the Shoorsenis (Sainis) , the powerful one, Krishna, residing at Dwaraka, will rule and protect the whole earth after vanquishing all her lords, conversant as he will be with the science of polity." |30px|30px| Ved Vyasa on Shoorseni Krishna [Mahabharata, Book 13, Chapter 147]

The story of the epic Saini warriors begins with the mention of Lord Krishna and his elder brother Balrama. Krishna was a warrior-statesman who gave the Yadavas leadership at a very critical juncture. Krishna's and Balrama's exploits as warriors, mentioned in various hagiographies, are too numerous and too popular to need any mention here.

Some critics trained in the Western scholastic traditions have doubted the existence of a historical Krishna but such commentaries are now clearly contradicted by archaeological evidence found in the recent underwater excavations in the Arabian sea which have revealed a submerged ancient city[61] as described in Visnu Purana. This evidence along with myriads of sites and clans found all over India claiming association with Krishna indicate the distinct possibility of a historical Krishna.

Visnu Purana vividly describes in detail various military expeditions that Krisna led. Incidentally this text also gives clear proof that Shoorsaini Yadavas, whence Sainis of Punjab claim descent, moved to Dwarka and eventually some of them moved to Punjab after submersion of Dwarka into the sea.[8]

Krishna defined the warrior-statesman and saint-soldier ideal not only for his kinsmen and descendants, distributed in diverse clans all over India now, which also include Sainis of Punjab, but also for the entire mankind. His military exploits and warrior spirit are even invoked in an anachronistic way in the Sikh tradition in the Chobis avatar section of Sri Dasam Granth.

In the Shaster Naam Mala section of Sri Dasam Granth, the names of Balrama and Krisna are invoked as follow to instill the warrior spirit.[62]

ਹਲਧਰ ਸਬਦ ਬਖਾਨਿ ਕੈ ਅਨੁਜ ਉਚਰਿ ਅਰਿ ਭਾਖੁ ॥ ਸਕਲ ਨਾਮ ਸ੍ਰੀ ਬਾਨ ਕੇ ਚੀਨਿ ਚਤੁਰ ਚਿਤ ਰਾਖੁ ॥੧੪੧॥

हलधर शबद बखानि कै अनढ़ज उचरि अरि भाखढ़ ॥ सकल नाम सढ़री बान के चीन चतढ़र चित राखढ़ ॥१४१॥

After speaking the word "Haldhar" (Balrama), then adding "Anuj" (Krishna) and afterwards saying "Ari" (Foe), the wise people know all the names of "Baan" (Arrow).

Uddhava Shoorsaini

According to some texts Uddhava was Krishna's cousin, being the son of Devabhaga, who was the brother of Vasudeva, Krishna's father. His physical appearance was so similar to Krishna that in some cases, that some times he was mistaken for the latter. Mahabharata mentions that Uddhav was the minister of Vrishnis, whom all respected. Bhagwat Purana mentions that Uddhav was a disciple of Jupiter.


[20] From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search Satyaki in Javanese Wayang Satyaki (Sanskrit: सत्यकि), also called Yuyudhana, is a powerful warrior belong to the Yadava-Vrishni dynasty of Lord Krishna, in the Mahābhārata epic.

Satyaki is devoted to Krishna and his best friend Arjuna, with whom he trained under Drona in military arts. He was born in the line of Shini of the Vrishni clan, and was a son of Satyaka. He strongly and passionately favored the cause of the Pandavas over the Kauravas in the Kurukshetra War. Satyaki accompanied Krishna to the Kuru capital, with Krishna as the emissary of peace which was ridiculed and turned down by Duryodhana.

In the Kurukshetra war, Satyaki and Kritavarma were two important Yadava heroes who fought on the opposing sides. Satyaki fought on the side of the Pandavas, whereas Kritavarma joined the Kauravas. Satyaki was a valiant warrior and on one particular occasion, stunned Drona by allegedly breaking his bow for a successive 101 times. In the course of the fourteenth day of the conflict, Satyaki fights an intense battle with his archrival Bhurisravas with whom he has a long standing family feud. After a long and bloody battle, Satyaki begins to tire, and Bhurisravas batters him and drags him across the battlefield. Arjuna is warned by Lord Krishna of what is happening. Bhurisravas prepares to kill Satyaki, but he is rescued from death by Arjuna, who shoots an arrow cutting off Bhurisravas' arm.

Bhurisrava wails out that by striking him without warning, Arjuna had disgraced the honor between warriors. Arjuna rebukes him for attacking a defenseless Satyaki. He reiterates that protecting Satyaki's life at all costs was his responsibility as a friend and comrade in arms.

Satyaki emerges from his swoon, and swiftly decapitates his enemy. He is condemned for this rash act, but every soldier present realizes that the power of Krishna made Satyaki end Bhurisravas' life, which was going to happen anyway.

Satyaki and Kritavarma both survived the Kurukshetra conflict . Kritavarma is involved in the slaughter of the Panchalas and the sons of the Pandavas in the undeclared night attack with Kripacharya and Ashwatthama. 36 years after the war, the Yadavas, including Satyaki and Kritavarma are involved in a drunken brawl with Satyaki accusing Kritavarma of killing sleeping soldiers and Kritavarma citicizing Satyaki for his beheading of the unarmed Bhurisravas. In the ensuing melee, Satyaki, Kritavarma and the rest of the Yadavas are exterminated, as it was ordained by Gandhari's curse. Krishna desired to remove the Yadava clan from earth at the same time as his Avatara is fulfilled, so that the earth may be free of any possibly sinful and aggressive warriors, which was the wider purpose of the Kurukshetra war.

Satyaki, the grand son of Rajan Saini, ruled the Sura-Sen kingdom in the north-west of India. Rajan Saini founded Saini vansh, which is one of the eleven vanshas of Yadus and one of the tribes of the Yadavas.

Rajan Sini

[21] Rajan Saini (Sini), a character in the great Indian epic, the Mahabharata. Sini is the uncle of Vasudeva, the father of Sri Krishna. When Devaki, the mother of Krishna, was a maiden, many princes competed for her hand in marriage. This led to a dispute. In the end, a great battle ensued between two princes of different families over it: Somadatta and Rajan Sini. In this fierce battle Rajan Sini won, and on behalf of Vasudeva he carried Devaki in his chariot and drove her away.Reference FE pargiter's book Ancient indian historical traditions, pages 105 to 107This incident led to a feud between the two clans, the Sini family and that of Somadatta.

The rivalry came to the fore one last time on the battlefield of Kurukshetra, where Sini's grandson, Satyaki, who was a peer and friend of Arjuna and a famed archer, clashed with Bhurisravas, Somadatta's son, who was on the Kaurava side, resulting in the slaying of Bhurisravas by Satyaki.

Raja Dhampal: Tomara-Yaduvanshi King

Another significant Jadhav sept found among Marathas is Dhampal. The reviver of Shoorsaini kingdom in around 6-7 AD is also described as Dhampal (Skt. Dharampal) in the genaologies of Karauli royals (Cunningham, 1883) . Saini clan of Dhamrait and Pathania clan of Dhamrial or Dhamial are in all probability linked with this eponymous Yaduvanshi Rajput patriarch. The town of Dhameri (earlier name of Nurpur,Himachal Pradesh) in Gurdaspur district was the captial of common ancestors of Saini and Pathania Rajputs who had moved to Punjab from near Delhi and Mathura under Raja Jeth Pal ( Charles Francis Massy, 1890) , a Tomara-Yaduvanshi monarch described in the line of Dhampal as Jaitapal.

Significance of Dhameri": No Random Name

Dhameri is said to have been founded by Jeth Pal in 1095 AD (Cunningham, 1889). It is noteworthy that the name "Dhameri" is far from a random name picked by migrant Rajputs from Delhi and Mathura. It is in all probability derived from the name of Saini patriarch Dhampal, who was ancestor of Raja Jeth or Jait Pal. Some other variations of Dhameri in diferrent historical epigraphs are as follows: Dahmal, Damal, Dahmari, Damehri, Dhamari, Dhammeri, etc. In Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri it is metioned as "Dhameri" only and Alberuni, a source closer to the date of the said Rajput migration from Mathura and Delhi, actually describes it as "Dahmala", which looks certain to be a distortion of the name of Dhampal, the ancestor of Jait Pal.

The fort of Dhameri fell to Ibrahim Ghaznavi after a long siege according to Tarikh-i-Alfi. Since the dates of this Ghaznavide raider are stated to be between 1058 AD and 1089 AD, we can be certain that Dhameri was founded atleast as early as this period. Incidentally, the account of Sainis i.e that their Rajput ancestors moved to Punjab to fight Ghazni's army, an account which was duly recorded by English ethnographers in late 19th century, fully tallies with these historical facts gathered from independent sources of which the 19th century informants giving these accounts had no knowledge. They were merely repeating a folklore which had passed down to them from generation after generation from the time when battles between Saini Rajputs or Shoorsainis and Ghaznavides had taken place in roughly around 1100 AD. As already pointed out, Dhamrait , which could mean both a resident of Dhameri or a descendant of the eponymous Shoorsaini patriarch Dhampal, is a major clan of Sainis in Gurdaspur, Hoshiarpur and Ropar districts , all within 20 miles to 100 miles proximity to the historical fort of Dhameri near Pathankot.

It is interesting to note that here is another "Dhameri" in North Rajputana (about 100 miles west of Delhi) which fell in areas traditionally ruled by Saini rulers of Delhi and Mathura. There still exists a large population of Tomara-Yaduvanshi clans in this area. Meos, a Rajput origin Muslim group, who derive their ancestry from the same lineage also have a similar sounding "Demrot" sept (Cunningham, 1885).

Source: The History of India: As Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period, p. 162, Volume V,Sir Henry Miers Elliot, Trübner, 1867

Medieval Saini warriors

Rana Gurdan Singh Saini

Noted historians Henry Miers Elliot and John Dowson on page 541 of their work "The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians. The Muhammadan Period" [63] citing Ghurratu-L-Kamal , a work by Khalji dynasty's royal poet-scholar Amir Khusro, provide the following account of a distinguished Saini general in the Sisodia Rajput army of Rana Hamir that took on Alauddin Khilji's Turk army:

The rai was in affright, and sent for Gurdan Saini, who was the most experienced warrior amongst the 40,000 rawats under the rai, and had seen many fights among the Hindus. "Sometimes he had gone with the advance to Malwa ; sometimes he had gone plundering in Gujarat." The Saini took 10,000 rawats with him from Jhain, and advanced against the Turks, and, after a severe action, he was slain...

"Gurdan" appears to be an "apabhransha" or distortion of the name Govardhan which is a very common Hindu name. "Gurdan" name is also common among Sikhs of Punjab, although in the era of Gurdan Saini, Sikhism was not yet born.

The account of this Saini general who commanded a force of 10,000 Rajput fighters and achieved martyrdom almost reads like an unqualified eulogy even from a hostile Turk perspective.

A Saini Commander of a premier Sisodia Rajput force Gurdan or Govardhan Saini could not have been an indegenous inhabitant of Rajputana and was most likely an immigrant from some Saini clan of Punjab or its contiguous region. This can be categorically stated due to a very obvious fact that until the the census of 1881 [W.Chichele Plowden , ( 1883 ), The Indian Empire Census of 1881 Statistics of Population Vol. II. , Calcutta , Superintendent of Government Printing India, pp 243-258 ] there was no such community as "Saini" outside Punjab (both British territory and feudatory states).

Gurdan Saini was most likely linked with the famed Yaduvanshi Surasenas of Mathura, some of whom disperesed to Jalandhar doab in Punjab after the Turk invasion of Mathura. [31] [64] [3] The term 'Surasena' (also spelt Shurasena) is a Sanskrit version of Prakrit 'Shoorsaini'. 'Shoorsaini' further gets abbreviated to just 'Saini' in layman usage.

Jarnail Sardar Nanu Singh Saini, Jagirdar, Phulkiyan

Sardar Nanu Singh Saini was a Sikh army general and a well-known jagirdar in Phulkian riyasat. He was a close associate of Maharaja Ala Singh who founded the Patiala state in 1753 AD.

The family of Nanu Singh Saini owned 27000 Bigha estate in Patiala state which was the second largest estate that any noble family owned in the princely state of Patiala.

He gained this jagir from Maharaja Ala Singh as a recognition and reward for having liberated him from the Sunam prison in 1747 where he had been incarcerated by Ali Muhammad Khan for over two years. More in:-

Main article: Sardar Nanu Singh Saini

Jarnail Sardar Sangat Singh Saini

Sardar Sangat Singh Saini was a distinguished and highly ranked General in Khalsa army of the Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh. He inspected the operations in Gurdaspur district. Their headquarters were in Batala. It is said that the Maharaja was so impressed with his contributions in the military campaigns that he granted him a fief. Sardar Sangat Singh was rewarded with 300 acres (1.2 km 2) property from Maharaja Ranjit Singh for bravery in the war when Sangat Singh conquered a outpost in Afghan region and returned the golden sword of Afghan ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh Brought it on. This property is now known as Sangatpur named after this illustrious Saini General in Batala of Gurdaspur district of India. [65]

Incidentally, Gurdaspur is another area of Saini concentration in Punjab.

Bhai Jamala Singh Nanua

Nanua Bairagi , also known as Nanua Bhagat and Jamala Singh, was a renowned mystic, humanitarian and Sikh warrior of Punjab. He was a stalwart of Saini community and was a close associate and disciple of last three Sikh gurus , whom he had the honour of serving in person.He Wrote his Own 'Saini Bani'. More in:-

Main article: Nanua Bairagi

Bibi Sharan Kaur Pabla

Sharan Kaur Pabla was a Sikh martyr who was slain in 1705 by Mughal soldiers while cremating the bodies of the two older sons of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh Guru, after the battle of Chamkaur. She was from the village Raipur Rani which is 2 KM from the famous town of Chamkaur. More in:-

Main article: Bibi Sharan Kaur Pabla

Mayya Singh Saini

Maya Singh Saini , sometimes spelt as Mayya Singh Saini, [66] [67] [68] [69][70] [71] was a Saini cavalryman and a notable freedom-fighter from Naushahra in Amritsar district of the Punjab. Mayya Singh was an ace horseman and fought in the battle of Ramnagar on 22 November 1848 during the second Anglo-Sikh war. Although the battle of Ramnagar was inconclusive , the Sikh cavalry caused heavy damage to the British forces, which proved to be a great morale booster for the Sikhs.

Thereafter he joined volunteer corps of Bhai Maharaj Singh[22] leader of the popular revolt against the British. He participated in the battles of Sa`dullapur and Gujrat. After the defeat of the Sikh forces, Mayya Singh was in Bhai Maharaj Singh`s train at Sujoval near Balala. From the latter place he was sent to Lahore on a mission, and thus escaped arrest when Maharaj Singh and his companions were captured on the night of 28 and 29 December 1849. He, however, fell into the hands of the British soon afterwards.

It is not clear from the account available whether Mayya Singh was a commander or just an ordinary cavalryman. But given the fact that his contributions were significant enough for his account to have survived in the history texts, there is a strong possibility that he held a significant rank in the Khalsa army. However, his major contributions came after the Anglo-Sikh war as armed insurgent against the rule of East India Company.[72]

Mayya Singh is among many other unsung Saini heroes who fought as part of the Khalsa armies since the time of the 6th Sikh Guru Hargobind. Mayya Singh is fortunate in the sense that his account survived while other Saini heroes just faded into oblivion after selfless service to their motherland. This could be due to two factors. First of them being poor record keeping by Saini community about their foremost men. This neglect continues even to this day. The second factor being the casteless character of the Khalsa order itself which downplayed caste identities.

Senapati Shaheed Gulab Singh Saini

Gulab Singh Saini [73] , son of Jodh Singh Saini, was a close companion of a Jat chief Nahar Singh of Ballabhgarh and laid down his life fighting the British in 1858. Raja Nahar Singh had also lost his life heroically in the process. Gulab Singh Saini was one of the prominent leaders of the native insurrection against the British during the mutiny in his role as the commander-in-chief [73] of the princely state of Ballabhgarh.

He was hanged , along with Jat chief Nahar Singh, in the Chandni Chowk of New Delhi on January 9, 1858 . Thereupon, all of his property and land was confiscated by the British colonialists and all public records pertaining to him and his companions were burnt down to erase the influence of their martyrdom on the natives [73] but the tales of patriotism , gallantry and sacrifice of these heroes of India's first war of freedom still managed to endure in the popular memory despite the twin scourge of colonial oppression and time.

Shaheed Gulab Singh Saini's descendant, Ranjit Singh Saini, is a distinguished scholar of Sanskrit who has authored several books on Sanskrit grammar and historical manuscripts.

Along with Mayya Singh, Gulab Singh was the second prominent Saini hero of the 1857 mutiny and before who fought the East India Company and faced either incarceration or martyrdom.

Saini , Jat and Ror communities around the area of Kurukshetra are reported to have put up a very brave resistance to the forces of East India Company during the mutiny.

Raja Sher Singh Salaria

This incident is from the time of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb! At that time India was divided into small kings! Haripur was a small state in Syalkot (Pakistan) and Jammu region! Whose name is now Sohagpur! King Sohag Singh Saini Salaria ruled in Haripur state! King Sohag Singh Saini (Salaria)'s wife's name was Sundarvati. All the people of Haripur were from Hindu religion! For some reason King Sohag Singh Saini (Salaria) died untimely! At that time King Sohag Singh Saini (Salaria) had only one son, Mr. Sher Singh Saini (Salaria)! Sher Singh Saini Salaria was a teenager at the time of his father's demise! The end mother Sundarvati ji took over Haripur state's gutter after the death of her husband Maharaja Sohag Singh Saini (Salaria)! But after 2-3 years, when his son Mr. Sher Singh Saini (Salaria) became young, the whole burden of the state was given to him! At that time the Mughal emperor was changing the religion of Hindus! Hindus of Kashmir had changed their religion and in Jammu, some Hindu religion had changed to Muslims! During the time of Aurangzeb, Chak Majra, Chak Kim, Pasgal, Murchapur, Wadipur, Shekhopur, Adlair, Fatehgarh, Kirchpur Khawaspur etc. Hindu Muslims of the villages had accepted religion! All these villages are present in Tehsil Bishnah (Jammu) and the Muslims here have left India in 1947 and moved to Pakistan! Mother Sundarwati named Haripur state after her late husband Maharaj Sohag Singh Saini (Salaria) and this village now lies in Arnia sector! This whole village belongs to soldiers who are the descendants of Sher Singh Saini Salaria.

It is said that one day Mughals were stealing cows and Raja Sher Singh Saini (Salaria) got reported through a scattered Brahmin. Then King Sher Singh Saini (Salaria) took the blessings of his mother, riding on a horse and set the mother cow free. Elderly says that there was a terrible encounter between Mughals and Raja Sher Singh Saini (Salaria) at a place of white chak salt! King Sher Singh won that battle with his bravery and bravery and was bringing back the cow mother with respect. That time an injured Muslim cheatedly attacked him from behind and King Sher Singh's head fell into the battlefield. In Sohagpur, where the funeral of this brave soldier was held, there is currently the tomb of King Sher Singh Saini (Salaria)! Here every year the full moon of the month has a huge stock and in today's time this place is known as a historic and sacrificial place! All the salarias of Jammu, Pathankot, Kathua and Gurdaspur consider Kshatriya/Rajput Sher Singh Saini Salaria their Jathera and bow down to the tomb of this brave man. This is a pilgrimage place for the soldiers of Jammu (especially the soldiers of Salaria clan). Before the division of India, Syalkot's salarias also used to come to Sohagpur for pilgrimage. The holy declaration of "Jai Date Di" can be heard on this land of God.

Currently Retired Inspector General (IG) Mr. Kamal Singh Saini (IPS) from Jammu & Kashmir Police is the Chief Manager of this holy place.

In Syalkot, soldiers were also called Dogra Saini. Muslim Rajputs named "Sainiwal" and "Mughal Saini" are also recorded in the 1901 census. Their clans (Salaria, Dhamdiel, Badla, Badwal, etc) are from Hindu and Sikh soldiers. English administrator, Denzil Ibbetsin, who also spread illusions about Saini and Mehta Rajputs, admits that these Muslims Rajput soldiers changed their religion to call themselves "Mughal Saini". Muslims Kiyani and Gakhar Rajputs also started calling themselves "Mughal" after religion change and they had marital relations with these Muslim Sainiwal Rajputs.

Salaria Kshatriya, son of Tomar Raja Anangpal, Delhi, is the descendant of Salaria Pal. This is the largest branch of soldiers and they have about 15-20 villages in Jammu and Gurdaspur districts. Remember Tomar dynasty has been considered as Yaduvanshi by historians like Colonel Todd and Cunningham. Delhi and Indraprastha where Tomars ruled was in the middle of Shursen Republic. So these tomaras have no anomaly in being called Saini (i.e. it's natural). According to mythology, after the Mahabharata war, Yudhishthira had made Shri Krishna's greatson Vajranabh the king of Indraprastha and the greatson of Satyaki the king of the East of Saraswati river (which is today's Haryana province).

A Temple was made for Kuldevta Saini Salaria Biradari known as Data Sher Singh Saini Salaria Maharaj Temple in Bishnah,Jammu District. Jammu & Kashmir State in India. Pincode is 181131(Tehsil: Arnia ). Near by railway Stations. It is in 28 Km distance to Jammu City.

Modern Saini warriors (only decorated Saini armymen and policemen)

The awards list given below is not exhaustive. Not all Sainis use their clan or sub clan names and go by the last names such as 'Chaudhry', 'Singh', 'Kumar', etc. Since these names are shared by many other groups (some of which overlap Sainis) such as Jats, Dogras and Other Rajputs etc , it is not possible to isolate Sainis among them just by their last names. The following list pertains only to those decorated armymen and policemen who are confirmed to be Sainis. The actual list of decorated Saini army and police personnel might be much longer. More quality research is needed in this reference.

The following list only contains only those army men and policemen who won have major wartime and peacetime awards. The list of Sainis in Indian Army is very large and needs no inclusion here. Army and police have traditionally been major sources of employment for Sainis. British had classified Sainis as a 'martial race' Listed Seperately from other Rajput Clans.

Sainis are merely a sub-tribe of Yaduvanshi Kshatriyas (or Jadon Rajputs) who took to agriculture in Punjab and spun-off with a distinct identity local predominantly to Punjab and bordering regions. Saini Yaduvanshi clan lost their rule, during war with muslim invaders. They trace their lineage from Yaduvanshi clan of Kshatriya rajputs just like Clans of Jadon, Bhati, Jadeja.

Another fact that needs to be born in mind is comparison of Sainis with Dogras, Pushtuns, Jats and Mahtons is not an apples to apples comparison. Their numbers are relatively very small compared with these groups. For example according to the 1881 census, the entire Saini population in the whole of undivided Punjab- also all of pre-partition India for that matter- was only 132,000 while the population of just a single Jat clan of Sidhus was 208,000. The Saini population was reduced to 106,000 in 1901 census after mistakes of 1881 census were corrected.[74] [75] The best way to gauge proportionate Saini contribution to feats of gallantry in armed forces would be by comparing them individually with other Rajput sub tribes such as Bhati, Pathania, Chauhan, Sisodia, etc rather than Mahtons, Jats, Khatri or Dogras as integrated groups which are extremely large and heterogeneous when compared to Sainis.

"A district-by-district classification was published. The 'agricultural tribes' included were Ahir, Arain, Baluch, Dogar, Gakhar, Gujar, Janjua, Jat, Kamboh, Khattar, Khokhar, Labana, Mahton, Mughal, 'Musalman Jat', Pathan, Quereshi, Rajput, Saini, Sial, Syed, Thakur. The significance of 'agricultural tribes' is that ones so notified were synonymous with the 'martial races' which the army almost exclusively recruited from. -Source: The Indian army and the making of Punjab, pp 105, Rajit K. Mazumder. Orient Blackswan, 2003

" Most of the nearly one million men who served at one time or another were drawn from traditional martial groups - Sikhs, Dogras, Rajputs, Muslims and Gurkhas. After a serious manpower shortage developed from March 1916, 75 new classes of recruits were also tried. Many of these (such as Punjabi Brahmins and Christians, south and west Muslims, Awadh Rajputs, Saini and Khatri Sikhs, Nandbansi Ahirs, Tamang Gurkhas and Dogra Jats) were from classes closely related - in social, religious or geographical terms- to groups already recruited;..." -Recruiting, drafting, and enlisting: two sides of the raising of military forces , pp120, Peter Karsten

"The tribes chiefly recruited are - Sikh and Hindu Jats, Kambohs, Ahluwalias, Mahtons (Sikh Rajput), Sainis...." -Punjab District Gazetteers, Volume XIV A. , Jullundur District with Maps, pp 269, 1904 , Lahore, Printed at the "Civil and Military Gazette" Press

Citation by Governor General of Punjab for Subedar-Major Jagindar Singh 'Bahadur', who was a Saini and was decorated with two major gallantry awards Order of British India and Indian Order of Merit for his 'conspicuous bravery' on 17th November 1914 in the Battle of Loos: " ..for his conspicuous gallantry in action on the 17th November 1914 when with a party of Sappers under the command of a British Officer he was always to the fore and led his men with great determination into the enemy's trenches. Subedar-Major Jagindar Singh, Saini Sikh of Kheri Salabatpur in Rupar, gained the 2nd Class Order of Merit at the battle of Loos in Belgium for striking leadership and conspicuous bravery in action after most of his company and all but one British Officer in his regiment had been killed or wounded. This officer was also awarded the 2nd Class of the Order of British India for distinguished conduct in the field." -War speeches (1918), pp 129, Author: O'Dwyer, Michael Francis, (Sir) 1864-, Subject: World War, 1914-1918; World War, 1914-1918 -- Punjab Publisher: Lahore Printed by the Superintendent Government Printing

Known Gallantry Awards

During British India (World War I)

  • 1 Cross of St. George (Imperial Russia's highest exclusively military award. Equivalent to current Param Vir Chakra and British Victoria Cross) [33]
  • 2 Indian Order of Merit (after 1912 equivalent to current Maha Vir Chakra )
  • 1 Order of British India(equivalent to Ati Vishisht Seva Medal; recipient decorated with title 'Bahadur')

Note: In addition to these Wing Commander Kartar Singh Taunque was the first personnel of Indian Airforce to win a gallantry award as part of Royal Indian Airforce. The Chakra class of gallantry awards did not yet exist as Taunque won this award in 1938 during World War II before the independence of India. More information is required for the gallantry awards won by Sainis during both the World Wars.

Since Independence

  • 1 Param Vir Chakra (Victoria Cross before 1947)
  • 1 Vir Chakra
  • 4 Shaurya Chakras
  • 1 Bronze Star (US Army)
  • 13 Sena Medals
  • 1 Purple Heart (US Army)

Known Meritorious Service Awards

  • 2 Param Vishisht Seva Medals
  • 2 Ati Vishist Seva Medal
  • 5 Vishisht Seva Medals

Decorated Saini armymen and paramilitary personnel

Order of names given below is as per the rank held at the time of retirement or martyrdom of each soldier.

  • Lt Gen Harbhajan Singh Banga (Param Vishisht Seva Medal)[76]
  • Lt Gen Ashok Kumar Saini (Param Vishisht Seva Medal, Ati Visisht Seva Metal, Sena Medal)[23]
  • Brigadier Ram Prakash Saini (Vishisht Seva Medal) [24]
  • Brigadier SK Saini (Sena Medal for Gallantry) [77]
  • Navy Vice Admiral R K Saini

Ravneet Singh,PVSM, AVSM, NM is a former flag officer in the Indian Navy. He last served as the [[Deputy Chief of the Naval Staff (India). He assumed office from Vice Admiral Murlidhar Sadashiv Pawar on 1 June 2021 following his retirement.[78] Previously, he served as the Chief of Personnel (India) (COP) and as the Director General of Project Seabird.[79] [80] He has also served as the Flag Officer Commanding Western Fleet from October 2015 to October 2016.[81]

Singh was born in Jalandhar, Punjab, India. He graduated from the National Defence Academy, Pune.

Mahnga Singh Saini INA Veteran

Mahnga Singh Saini was an INA veteran from Gurdaspur, was born in Nainokot village, Gurdaspur on March 18, 1918. His father, Amichand was a Chaudhary (chief) of the village and mother Kadhi was a housewife. He got his early education from Government Middle School, Kahnoowal. He passed his matriculation from District Board O’Dwyer High School, Sri Hargobindpur. He worked in New Egerton Mills, Dhariwal for three years. He organised the labours of the mill for their rights so he was terminated from the service. Then he joined the army and was sent to World War II on a warship of Germany. There, he joined the Indian National Army of Subash Chandra Bose in 1942. He was arrested by the British government in 1943 and kept in prisons of France, Belgium and Great Britain for three years. He was released in 1946 and returned to India. After independence, he settled in Amritsar along with his family. He did many social works for the people of the city. He received commendation and was honoured with Tamrapatra (Bronze Plaque) from the government of India on August 15, 1972 for his contribution to the freedom struggle. He was elected as a member of Municipal Corporation of Amritsar. He died on April 4, 1991. A road is named after him in Amritsar, called Sardar Mehnga Singh Marg by the Municipal Corporation.

  • Brigadier Balbir Singh Pama (Sena Medal) [82]
  • Group Captain Krishan Kumar Sangar (Shaurya Chakra, Vayu Sena Medal for Gallantry)[83]
  • Group Captain S S Banga (Vishisht Seva Medal)[84]
  • Group Captain Girish Saini (Vayu Sena Medal for Gallantry)[25]
  • Wing Commander Kartar Singh Taunque (Distinguished Flying Cross-First IAF personnel ever to be decorated for gallantry)[85][86]
  • Wing Commander Krishan Kant Saini ( 1962 War Hero, Vir Chakra, Vayu Sena Medal for Gallantry & Ati Vishist Seva Medal)
  • Deputy Lieutenant Dr. Jagjit Singh Taunque

Dr Jagjit Singh Taunque MBE, DL (Hindi: जगजीत सिंह) is a retired Deputy Lieutenant of the West Midlands. He has represented the Birmingham Inter Faiths Council on the University Court since 1995, becoming an Honorary Life Member of the Court in 1998. He is also Chairman of the Birmingham Valuation Tribunal and of the Punjab Culture Centre, Trustee of Birmingham Council of Faiths and Patron of Birmingham International Council. He was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE) in June 2000. He is a retired Deputy Lieutenant of West Midlands.

Sergeant Uday Singh (1982–2003) was the first U.S. Army soldier of Indian descent to die during Operation Iraqi Freedom. He was born in a Punjabi Sikh Saini family. His death in Iraq was widely reported in the Indian and American media.

  • Col Satinder Kumar Saini (Former Vice Chief of the Army Staff of India,Vishisht Seva Medal) [87] Saini is from District Hoshiarpur in Punjab, an alumnus of Sainik School, Kapurthala, National Defence Academy, Pune; and Indian Military Academy, Dehradun. He has also attended the Army Command and Staff Course at Staff College, Camberley; Royal Military College of Science, Shrivenham; and National Defence College, Dhaka. He has a total of three degrees in defence and strategic studies.
  • Col Vikas Saini ( Vishisht Seva Medal) [88]
  • Squadron Leader Devinder Singh Saini (Shaurya Chakra & Vayu Sena Medal for Gallantry) [89] [26]
  • Subedar-Major Bahadur Jagindar Singh Saini, OBI (2nd Class Order of Merit and 2nd Class of the Order of British India, Hero of Battle of Loos, Belgium, World War I) [90]

Subedar-Major Jagindar Singh 'Bahadur' , a Saini from Ropar, distinguished himself for conspicuous gallantry and striking leadership in the Battle of Loos in Belgium during World War 1. Lieutinent Governor's citation for his military decoration as 'Bahadur' (or hero) and the twin confering of Order of British India and Indian Order of Merit reads as follows[90]:

" ..for his conspicuous gallantry in action on the 17th November 1914 when with a party of Sappers under the command of a British Officer he was always to the fore and led his men with great determination into the enemy's trenches. Subedar-Major Jagindar Singh, Saini Sikh of Kheri Salabatpur in Rupar, gained the 2nd Class Order of Merit at the battle of Loos in Belgium for striking leadership and conspicuous bravery in action after most of his company and all but one British Officer in his regiment had been killed or wounded. This officer was also awarded the 2nd Class of the Order of British India for distinguished conduct in the field."

  • Major Harminderpal Singh Saini (Posthumous Shaurya Chakra) [27][28]

On 13 April 1999, Major Singh fearlessly led his column from upfront, setting a personal example for his command to emulate. He made the supreme sacrifice of his life while fighting the Pakistani ISI sponsored proxy war and safe guarding the integrity of India. His mortal remains, draped in the tri-colour of the Indian flag, were sent to his village in (Mundi Kharar) Ropar (the vicinity of which Anandpur Sahib is located) on 14 April 1999 where he was cremated with honours reserved for the bravest.

Major Harminder had been wounded in the left arm but managed to engage three militants armed with Kalashnikovs and grenades in an eyeball-to-eyeball encounter in a remote north Kashmir village on April 13.

The 18 Grenadiers Major was shot through the temple by the third militant but not before he had gunned down two of them. Harminder led the commando platoon of his battalion in what has been described as a "dare-devil" operation in a congested locality of Sadurkotbala village in Manasbal.

Major Harminder Pal Singh was honoured with the Shaurya Chakra, for his exceptional gallantry and devotion to duty, posthumously.

  • Major S L Saini ( Vishisht Seva Medal) [91]
  • Rup Singh Saini

Rup Singh Saini Badwal son of Chaudhary Uttam Chand, Fought the World War II, 1947 war against Pakistan and 1961 war against China. He is the Nephew of Sardar Banta Singh martyred of World War I whose name is on the India Gate in New Delhi. He earned many medals during his service to maintain the dignity and the integrity of the Indian Army and his son Surinder Kumar Saini also served Indian army. Rup Singh is presently residing at San Jose, California in USA.

  • Captain Gurbachan Singh Salaria (Posthumous Param Vir Chakra)[29][92][93]

  • Captain Jasbir Singh Kaberwal (Shaurya Chakra) [94] [95]
  • Sergeant Uday Singh Taunque (Winner of Purple Heart & Bronze Star[30] , US Army)

  • Jemadar Gurmukh Singh Saini Cr St Geo, IOM (Equivalencies: Cr St Geo - Param Vir Chakra & Victoria Cross) [33] [34]

  • Lt. Ravinder Saini (Sena Medal for Gallantry) [31]
  • Flt. Lt. Somesh Kumar Saini (Vayu Sena Medal for Gallantry) [32]
  • Sgt. Hira Singh Saini (Vayu Sena Medal for Gallantry) [33][96]
  • Naib Subedar Gopal Singh Saini (Sena Medal for Gallantry) [34]
  • Naik Janak Raj Saini (Sena Medal for Gallantry) [35]

Decorated Saini policemen

Gallantry medal is the most prestigious award for any police officer in the country. It is awarded for displaying conspicuous gallantry, courage and devotion to duty of very high order. The police officer keeps the duty before self in completing the task. This award is rare in itself as the action should match the risk involved on the occasion. The senior controlling officer assessing the task performed by the subordinate recommends to the head of the police department for award of gallantry medal.

  • Director General of Police(DGP) Sumedh Singh Saini, IPS ( Gallantry Award ,1987, Punjab Police )[36]
  • Deputy Inspector General of Police (DIG) Dr. Kamal Saini, IPS, (Gallantry Award, Jammu and Kashmir Police) [37][97]
  • Supdt. of Police (SP) Hari Ram Banga, ( Gallantry Award ,1991, Punjab Police)[38]
  • Dy. Supdt. of Police (DSP) Kashmir Singh Pabla (President's Police Medal for Distinguished Service, 2009) [98][99]
  • Sub Inspector Vinod Kumar Saini , (Police Medal For Gallantry, 2008, Border Security Force)[100]
  • Sumedh Singh Saini(DGP)
Sumedh Singh Saini

Sumedh Singh Saini was an Indian police officer, and the former Director general of police (DGP) of Punjab Police. He was the youngest appointed DGP in India. He along with former Punjab Police DGP KPS Gill is credited with ruthlessly suppressing the Khalistan movement in Indian Punjab. His name evokes mixed reactions in India. But in Punjab he is one of the Most Hated Identities. Sikh Saini Community doesn't like to associate with Him.

Notable Saini Personalities

  • Chaudhary Shiv Lal Saini
Late Chaudhary Shiv Lal Saini

Late Chaudhary Shiv Lal Saini, who was the first official historian of Shoorsaini or Saini community of Punjab as we know today.

The present scholarly work undertaken by Saini Research Network is the continuation of the research and publication work he started in earlier part of 20th century through a dedicated periodical called "Kshatriya Saini Patrika" which was published in Urdu language from Lahore. His greatest scholarly contribution to Saini and broader academic community came in the form of a Urdu language work in two volumes called 'Taarikh Quam Shoorsaini", a detailed history of Shoorsaini or Saini Kshatriya Rajputs of Punjab, who originated from Surasena Yadavas of Mathura and relocated to Punjab over different periods of time due to a variety of historical circumstances.

He was born in village Bakarwal in Tehsil Shakargarh which is now in Pakistan. A large part of his life was spent in the capital of undivided Punjab, Lahore, and after his demise his widow returned to Bakarwal and lived alone, perhaps because they did not have any child. Shiv Lal Saini was also the honorary lecturer for Saini Kshatriya Mahasabha, Marara (District Gurdaspur) and for this reason he travelled from city to city and village to village in Punjab and outside to familiarize members of Saini community about their glorious history in order to organize them. Because of his efforts many Saini community organizations came into being. In order to share his views and organize the Saini community he also published 'Kshatriya Saini Patrika' periodical in Urdu from Lahore. He himself was the editor of this periodical. During that time he was so popular in the Saini community that in some villages schools and guesthouses were built after his name. In this reference in Ghaseetpur village of Tehsil Shakargarh 'Chaudhary Shiv Lal Saini Arya Kanya Pathshala' (Chaudhary Shiv Lal Saini Arya Girls' School) was very famous.

  • Shaheed Babu Labh Singh Saini (Prominent Freedom Fighter & President of Shiromani Akali Dal)
Shaheed Babu Labh Singh

Sardar Labh Singh(1895–1947), Akali politician, was born in 1895 and was the son of Sardar Dula Singh. [101] [102] [103] He belonged to a Saini family in village Lasara of Jalandhar district. [104] He spent his early youth at Quetta and passed his Matriculation examination from the high school there. In 1914, he took up service in the army as a clerk. For this reason, he was sometimes also known as Babu Labh Singh. He resigned his job as a protest against the killing of Sikhs at Nankana Sahib on 20 February 1921, and joined the campaign for the reform of Gurdwara management.

He was arrested in 1922 in connection with the Guru ka Bagh agitation. On 18 April 1924, he courted arrest at Jaito and was detained in Nabha jail. He was released along with other Akali prisoners after the passage in 1925 of the Sikh Gurdwaras Act. In 1926, he was elected president of the district unit of the Jalandhar Akali Jatha. In 1928, he participated in a protest march against the Simon Commission, and in 1930 he, along with a batch of 100 Sikh volunteers from his district, participated in the Civil Disobedience movement launched by the Indian National Congress. He was taken into custody in Delhi, but was released after the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed in 1931. He was arrested under the Defence of India Rules during the Quit India movement. He organized from 25 to 27 November 1944 at Jandiala, in Jalandhar district, a massive Sikh conference to celebrate the silver jubilee of the Shiromani Akali Dal. In 1945, he was elected president of the Shiromani Akali Dal which office he held until his death on 9 March 1947 at Jalandhar.

As Akali Dal President-elect, Sardar Labh Singh was taken on a two miles (3 km) long procession on elephant back in Gujaranawala.More than 60 Akali Jathas, in their multi-colored dresses and turbans carrying swords and Sikh flags and spears ,etc participated, headed by 5 camel sawars and 101 on horse-back with naked swords in their hands. The procession took three hours to reach the place where the conference took place. As the leader of the Shiromani Akali Dal, Sardar Labh Singh, condemned Indian communists for their role in the parition and passionately advocated for the Prisoners of War (POW) rights for Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army) prisoners [105]

He was stabbed by a Muslim fanatic while leading a peace march after communal disturbances in the town. The Civil Hospital and a Gurudwara in Rainak Bazar at Jalandhar commemorate his memory.

  • Sadhu Singh Hamdard(Freedom Fighter)

Sadhu Singh Hamdard (Sadhu Singh Saini) (1918-1984) was a well-known freedom fighter and journalist of Punjab, excelling in both Urdu and Punjabi and an innovative poet, who carried in his name the psudonym 'Hamdard', "sharing with all the pangs of their hearts," "friendly towards all." Early life as freedom fighter As a high school student, he was active in Chaudhri Sher Jang's group of the radicals in the Yug Paltai Dal, party to impart a radical turn to the age. The Dal was formed in 1939-40 by Giani Harbans Singh of Sarhala Khurd in Hoshiarpur district. The Dal ceased to exist after the arrest and execution of its founder Harbans Singh, Sadhu Singh then joined the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee taking over its publicity wing. As a journalist and Chief Editor of Ajit In 1944, Sadhu Singh entered the field of journalism. He took up editorship of the up to Daily Ajit (Urdu) and retained this position till 1957. In 1955, he also became chief editor of the Punjabi Ajit. The birth of the Ajit was an entirely new phenomenon in Punjabi journalism. It marked a new era of change and experimentation. In Sadhu Singh's hands, Punjabi journalism matured and reached new heights. The Ajit and Sadhu Singh Hamdard became synonymous names, he had so lovingly nursed the paper. Sadhu Singh set its permanent seal on Punjabi journalism. He created a new taste in Punjabi writing and introduced several new techniques. His services to Punjabi journalism, to what he did to give it a new face and format, were widely acknowledged. Awards After Indian troops attacked the Golden Temple Sadhu Singh surrendered his Padma Shri award In 1963, the Punjab Government honoured him with the title of Shiromani Pattarkar (the journalist of the year). He was chairman of the reception committee of All India Newspapers Editors Conference held at Jalandhar in 1973. He also edited two monthly magazines Tasvir and Drishtl. Within his lifetime, Sadhu Singh converted all his property and assets into a public trust for the advancement of Punjabi culture and letters. Dr Sadhu Singh Hamdard was also awarded the title of Padma Shri by the Central Government in January 1984, but he surrendered the honour in protest against the army action in the precincts of the Golden Temple, Amritsar, in June 1984. Sadhu Singh Hamdard died a month later at Jalandhar on 29 July 1984. Poet As a poet, Sadhu Hamdard is especially remembered for popularising the Ghazal form in Punjabi. His collection of Punjabi poems in the genre, entitled Ghazal won him a first prize from the Punjab Government in 1963. An anthology of his prose writings assembled under the title Akkhin Ditha Rus, a travelogue on his visits to Soviet Russia in 1967, also won the Punjab Government's award in 1972-73. He also wrote some novels built around heroic episodes from Sikh history as well as some short stories. Conferring of Ph.D Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, awarded him the Ph.D. degree for his thesis.

  • Chaudhari Nand Ram Saini(Zaildar)

Chaudhari Nand Ram Saini was appointed as Zaildar during the British Raj rule of India. He inherited the Zaildari in 1906 when his died. He was appointed Zaildar from Hissar division, Punjab region. He gave up the Zalidari in 1921 in order to support the Indian independence movement. Later, he became member of the Indian National Congress and was also head of Hindu Mahasabha for Hissar briefly before rejoining Congress again in 1959. He died in in 1973 at the age of 90.

Chaudhari Dewan Chand of Gurdaspur [37] [39] was a well-known Saini safedposh during 20th century. He was a highly reputed criminal lawyer of Lahore High Court who later became the leader of Criminal Bar. He was also subsequently awarded the title of 'Rai Bahadur' by the British government and also given Member of Order of British Empire..[39] [37] He used this privileged postion to champion the cause of all agricultural communities of Punjab and was widely quoted in the legislative debates in the undivided Punjab.[39]

Chaudhary Dewan Chand was the son of Chaudhary Fateh Chand who was a Vazeer (minister) in Chamba state in 19th century.

  • Fulvio Saini

Fulvio Luigi Saini (born 7 March 1962) was an Italian football midfield. Career He began his career in the youth club of A.C. Monza Brianza 1912, the team that will launch in the Pro world and which will become captain. The kicker lives almost two decades with the red and white shirt, amassing 544 league appearances (290 of them in Serie B to Serie C1 and 254), for the record of Monza, seasoned with 13 goals, winning two Serie C Cup Italy and three promotions to Serie B. He closes his career competing in 3 seasons in Serie C2 in Pro Sesto, with 92 appearances and one goal. After the Retirement He currently lives in Muggiò and plays the profession of insurance and care the youth club of A.C. Monza Brianza 1912, and the amateur club of GES Monza, which is sports director. Honours Monza Serie C1: 1987-88 Coppa Italia Serie C: 1987–88 Coppa Italia Serie C: 1990–91.

Harnam Singh Saini

Harnam Singh Saini (died March 16, 1917) was a notable Indian revolutionary who participated in Ghadar Conspiracy and was hanged by British colonial government on 16 March 1917 in Lahore for instigating revolt against the empire. He was tried under third Lahore Conspiracy Case trial.[41][106]

Mian Jawahar Singh Member of Gadar Party

The Ghadar Party was founded by Indian immigrants with the stated goal of liberating India from British rule. With the outbreak of World War I, the Ghadar Party called on its cadre to travel to India and join the freedom struggle. Uprisings in military cantonments were planned by the Ghadar Party. Some Ghadarites also influenced the chiefs of the Princely States. Mandi in Himachal Pradesh was one such State. Nidhan Singh Chugga, the leader of the Ghadar Party, held numerous meetings in Mandi State and was successful in enlisting Mian Jawahar Singh, a state minister. However, when the plot failed, he was apprehended. In the Mandi Conspiracy Case, he was tried. British judges noted that in Mandi State, Mian Jawahar Singh assisted Ghadar Party members in staging an uprising. In or around the month of January 1915, a meeting was held at a spring near Barsu to discuss the manufacture of bombs and the collection of bomb materials. Mian Jawahar Singh promised men, arms, and bomb materials, and it was decided to assassinate the Superintendent and Wazir of the Mandi State, commit dacoities, imported men from Punjab, and that after conquering the Mandi and Suket States, they should proceed to Punjab and personally join the rebellion there. For assisting the Ghadar Party, Mian Jawahar Singh was sentenced to transportation for life and forfeiture of property under sections 121A, 122, and 302-115. He died later in Multan Jail.

Inder Singh Padri

Inder Singh Saini belonged to Padri village of Amritsar district. His father Gurmukh Singh was a modest peasant. Inder Singh took part in the revolutionary activities of the Ghadar Party in Punjab's Majha area. He came into contact with Prem Singh of Sur Singh village who was a Ghadar Party member. On 21 March 1915, police arrested Lal Singh Bhure, another ghadarite, after receiving a tip from Padri village’s moneylender Kapoor Singh. Inder Singh and Prem Singh made the decision to punish Kapoor Singh. They arrived at Kapoor Singh's home. Prem Singh and Inder Singh shot at point blank at Kapoor Singh in the early hours of the morning, avenging Lal Singh's arrest. Later on, Inder Singh was arrested and tried under Sections 302 and 398 in the Padri Murder Case. He was sentenced to death. On 16 May 1916, this fearless revolutionary of the Ghadar Party was hanged in the Lahore Central Jail.

  • Michael Saini-Professor,Factor-Inwentash Chair in Law and Social Work

Michael A. Saini joined the Factor-Inwentash Faculty of Social Work in 2008 as an Assistant Professor. He is now a Professor and holds the endowed Factor-Inwentash Chair in Law and Social Work, and is the Co-Director of the Combined J.D. and M.S.W. program with the Law Faculty.

  • Gopal Saini(Athlete)

Gopal Singh Saini [39] ( b 1954- ) is a former athlete of India. He still holds national record in men 3000 meter Steeplechase event established at Tokyo in 1981 with timing of 8.30.88 minutes. He participated in Men's 5000 race at 1980 Olympics. He hails from Rajasthan. He was conferred Arjuna award in 1981 for his achievements. He practiced on terrains for strength of legs. He currently works in SBBJ and also owns a restaurant in Jaipur. [40]

  • Harnam Singh Saini(Freedom Fighter)

Harnam Singh Saini was a notable Indian revolutionary who participated in Ghadar Conspiracy and was hanged by British colonial government on March 16, 1917 in Lahore for instigating revolt against the empire. He was tried under third Lahore Conspiracy Case trial. Background Harnam Singh Saini was son of Gopal Saini. He was resident of village Fatehgarh in district Hoshiarpur. Involvement in Ghadar Conspiracy Ghadar di Gunj, an early Ghadarite compilation of nationalist and socialist literature, was banned in India in 1913. Ghadar Newspaper (Urdu) Vol. 1, No. 22, March 24, 1914 Harnam Singh visited Canada and USA which were the breeding ground of Ghadar Conspiracy. He became an active member of Ghadar Party and participated in sedition. Arrest Harnam Singh Saini was arrested in Batavia, a Dutch colony. Nothing incriminating was found on his person or on the ship Maverick in which he was travelling. In spite of this the Dutch authorities of Batavia heeded to the British request and handed him over to the Singapore police. He was taken to Calcutta and then to Lahore. Trial and execution He was tried under Third Conspiracy Case at Lahore. The tribunal of this case consisted of Ellis, Major Frizelle, and Rai Bahadur Gopal Das Bhandari. The trial was held in Lahore Central Jail. The trial began on November 8, 1916 and ended on January 5, 1917. Harnam Singh Saini along with four other Ghadar revolutionaries, namely, Bhai Balwant Singh of Khurdpur, Babu Ram of Fatehgarh, Hafiz Abdullah of Jagraon and Dr. Arur Singh of Sanghwal, was charged with waging war against King Emperor and sentenced to death. Three other co-accused, namely, Karar Singh Nawan Chand, Fazal Din of Fategarh and Munsha Singh of Dukhi of Jandiala were given life imprisonment. Saini, along with four of his other Ghadar Party comrades, was executed on March 16, 1917. All of their properties were also confiscated.

  • Late. Ajit Saini (Eminent Punjabi Journalist, Owner of Ajit Newspaper, Freedom Fighter & INA veteran)
Ajit Saini.jpg

Late. Ajit Singh Saini (1922-2007) was a very eminent journalist of Punjab and was associated with the Punjabi daily "Ajit" [41]. Not only his contributions to Punjabi press are remembered by the Punjabi intelligentsia but his contributions as a freedom fighter and Indian National Army (INA) veteran can never be forgotten. He was a close confidant and lieutenant of Subhas Chandra Bose. As Netaji's spokesman and media strategist , he controlled the wire service of INA and Arzi Hukumat-e-Azad Hind or Provisional Government of Free India, more simply, Indian government in exile.

Freedom fighter , Ajit Saini, passed away on Dec 10, 2007 and his demise was widely condoled in Punjab. In a condolence message the Chief Minister said that Saini was a multi-faceted personality who served in the Indian National Army (INA) and made a significant contribution towards the Indian freedom struggle. As a noted Journalist and an eminent Columnist Ajit Saini through his prolific writings in the esteemed columns of regional and national newspapers proved to be instrumental in bringing social awakening amongst the down-trodden and unprivileged section of the society. In his death "a void has been created in the literary circles which was difficult to be filled", said Badal[107][42].

  • Nek Chand Saini (Creator of World Famous Rock Garden of Chandigarh)
Nek Chand Saini

Nek Chand, is an Indian self-taught artist. He is famous for building the Rock Garden of Chandigarh. Chandigarh, India, is an unlikely location for the world's largest folk-art environment. Chandigarh, a stark 20th-century utopian dream city, was designed by the Swiss architect Le Corbusier. In the midst of this carefully planned, 1950s-style architecture lies The Rock Garden. The Rock Garden is a garden comprising of meandering paths, courtyards, waterfalls, pavilions, theatres, plazas and thousands of sculptures created by self-tutored builder named Nek Chand Saini (b.1924). In the past few years, completing this monumental endeavour and guaranteeing its preservation has become an international effort involving many individuals and organizations.

  • Raj Saini(Politician)

Rajinder "Raj" Saini (born August 21, 1967) is an Indian-Canadian politician who served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for the riding of Kitchener Centre in the House of Commons of Canada from 2015 to 2021.

  • Jessie Singh Saini(Indo-American Industrialist)

Jessie Singh Saini [43], full name Jaswinder Singh Saini,and re-christened "Jessie Singh the billionaire" is now a big name in Silicon Valley in California, USA. He is the founder of BJS Electronics and an American industrialist of Indian descent. He now has three companies with a turnover of $246 million and is the second richest Punjabi in North America. Hard work and talent made this non-entity in his homeland rich and famous in foreign soil. Jessie is also a well known political donor in California and both Bill Clinton and Al Gore have paid visits to his house during their incumbencies as President and Vice President of USA. He has the rare distinction of hosting a dinner attended, among others by the then US president Bill Clinton. He completed his education at Punjab Agriculutral University at Ludhiana before migrating to USA in 1986. Awards and recognition Jessie was the first Indian to receive the Civil rights award – the Edna Magee Award from the Santa Clara County in 1998. He also went to the Philippines as a state guest in 1996 and was honored by the Pope for helping to raise money for Vietnamese refugees stranded in the Philippines. He was also honored in his native Punjab with Punjab Ratan award by Prakash Singh Badal, the Chief Minister of Punjab.He keeps in touch with his roots and occasionally visits Jalandhar where he has a house in Green Park.

  • Nitin Saini(Cricketer)

Nitin Saini (born October 28 1988 in Rohtak, Haryana, India) is a cricketer who plays for Haryana in Indian domestic cricket. He also plays for the IPL franchise team Kings XI Punjab. Saini is a right-hand wicket-keeper batsman who usually opens the batting. Career Saini made his first-class debut for Haryana at the age of 18 against Saurashtra during the 2006-07 season of Ranji Trophy. He has earned a permanent spot for his state side with impressive performances in all three formats of the game. In the 2011/12 season of Ranji Trophy, he made 631 runs in 8 matches at an average of 40, scoring five fifties and a hundred. Soon after, Kings XI Punjab signed a domestic contract with him. Season by season performance in Ranji Trophy Season Matches Innings Runs Ave HS 100s 50s 2011/12 8 16 631 39.43 112 1 5 2010/11 7 12 535 44.58 150 1 4 2009/10 6 9 188 20.88 61 0 2 2008/09 5 8 243 30.37 125 1 0

  • Parminder Singh Saini(Hijacker)

Parminder Singh Saini is a convicted Indian hijacker who immigrated to Canada under a false name. He fought deportation when his identity was discovered, and stayed in the country for 15 years, earning a law degree before he was deported in 2010. He hijacked an Indian Airlines plane to Lahore in 1984. He was sentenced to death in a trial in Pakistan, but released after ten years imprisonment.

Dr. Pritam Saini (1927–2003) was a Punjabi journalist, literary critic and history scholar. He served as Research Fellow at Punjabi University, Patiala in Punjab, India and was also a member of academic bodies such as the Punjab History Conference and Indian History Congress.

  • Rahul Saini(Author)

Rahul Saini (born 8 May 1983) is an Indian author of contemporary fiction. His books have strong comic tones and present up-beat stories that portray the fun loving, free spirited and out going character of today’s Indian youth. His first book ‘Those Small Lil’ Things in Life and Love’, which was essentially a boy’s tale about growing up and his relationship with girls through the years, was published in 2008 and made it to several bestsellers’ list across the nation. He believes that today's youth likes fast paced stories which are either larger than life or which they can relate to. He avoids using themes like sex and sleaze to please the masses. His novels have numerous references to many movies and T.V. Shows. Currently he is working on his third book and there are rumors that the story might have a supernatural theme. Early life Biography He was born and brought up in Jalandhar, a small town in Punjab. His keen interest in film, drama and literature drove him to writing after he graduated as an architect attaining a through knowledge of Fine Arts and Design apart from Architecture. His first book was a huge nationwide success and within months after the release of the book, he was considered among the top selling contemporary Indian authors.List of Works Novels Those Small Lil’ Things (2008) Just Like In The Movies (2010) The Orange Hangover (2012)

  • Wg Cdr K K Saini (World Record holder for the Highest Altitude Landing for a Helicopter)

Wing Commander Krishan Kant Saini not only distinguished himself by winning the coveted war time gallantry award , namely Vir Chakra, in 1962 Sino-Indian war but he also set the world record in global aviation history by accomplishing the world's highest helicopter landing. He accomplished this feat on 8th May 1969 when he landed Chetak helicopter at the altitude of 6858 m (22,500 feet) in the Karkoram ranges .[108][44] This world record still remains unbroken.

  • Joginder Singh Saini (1997 Dronacharya Award -Highest National Award in Sports Coaching)[45]

Joginder Singh Saini was the 13th recipient of the coveted award. A respected coach of long standing and chief national coach , Saini was the fourth athletic coach behind O.M. Nambiar (1985), Ilyas Babar (1994) and Karan Singh (1995) to be honoured.

Baljeet Saini playing hockey

Baljit ("Baljeet") Singh Saini (born August 12, 1976 in Ropar, Punjab) is a field hockey defender and midfielder from India who made his international debut for the Men's National Team in 1995 during the Indira Gandhi Gold Cup. Singh Saini represented his native country at two consecutive Summer Olympics, starting in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, where India finished in eighth place. His older brother Balwinder Singh was also a field hockey international for India.

  • Nirmal (Saini) Wife of Milkha Singh (Former Indian Women's Volleyball Team Captain)
Nirmala Saini with her Husband Milkha Singh

Born on October 10, 1938 at Shekupura (now in Pakistan), Nirmal Saini had a distinguished career in sports. She was Director of Sports for Women in the State Department. She earned an M.A. in Political Science from Punjab University in 1958, and joined the Government College of Physical Education, Patiala in 1959. She secured 710 out of 1000 marks to gain her diploma, proving that successful athletes can also be successful academicians. Nirmal also played excellent net-ball, badminton and throw-ball. She captained the Punjab volleyball team three times and was a member of the U.P. volleyball team that toured Ceylon in 1955. Four years later she led an Indian team to Ceylon, which won all the matches that they participated in.

Nirmal Saini took time off in the course of her busy Sports career to marry the famous "Flying Sikh" Milkha Singh[46], the most celebrated athlete of India. She is also the mother of world renowned golf player Jeev Milkha Singh. Note: Milkha Singh is not a Saini but from a Sikh Rathore Rajput family[109].

  • Saini Sisters

Saini Sisters is a popular epithet used for four sisters from Punjab[1] who were international field hockey players, Rupa Saini, Krishna Saini, Swarna Saini and Prema Saini. At one time Saini sisters dominated woman's hockey in India and in the test series against Japan in 1970 all three sisters played together for India.

Dr. Rupa Saini, Ph.D.(Olympian, Arjuna Award Winner)

Rupa Kumari Saini

Rupa Saini had a particularly successful career. She donned the Indian colours in the 1974 France and 1978 Madrid World Cups and captained India in the latter playing as the centre-half. Saini earned nearly 200 Test caps both in India and abroad, and also played in the 1979 world championships held in Vancouver. She also went on to win the prestigious Arjuna Award . During the 1980 Olympics the sisters were star members of India's hockey team which also included the Prem Maya Sonir and Lorraine Fernandes where they defeated Austria and Poland. The team cane fourth missing out on a bronze medal.

Prema Saini, Rupa's elder sibling, was decorated with Maharaja Ranjit Singh Award by the Punjab government.

Rupa Saini later went on earn a doctoral degree and was employed as a senior lecturer with the Government College of Physical Education in Patiala. She later went on to become principal, Govt. Mohindra college, Patiala. She has also been in the past appointed as a manager of the senior Indian team by the Indian Women Hockey Federation (IWHF).

The list of Rupa Saini's achievement is long and impressive. She has donned the Indian colours in the 1974 France and 1978 Madrid World Cups, apart from earning nearly 200 Test caps both in India and abroad.She also played in the 1979 world championships held in Vancouver.

  • Avtar Saini, Former Director, India Operations of Montalvo Systems and Former Vice President of Intel (World Renowned Microchip Designer/Architect)
Avtar Saini

Director - South Asia, Intel Asia Electronics. Avtar Saini joined Intel in April 1982 as a Product Engineer in the area of magnetic bubble memories. Through the 1980s he worked as a circuit designer on the Intel386, and a micro-architect/logic designer on the Intel486. In 1989, he was promoted to co-lead the Pentium processor design team where he managed the design and its ramp into volume production. In 1994, Saini was promoted as General Manager, Santa Clara Microprocessor Division where he managed Intel's next generation 64 byte architecture microprocessor. In May 1996, he moved to Folsom, California to head the Platform Components Division where he was responsible for the Chipset and Graphics solutions for the Intel Architecture platform. In September 1999, Saini was relocated to India as Director South Asia. He holds 7 patents for his work in microprocessor design.

  • Tarsame Singh Saini (Taz of Stereo Nation )
Taz of Stereo Nation

Tarsame Singh, aka TAZ, the artist formerly known as Johnny Zee, established himself as a recording artist with the release of his debut album "Hit the Deck". He stormed the UK Asian Pop Charts for 36 weeks at number 1. The album went on to become one of the biggest selling Asian fusion release to date. Then came the album that broke all music barriers, Spirits of Rhythm with the hit track, Don't Break My Heart.

The latter half of 1999 saw TAZ release his first solo album entitled "Nasha" in the UK, causing a major storm on dance floors across Europe and the USA. To date the album has already gone gold... The new millennium sees TAZ as a solo artists, retaining the name of "Stereo Nation" starting to delve into new musical territory with Latin, R&B, Soul, Dance and Bollywood. TAZ's latest album entitled "Slave II Fusion"("Oh Laila'), released in December 2000. achieved sales exceeding 1.5 Million. As a consequence to this success, he was approached to record a track for the movie "TUM BIN" in which TAZ himself performed.

Due to popular demand TAZ returned to the UK to release his single "Laila" into the mainstream charts. The single entered the British Charts at number 44. The follow up album entitled "Taz-Mania" has surpassed the phenomenal success of the previous album. Having already recorded for the Film Industry, TAZ has just finished recording for the latest Hrithik Roshan film "Koi Mil Gaya" which has been deemed by the Indian Film Industry as the Bollywood Blockbuster Movie of the year!

Soni-pabla-in-white-coat Nation

Born and raised in Bilaspur a village near Hoshiarpur, a district in Punjab, India, Soni (Tejpal Singh Pabla) moved to Toronto, Canada in the mid 90s. Under the teachings of Mahesh Malwani, he studied music, which led him towards a recording contract with Planet Recordz, a well known South Asian Record Label in Canada. Soni released his debut album, Heeray Heeray, in 2002. In 2004, Soni teamed up with Sukshinder Shinda to create his second album, Gal Dil Di. He had also been featured on numerous albums with various producers. He was one of the most talented artists in Canada. His new album "Eternity (Naseebo)" is a tribute to Soni by his friends and Planet Recordz. This album features new songs which Soni had selected for his album. Some songs in this album also have the vocals of few well known Punjabi Singers.

Light-eyed and breathtakingly handsome Soni died untimely at the age of 30, while giving a stage performance in Brampton (Ontario, Canada) . Soni is missed by thousands of his fans in Canada, UK , Punjab and elsewhere.

  • Ajay Banga(President of the World Bank)

Ajay Banga, 14th President of the World Bank Group

Ajaypal Singh Saini Banga

Ajay Banga began his five-year term as World Bank Group President on June 2, 2023. Ajay Banga most recently served as Vice Chairman at General Atlantic. Previously, he was President and CEO of Mastercard, a global organization with nearly 24,000 employees. Under his leadership, MasterCard launched the Center for Inclusive Growth, which advances equitable and sustainable economic growth and financial inclusion around the world. He was Honorary Chairman of the International Chamber of Commerce, serving as Chairman from 2020-2022. He became an advisor to General Atlantic’s climate-focused fund, BeyondNetZero, at its inception in 2021. Banga served as Co-Chair of the Partnership for Central America, a coalition of private organizations that works to advance economic opportunity across underserved populations in El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras. He was previously on the Boards of the American Red Cross, Kraft Foods, and Dow Inc.

Ajay Banga is a co-founder of The Cyber Readiness Institute and was Vice Chair of the Economic Club of New York. He was awarded the Foreign Policy Association Medal in 2012, the Padma Shri Award by the President of India in 2016, the Ellis Island Medal of Honor and the Business Council for International Understanding’s Global Leadership Award in 2019, and the Distinguished Friends of Singapore Public Service Star in 2021.


Dr. Harindarpal (“Harry”) Singh Saini Banga founded The Caravel Group in 2013 and has been the key architect in the establishment, growth, and expansion of the Group since its inception. Dr. Banga is actively involved in managing the Group and serves on the Board (and Chairs) each of The Caravel Group subsidiary companies and all Management Committees.

Prior to founding The Caravel Group, Dr. Banga was the Vice Chairman of Noble Group, a leading global supply chain manager of commodity products, listed on the Singapore Stock Exchange, which he co-founded in 1989.

Dr. Banga was awarded with an Honorary Doctor in Business Administration for his significant contributions to education and the wellbeing of society from the City University of Hong Kong (CityU) in 2020.

In 2019, Mr. Banga was recognized and awarded by the Economic Times as the “Most Influential Business Leader of Asia” during the Asian Business Leaders Conclave.

In January 2011, the then President of India, Mrs. Pratibha Patil, conferred the prestigious Pravasi Bharatiya Samman Award on Dr. Banga for his outstanding achievements in the field of business, valuable contribution in promoting the honor and prestige of India, and in fostering the needs of overseas Indians.

Having received many more awards during his illustrious career, Dr. Banga is also the Honorary Consul of the Republic of Cyprus in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, with jurisdiction of both the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and the Macao Special Administrative Region.

  • Manj Banwait (Panjabi Bhangra Singer)

Born in Derby, England on the 23rd of October 1987, Manj is becoming the answer to new age Bhangra. His debut album 'Project One' which was sung, written and composed by this youngster was released in 2008 at the early age of 20. The title track 'Piche Hohke' ranked highly in numerous charts including the BBC Asian Network Chart. With such talents under his belt he has worked with numerous music producers already consisting of such names as Taj-E, BEE2, Notorious Jatt, Panjabi By Nature and Bharat Goel. The future looks bright and promising for Manj if he continues to climb on the ladder of rapid success. With only a few Saini singers out there, Manj is showing there is a place out there on the music scene made for him to shine out even further.

  • Sardar Mahan Singh Gahunia (INA Veteran & Social Activist)

A distinguished general of the Saini Army. His contribution in upliftment of Saini Community is being applauded by all. Took active part in the freedom movement launched by the patriots to liberate our country from the British rule. Known for his strong character, honest, simple and ever helpful attitude at his native village Sujjon in Nawansher district. His urge for knowledge and material well-being took him to seas to Philippines. Business acumen and hard work brought him abundant success and laurels. he became a successful, distinguished and respected businessman in Manila. His benevolent instinct prompted him to support his relations and other interested villagers to migrate to the Philippines for improving their sources of livelihood. Formed the Sarb Hind Saini Sabha. Arranged moral and material support for Azad Hind Fauz of Netaji during the vital years of the Indian Freedom movement. His efforts to extend a helping hand to the needy widows and poor school going children in the form of aid and scholarships consistent with the financial position of the trust, are praiseworthy.

  • Ajit S. Adhopia (Indo-Canadian Religious Author & Social Activist)

Originally from Delhi, this man is known for his community service in Canada, his adopted land. He writes a regular Column on Hinduism for "Toronto Star", a national newspaper in Canada and also wrote two books on Hinduism that are very popular there. He has been a Social Activist in the Indian community for 30 years and won awards from all levels of government, in recognition of his contribution to society. His recent awards include Civic Award of Recognition for Volunteerism – City of Mississauga 2002 and Recognition Award for Community Service-Ethnic Press Council of Canada.

  • Sunny Dhoorh (Indo-American Social Activist)

Sunny Dhoorh migrated to America from Punjab in the year 1988 after graduating in the Law course of Punjab University, Chandigarh. In India he worked as an advocate and when opportunity called Sunny migrated to the U.S. Henceforth there is no looking back for this hardworking and determined stalwart. The fruits of his labor ripened and now he is the proud owner of a about a dozen of convenient stores in the Michigan State, USA. This put him in the league of one of the most prominent and leading businessman of the state.

He is also a spokesperson for the Indian community in the state. He is a contender in politics and keep company with the Democratic Party, as is evident with his frequent association with the Governor and the former presidential candidate, Mr. John Kerry during his campaign. It is during this meetings that Sunny highlights the issues the Indian Community is facing. A regular donor to religious organizations and humanitarian causes. Sunny is proud to belong to the first Saini IAS family (Chaudhary Dasonda Singh) of Punjab.

  • Jassi Jasraj aka Jasraj Singh Longia(Singer/Lyrics/Composer)
Jassi Jasraj

Jasraj Singh Saini Longia was born on January 1, 1970. He is a renowned Revolutionary Singer, Lyricist and Actor. He is Best know for his Roles in Bikkar Bai Sentimental 2013 movie. Also he owns a Record Label known as Jasraj Records. He is also Known for the Controversial Song Fights with Honey Singh[47]. He was previously known as Karran Jesbir.

  • Retd. Brigadier Dilbagh Singh Saini (Ex Minister Punjab Government)

S. Dilbagh Singh who was a famous personality from Doaba. After a distinguished service in the Indian Army , he retired as a Brigadier and became the Minister for Agriculture and Forest in the Punjab Govt. for some time. As a businessman he is beyond compare running his empire of transport trucks. He helped the community of the Sainis by being their spokesman and his contribution for the upliftment of the community will always be remembered. During his tenure, he initiated a series of measures to take Doaba in the forefront.

  • Navdeep Saini(Indian cricketer)
Navdeep Saini (Cricketer)

Navdeep Saini is one of the brightest fast bowling prospects in India at the moment. He can quite comfortably clock in excess of 140 kmph on the speed gun. He was the star of Delhi's campaign as they reached the Ranji Trophy final in 2017-18. He was bought by Delhi Daredevils in the tenth edition of the league. The 2018 Player Auction saw a fierce bidding war for the youngster and RCB successfully emerged on top to buy him for INR 3cr. He has now been picked by RR for INR 2.6 crore and will have a big role to play.

  • Angela Saini (British Science Journalist)
Angela Saini

Angela Saini is an award-winning journalist and author based in New York. She teaches science writing at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, presents radio and television programmes, and her writing has appeared in National Geographic, Foreign Policy, and Wired. In 2022 she was a Logan Nonfiction Program Fellow and a fellow of the Humboldt Residency Programme in Berlin.

Her latest book The Patriarchs: How Men Came to Rule was published in spring 2023, and was a finalist for the Orwell Prize for Political Writing. Her last two books Superior: The Return of Race Science and Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong have been translated into fourteen languages and are on university reading lists across the world. Angela's two-part television series for the BBC about the history and science of eugenics aired in 2019. An Undark magazine series on race science she co-edited was a finalist for a National Magazine Award in 2023.

As the founder and chair of the 'Challenging Pseudoscience' group at the Royal Institution, Angela campaigns around issues of bias and misinformation. Listen to her 2019 BBC Radio 4 documentary, The Misinformation Virus, here. She sits on a number of boards, including the Royal Society's Science Policy Expert Advisory Committee. In 2023 she was made an honorary fellow of Keble College, Oxford.

Angela's literary agent is Peter Tallack at Curious Minds. For speaking engagements outside the United States please contact Vicki McIvor at Take Three Management. For invitations in North America please contact Trinity Ray at The Tuesday Agency. Visit

  • Bhai Sukhdev Singh Sukha (Khadku Militant for Free Sikh State)

Shaheed Bhai Sukhdev Singh Banwait along with Shaheed Bhai Harjinder Singh 'Jinda' were responsible for three high-profile killings; Arjan Dass, Lalit Maken and Gen. Vaidya. They along with other members of Khalistan Commando Force (including its chief General Labh Singh ) were involved in the Indian History's biggest daylight bank robbery in which more than Rs 5.70 crore (58 million rupees-$4.5 million) were looted Equivalent to about 1.023 billion rupees in 2023. About $12.5 million USD in 2023 ) from Punjab National Bank, Miller Gunj branch, Ludhiana to finance the militancy for a separate Sikh state of Khalistan, a part of which belonged to the Reserve Bank of India, India's central bank. This bank robbery was biggest of other similar acts which Sikh militants used to weaken the government and to use Indian Money against Indian Security forces. Harjinder Singh Jinda and Sukhdev Singh Sukha along with Ranjit Singh Gill gunned down Congress(I) Member of Parliament Lalit Maken on 31 July 1985, when he was moving towards his car parked across the road from his house in Kirti Nagar, New Delhi.

He was born and raised in Lasara village,Jalandhar,Punjab. Lives in Ontario.Canada.

  • Lilly Singh(Famous Youtuber and Comedian)
Lilly Saini Singh

Lilly Saini Singh (born September 26, 1988) is an Indian-Canadian YouTuber, television host, comedian, writer, and actress. Singh began making YouTube videos in 2010. She originally appeared under the pseudonym Superwoman (stylized IISuperwomanII), her YouTube username until 2019. In 2016, she was included in Forbes list of world's highest paid YouTubers ranking third and earning a reported $7.5 million.By 2017, she was ranked tenth on the Forbes list of the world's highest-paid YouTube stars, earning a reported $10.5 million; as of February 2022 she has 14.7 million subscribers and over three billion video views.Forbes named her one of the 40 most powerful people in comedy in 2019.She has received an MTV Fandom Award, four Streamy Awards, two Teen Choice Awards and a People's Choice Award. In addition, Singh has received nominations for a Daytime Emmy Award and two Canadian Screen Awards.

Satinder Sartaaj

Satinder Pal Singh Saini, popularly known as Satinder Sartaaj, is an Indian singer, songwriter, actor and poet primarily associated with Punjabi songs and films.He gained fame with his song "Sai". Since then he has performed across the world.[3] Sartaaj made his film debut as Maharaja Duleep Singh in The Black Prince in 2017.

  • Lt. Colonel Harjit Singh Saini Sajjan, Canadian Army, (PC OMM MSM CD MP Vancouver South,Minister of Emergency Preparedness & PacifiCan)
Harjit Sajjan.jpg

Sporting a turban and a thick beard, decorated soldier Harjit Sajjan stood out in the Canadian military, but as defence minister he is among several Sikhs appointed to key positions in Justin Trudeau's administration. He demonstrated a profound understanding of the Taliban and tribal networks.He was the best single Canadian intelligence asset in theater, and his hard work, personal bravery and dogged determination undoubtedly saved a multitude of Coalition lives Through his courage and dedication, Major Sajjan has single-handedly changed the face of intelligence gathering and analysis in Afghanistan.His analysis was so compelling that it drove a number of large scale theatre-resourced efforts, including OPERATION MEDUSA that resulted in the defeat of the largest TB cell yet identified in Afghanistan, with over 1500 Taliban killed or captured.

Harjit S. Sajjan was first elected as the Member of Parliament for Vancouver South in 2015. He has previously served as Minister of International Development and Minister responsible for the Pacific Economic Development Agency of Canada and as Minister of National Defence.

  • Balwant (Bal) Singh Saini(Hockey Player)

Balwant (Bal) Singh Saini is a former British hockey international of Indian descent. He made his debut for England on 12 March 1977 when he played against West Germany at Lords, London. He scored a spectacular goal on his debut at Lords which is still remembered. He went on to win 18 England caps and represented British field hockey team in 4th World Cup in Buenos Aires in 1978.

Bal also won his first England Indoor cap on 10 January 1981. He went on to win 18 Indoor caps, scoring 11 goals.

On the domestic circuit, he was also a member of Slough's successful teams in the late 70s and early 80s.

  • Reena Saini Kallat(Visual artist)

Reena Saini Kallat (born 1973, Delhi, India) graduated from Sir J.J. School of Art, Mumbai in 1996 with a B.F.A. in painting. Her practice – spanning painting, photography, video, sculpture and installation, often incorporates multiple mediums into a single work. She frequently works with officially recorded or registered names of people, objects, and monuments that are lost or have disappeared without a trace, only to get listed as anonymous and forgotten statistics. One of the recurrent motifs in her work is the rubber stamp, used as an object and an imprint, signifying the bureaucratic apparatus, which both confirms and obscures identities.

Jasper Gahunia was born on April 1, 1979 in Pickering, Ontario, Canada. He is a composer, known for With You Always. He also Dated Nelly Furtado(Canadian Pop Idol) from 2001 to 2005. Has a daughter: Nevis Gahunia (b. September 20, 2003) with ex-girlfriend, Nelly Furtado.

  • Sanjay Saini(Radiologist)

Dr. Sanjay Saini is a renowned radiologist at Harvard Medical School. He was in the news in New York Times in 2003 in relation to collaboration with offshore radiologists to provide health care in America. Dr. Saini earned his MD from Tufts Medical School, Boston, MA. He is currently Professor of Radiology, at Harvard Medical School and Vice Chairman for Finance, Department of Radiology, at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

  • Shapinder Saini(Movie Director)

Rahe Chardi Kala Punjab Di Directed by Shapinder Saini Produced by Jasvir Singh Sidhu, Bohra Bros Production Pvt Ltd / H.K. Movies Story by Shapinder Saini Starring Dakssh Ajit Singh Prabhleen Sandhu Jimmy Sharma Sapna Thakur Music by Surinder Bachan Release date(s) 25 May 2012 Country India Language Punjabi Rahe Chardi Kala Punjab Di is a 2012 Punjabi drama film starring Shakti Kapoor, Sharad Saxena, Prabhleen Sandhu, Dakssh Ajit Singh, Jimmy Sharma and Sapna Thakur. Directed and written by Shapinder Saini and produced by Jasvir Singh Sidhu the film released 25 May 2012.[1] Cast Jimmy Sharma as Saroop Prabhleen Sandhu as Zeba Dakssh Ajit Singh as Dalbir Singh Sapna Thakur Shakti Kapoor Soundtrack "Rahe Chardi Kala Punjab Di" (Sukhwinder Singh) "Sajna Tu Sasta Kyon Vikya" (Master Saleem) "Sanam Wahe Guru" (Harish Mohile) "Wade Akhan Sachiyan De" (Javed Ali and Jaspinder Narula) "Eko Takya Sahara" (Javed Ali) "Gidhe Vich Gedha Laja" (Shaan and Jaspinder Narula).

  • Swati Maria Saini(Journalist)

Swati Maria Saini, popularly known as Mia Saini, is a financial journalist and video host who has also interned for CNBC and also worked as a freelance reporter for . She is currently a video host for MBA Pod TV on She is currently an anchor/reporter for Forbes Video Network, covering markets, business, economic and political news. Prior to Harvard Business School she worked on the trading floor at Goldman Sachs and as a freelance TV reporter for Jim Cramer's website, She is an alumni of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and is currently studying at Harvard Business School (HBS). Mia pens her own column "Money with Mia" for HBS's newspaper Harbus and has interviewed numerous CEOS and money managers including President of BlackRock, President of Lloyds, and Former Merrill Lynch CEO, John Thain. She also anchors HBS TV Market Minute with Mia Saini , now called H-Biz Tonight which features short daily reports from the financial markets Mia has won numerous awards including being chosen as a Truman Scholar recipient, and as Glamour Magazine's Top 10 College Woman, winning the 1st place prize for community service. She is originally from Tracy, California.

  • Gaurav Singh Saini(National Bravery Award)

Gaurav Singh Saini, a 13 year old boy from Tohana, (A town located near Haryana-Punjab border) Haryana, saved 50-60 people during the stampede, and received the Bharat Award, the highest award at the 2009 National Bravery Award.

  • Rahul Saini- Journalist and Author

Rahul Saini is the bestselling author of five hugely popular books – Those small Lil’ Things, Just like in the Movies, The Orange Hangover and most recently Paperback Dreams and Just For You, which created a lot of buzz and raised many questions about the current scenario of the publishing industry in India. The collective sale figure of his books is more than 5 lac copies. All his books have featured in various bestselling lists across the nation. His books have strong comic tones and present the up-beat stories that portray the fun loving, free spirited and the outgoing characters of today’s youth. Apart from being light entertainers, his books carry relevant social messages too. His first book has also been translated into Hindi which won the award for the best translation by the Federation of Indian Printers and Publishers.

  • Jagjit Singh Taunque , Deputy Lieutenant of the West Midlands

Dr Jagjit Singh Taunque MBE, DL (Hindi: जगजीत सिंह) is a retired Deputy Lieutenant of the West Midlands. He has represented the Birmingham Inter Faiths Council on the University Court since 1995, becoming an Honorary Life Member of the Court in 1998. He is also Chairman of the Birmingham Valuation Tribunal and of the Punjab Culture Centre, Trustee of Birmingham Council of Faiths and Patron of Birmingham International Council.

  • Jathedar Sadhu Singh Saini Bhaura
Jathedar Sadhu Singh Saini Bhaura

Jathedar Sadhu Singh Bhaura (1905-1984), was a Sikh missionary who rose to be the Jathedar or high priest of Sri Akal Takhat, Amritsar, was born the son of Bhai Ran Singh and Mai Atam Kaur, on 6 June 1905 at Chakk No. 7, a village in Saini Bar region of Lyallpur district (now in Pakistan). Family background He was born in a Saini Sikh family which had relocated there from Jalandhar region. There were about 15 exclusively Saini owned villages in Saini Bar settlement and all of them had relocated there from Doaba and Gurdaspur region. The villages were named as Chakks and each Chakk had number alloted to them in official records, though some of them were named after predominant clan names or village head, examples being Chakk Naura-Bhaura and Chak Bhola. Chaudhari Bhola Ram Saini of Chakk 178 was the Zaildar of the entire Saini Bar region in Lyallpur (now Faisalabad) district of British Punjab. Political background After matriculating from Khalsa High School, Lyallpur (where Master Tara Singh, later a leading figure in Sikh politics, was the headmaster), he joined police service and served at Quetta from 1923 to 1925 before resigning to take part in the Akali agitation for Gurdwara reform. From 1926 to 1928, he studied at the Shahid Sikh Missionary College, Amritsar, to train as a missionary. From 1928 to 1964, he headed the Sikh preaching centres at Aligarh and Hapur, in Uttar Pradesh, where he is said to have initiated nearly half a million persons according to Sikh rites, among them mostly Vanjara Sikhs of Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan. He was a member of the executive committee of the Shiromani Akali Dal from 1955 to 1960 and took part in several of the political agitations launched by the party. He was Jathedar of Takhat Sri Kesgarh, Anandpur Sahib, from 1961 to 1964. Elevation as Jathedar of Akal Takth In 1964, Sadhu Singh Bhaura was elevated to the position of Jathedar of Sri Akal Takht, the highest seat of religious authority and legislation for the Sikhs. He attracted wide public notice when, on 10 June 1978, he issued a hukamnama or edict calling upon all Sikhs to boycott socially the neoNirankari sect. In 1980, Jathedar Sadhu Singh Bhaura, in an effort to avert a vertical split in the Akali Dal, formed a seven member committee of senior party leaders to function as collegiate executive, but soon after himself resigned on health grounds and retired to live with his sons in Jalandhar where he died on 7 March 1984.

  • Subhash Saini- Senior Computer Scientist, NASA Ames Research Center, USA

Subhash Saini is a senior computer scientist at NASA. He received a Ph. D. from the University of Southern California and has held positions at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), University of California, Berkeley (UCB), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  • Mahavarat Vidyalankar(Freedom Fighter)

Mahavarat Vidyalankar (also spelled Mahavrat) S/O Har Dayal Singh Saini was a prominent Indian Freedom Fighter and scholar. He was a close advisor and comrade of Subhas Chandra Bose and a founding member of the All India Forward Bloc, a leftist party which held the most uncompromising position on India's Independence. Contrary to the position of the Indian National Congress, Forward Bloc demanded complete Independence from the British Empire and severance from the British Commonwealth. Great Britain was so threatened by the party that they outlawed the party and arrested all of its leaders including Mahavarat Vidyalankar, who was imprisoned in the famous Red Fort prison. Early life As a young man Mahavarat Vidyalankar was sent by his father to study Engineering at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland. There he came in contact with many leftist scholars and was highly influenced by Marxist philosophy. After obtaining his degree he secretly left England to further study Marxist-Leninism in Russia. He spent almost 17 years in Russia and became a scholar of the Russian language translating Russian literature into Hindi. During that time he travelled extensively to Mongolia and translated literature from Mongolian to Hindi as well. While in Mongolia he came in contact with Borjigin Dashdorjiin Natsagdorj a Mongolian poet and writer. They became close friends and later he translated many of Natsagdorj's works into Hindi.[1] He returned to India with a unique understanding of imperialism and believed that only socialism could give India meaningful and true Independence. Later Lifer After working many years with Congress members he met Subhas Chandra Bose and sharing a common vision for India's future and a common understanding of India's needs the two formed a close friendship. He convinced Bose to travel to Russia for assistance in India's struggle. Mahavarat Vidyalankar was also a writer of many books on both politics and Sanskrit. As a scholar of Sanskrit, Russian, and Mongolian and he has also translated many books from these languages into Hindi and English. He died in 1965. He had 3 children all of whom eventually left India. Homeland Mahavarat Vidyalankar lived in Pahari Dhiraj in Old Delhi. His house, known as "Dayal Vas" named after his father Har Dayal Singh Saini was known to be the hub and hiding placed of many prominent Indian Freedom Fighters such as Sheel Bhadra Yajee, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Sarojini Naidu, Mahavir Tyagi, and many I.N.A heroes such as Dhillon and Sehgal. In fact, when he was imprisoned by the British it was Sarojini Naidu who arranged for his daughter, Indira, to be sent to live in Hyderabad with her son Jayasuria and her daughter-in-law, as her mother had died many years earlier from tuberculosis. The historic house is still standing in Old Delhi, in Mandir Wali Gali . Children His three children all emigrated to America in the 50's and lived in Northern Pennsylvania.

  • Manish Saini(Boxer)

Manish Saini of Julana (Village Gatauli) won bronze medal in International boxing championship held in Himachal Pradesh between on 11th and 12th May 2012.

  • Harpreet Saini(Lawyer)

Harpreet Saini completed his Bachelor of Arts Degree at McGill University in 2000, where he had a double major in political science and economics with minor concentrations in South Asian studies and mathematics. Amongst his areas of focus were the developing world, dependency theory, international political economy, and neo-Marxist theory. He graduated from Osgoode Hall law school in 2003 and articled with Hicks Adams LLP prior to being hired as an associate in 2004. Mr. Saini has been involved in an extensive array of criminal trials including trafficking, possession of marijuana/crack/cocaine, impaired driving, and all forms of assaults and property related offenses. He has successfully argued Charter motions on numerous occasions and has conducted scores of bail hearings with positive results. Education Osgoode Hall Law School, Toronto, Ontario, Canada - 2003 McGill University B.A. - 2000 Major: Political Science Major: Economics Minor: South Asian Studies Minor: Mathematics

  • Sanjay Saini, Professor of Radiology, Harvard Medical School

Dr. Sanjay Saini is a Professor of Radiology at Harvard Medical School and the Vice Chairman for Finance in the Department of Radiology at the Massachusetts General Hospital where he practices abdominal radiology with an academic focus on liver imaging with CT and MR. From 2004 to 2006 he served as the Timmie Professor and Chairman of Radiology at Emory University. He is an author or coauthor of more than 300 peer-reviewed publications and three books and has lectured extensively around the world. Dr. Saini received his BA from Duke University, an MD from Tufts University School of Medicine, an MBA from the Sloan School of Management at MIT, and an MSc (Hon) from Harvard University. His radiology residency and fellowships were completed at the Massachusetts General Hospital. Positions:- •Physician Investigator (CI) Radiology, Mass General Research Institute •Professor of Radiology in Harvard Medical School •Radiologist -Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital

  • Hargurdeep (Deep) Saini , Vice President and Principal of the University of Toronto at Mississauga, Ontario, Canada

Deep Saini is a scientist, and is the Principal and Vice-Chancellor of McGill University. Hargurdeep Saini was previously the President and Vice-Chancellor of Dalhousie University, a Vice-Chancellor and President of University of Canberra, a vice-president of University of Toronto, and principal of the university's Mississauga campus, and dean of the Faculty of Environment at the University of Waterloo in Waterloo, Ontario. Saini became a noted plant physiologist and served as director general of the Plant Biology Research Institute in Montreal before moving into university administration.

On 14 November 2022, it was announced that Deep Saini will step down from his role as president of Dalhousie, effective 31 December 2022, to become Principal and Vice-Chancellor of McGill University.

  • Ashbeer Saini(Golfer)

Ashbeer Saini (born 1994) is an Indian amateur golfer. He is the nephew of Baljit Singh Saini, who is an Olympian and Asian Games gold medalist for India in field hockey. Ashbeer Saini's father, Balwinder Singh Saini, who is also the elder brother of Baljit Singh Saini has also represented India internationally in field hockey.

  • Balwant (Bal) Singh Saini- British Hockey Player

Balwant (Bal) Singh Saini is a former British hockey international of Indian descent. He made his debut for England on 12 March 1977 when he played against West Germany at Lords, London. He scored a spectacular goal on his debut at Lords which is still remembered. He went on to win 18 England caps and represented British field hockey team in 4th World Cup in Buenos Aires in 1978.

Bal also won his first England Indoor cap on 10 January 1981. He went on to win 18 Indoor caps, scoring 11 goals.

On the domestic circuit, he was also a member of Slough's successful teams in the late 70s and early 80s.

  • Swati Maria Saini- Financial Journalist and Video Host

Swati Maria Saini, popularly known as Mia Saini, is a financial journalist and video host who has also interned for CNBC and worked as a freelance reporter for She is currently a Hong Kong-based reporter for Bloomberg Television, having joined the network in June 2011, and covers business, economics, and global markets. As of December 2014, she was listed as a former reporter on the Bloomberg terminal system. Previously she was an anchor/reporter for Forbes Video Network, covering markets, business, economic and political news, and a video host for MBA Pod TV on

  • Flora Saini(Actress)

Flora Saini, also known by her screen name Asha Saini or Mayuri, is an Indian actress and model. She predominantly works in Hindi films, and also appeared in a number of Kannada, Tamil and Telugu films.

  • Raj Saini (Indian-Canadian Politician)

Rajinder "Raj" Saini (born August 21, 1967) is an Indian-Canadian politician who served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for the riding of Kitchener Centre in the House of Commons of Canada from 2015 to 2021.

  • Gavi Singh Chera— Actor

Gavi Singh Chera is known for working in movies/shows like Blitz, The Lord of the Rings: The Rings of Power (2022) and The Undeclared War (2022).

  • MG Hashmat (Saini) , lyricist and screen play writer of Kora Kagaz Movie

MG Hashmat was from a wealthy zamindar Saini family from Jalandhar. His gotra was Bhondi and his ancestral village was Bhogpur Bhondian. He had a Muslim name because this family patronized the shrine of Madali Sharif. Hindu followers of this shrine would give their eldest son a Muslim names and correspondingly Muslim followers would give their eldest son Hindu name. Despite having a Muslim name the family was totally Sikh. MG Hashmat, a Bhondi Saini, wrote the screen play and songs of Bollywood classic "Kora Kagaz". Prior to this he was a professor at Kurukshetra University.

Angela Saini Singer.jpg

The state of being in-between—the place where things are not clearly defined is where true self-knowledge is derived. When you don’t fit in, you define yourself on your own terms. Singer-songwriter Angela Saini is bi-racial and a crossover country-pop artist who has forged her identity through unflinching positivity and empowering ideals. Today, the Toronto-based country folk-pop artist will issue a series of singles seeding a path to her sophomore album.

“I am known for positive songs, but a lot of these were written in dark states. My life isn’t ponies and rainbows, but I write myself out of the sadness,” Angela says. “In every moment we have a choice. I choose to uplift myself and bring people along with me. ”

Angela sweeps people away with instantly-memorable, toe-tapping pop infused with storyteller sing-alongs about courage and finding joy in surprising places. Her Calgary, Canada upbringing—a hotbed of country music—and her Garth Brooks obsession, always informs her instantly memorable songcraft. After all, you can take the girl out of the prairie, but you can’t take the prairie out of the girl.

The Examiner has gushed Angela is “one of Toronto's best indie songwriters,” Celebmix has described her as “Empowering with a little kick,” and BBC radio has called her “massively talented.” She’s been on regular rotation at CBC Radio, Stingray, and Sirius XM across North America. In 2020, Angela had the distinction of being an Independent Music Award Finalist for “Best Alt Country,” and, in 2017, she became a Toronto Independent Music Award winner. Select onstage career highlights include tours throughout Canada, Germany, England, and the Netherlands. In addition, Angela has performed at festivals including Home County in London, and The Philadelphia Folk Festival.

Angela was born into an immigrant family that ingrained in her hardworking, bootstrap ethos. Her mother hailed from a tiny mountain town in Austria, and her Indian father was born in Delhi. Both parents moved to Canada to chase their dreams when they were just teens. “They left their homes when my mom was 15 and my dad was 17. Their stories are so empowering—they inspire me,” Angela affirms. She continues: “My parents instilled in me the idea that even if there is no clear path for the career or life you want, you take the risk and do it anyway.”

Angela was one of those rare talents that sang before they could speak. At the age of 15, she saw Canadian pop icon Amanda Marshall in concert at The Calgary Stampede, and her destiny was unveiled in front of her. “It was a lightbulb moment, for sure. I loved her music, but I also really loved how I felt seeing her—how she made people feel,” Angela recalls. That same year, Angela bought a guitar with her birthday money, and, thus, began her songwriting journey. By the time she was 16, Angela was a semi-professional musician in a young rock band. A few years later, she made the leap to move to Toronto with her band. “We were passionate, and put our money where our mouth was,” she says.

That band toured tirelessly and issued four indie releases before Angela stepped out with her first solo EP in 2012. Her solo material caught the attention of Tragically Hip drummer Johnny Fay who worked with Angela during the demos and pre-production for her debut EP, Cake and Callouses. She since released another EP, 5 singles, a live album, and her debut full-length, Hope on the Stereo. The solo journey continues on her latest singles, “In It For The Ride,” and “It’s Ok.”

The sassy “In It For The Ride” is a country-pop rocker that bursts with big hooks, sunny harmonies, and thoughtful messaging. The song was written before the pandemic, but it epitomizes hope while living through challenging moments where you just want to give up. One choice passage is: Roadblock up ahead, my tires spent/This journey’s already felt so long/Many delays, construction for days/Should I turn around instead/But I’ll never know what’s around the bend. The song offers forth an “it’s always darkest before dawn” reminder. “’In It For The Ride’ song has double meanings, and one interpretation is my music career. I am a lifer, and this isn’t about an end goal, it’s about a journey,” Angela says.

Angela has toured, recorded, and grinded it out because sharing with others positivity and understanding has been her musical mission. “When you write a song, and it resonates with people, it’s always worth it to travel 2,000 kilometers to play it,” Angela says. “We heal together."

“One of Toronto's best indie songwriters” — The Examiner

“Massively Talented.” — BBC Radio - Leicester

  • Shree Saini- American Model

Shree Saini was born on January 6, 1996, in Punjab, India, in a Hindu Family and has lived in the United States since age 5. She first dreamed of competing for the Miss World title at the age of 5.For the first 12 years of her life, while growing up in Moses Lake, Washington, Saini's heartbeat had an average of just 20 beats per minute. Doctors told her she could never dance again but she persisted, and continued training in ballet.

Later in life, Saini was involved in a major car crash in Moses Lake that resulted in her suffering from significant facial burns. Saini was advised that her recovery would take a year, but she returned to her classes after just two weeks.

Saini attended the University of Washington. She is a trained ballerina, and has been accepted to train at the Joffrey Ballet.

  • Navpreet Banga- Actress,Fitness Influencer

Navpreet Kaur Banga is a 28-year-old Indo-Canadian that has caused quite an uproar on social media through her fitness, comedy, and lifestyle content. Born in Chandigarh, India Navpreet moved to Canada at the age of 10 and since then resides in Richmond, BC.

  • Indu Banga- Indian historian

Indu Banga is Professor of History at Punjab University, Chandigarh. Her publications include Historiography on the Sikh Power in Punjab (1985).

  • Shobhit Banwait-Musical artist

Born and raised in Toronto, Canada and he has a huge passion for music, sports and acting. I've been a professional percussionist since the age of 18 playing South Asian drums called, Tabla, Dholak and various other small percussions. His musical style gained worldwide attention in 2016 after he fused his percussions with top 40 music. Pop stars like Sia, have personally recognized his fusion cover of her smash hit, “Cheap Thrills.” CBC, Hindustan Times, Virgin Radio, NDTV, Buzzfeed, and other various news outlets across the world have all recognized his work. He was featured in magazines like the Cosmopolitan, Femina, and Harper’s Bazaar and won multiple musical awards locally and internationally. [48]

  • Gurpreet Saini-Actor,Singer,Poet

Gurpreet Saini is known for his Acts in India (2013), Wazir (2016) and Baaghi 3 (2020) etc. His is a Singer and a Poet. His pen name is Mohtaaj.

Seerat Saini

Seerat Saini is a Punjabi-American feminist and influencer who graduated from the University of Southern California with a major in business administration. She went on to work for tech giants like Google and Facebook–before making the decision to leave the corporate world and become a full time influencer! While her content focuses on fashion, haircare and beauty–Seerat’s goal has always been to break stereotypes of who South Asian women are. She hopes to inspire the next generation of Desi Americans to unapologetically be themselves!

Shaheed Preet Singh Saini Patrakar

Antim Ardass Samagam[49] Tribute[50]

  • Angad Singh Saini(Candidate for Lok Sabha)

Angad Singh Saini (born 1990)[110] is an Indian politician representing Congress Party and businessman hailing from the Nawanshahr district of Punjab. In 2017, aged 26 years, he became one of the youngest members[111] to be elected to the Punjab Legislative Assembly. He was married to Aditi Singh, MLA from Uttar Pradesh.[112]

  • Sadhu Ram Chaudhari(IGP)

Sadhu Ram Chaudhari, OBE, IGP (born July 14, 1900, date of death unknown) was the first police chief of the state of Himachal Pradesh (then a union territory) and union territories of Delhi and Ajmer in independent India.[113][114][115][116] He was born on July 14, 1900. He was born in Saini caste. He was the son of Chaudhari Gurdit Singh Saini and Shanti Devi of village Rallana in the Hoshiarpur district of Punjab.[115] He was Indian Police Services of officer of Punjab cadre and had joined Punjab Police in Oct 1922.[113]

  • Professor Kartar Singh Saini, PhD(1921-1995)
Professor Kartar Singh Saini, PhD English Literature

He was the First Sikh to do PhD in English Literature.

Jay Chaudhry

Jay Chaudhry[117] (born August 26, 1958)[118] is an Indian-American technology entrepreneur and the CEO and founder of cloud security company, Zscaler. Born as Jagtar Singh Chaudhary in a Sikh Saini Family of Tamber Clan to Bhagat Singh and Surjeet Kaur in 1959, Jay was the youngest among three brothers. In 1980, at age 22, he moved to the United States to attend the University of Cincinnati. His Net Worth (as of 2021) is $10.7 Billion (Rs 77,800 crores).

  • Gopi Longia(Punjabi Rapper)
Gopi Longia

Gopi Longia(Real name-Gurpreet Singh) started his career with song Bandari. He was born on 5-Sep-1991 in Muradpur, Hoshiarpur, Punjab, India to Father Sardar Nirmal Singh and Mother Late Balwinder Kaur. Gopi Longia is the famous Punjabi Rapper & Tik Tok Star from India. He is a Rapper and has appeared in many songs Videos. Gopi Longia is known for his popular name Bohemia 2. His father worked labor, his mother died when it was for 3 months. Then due to the Forcedness of the house, he was also read to work as a labor. They shared their talent on Facebook and Tiktok 5 years ago. People started liking them. Then later his career started with song Bandari. Today he is recognized in the entire Punjabi industry.

  • Mani Longia(Punjabi Singer)
Mani Longia

Who is Mani Longia? Mani Longia is an Indian Punjabi singer, composer, and lyricist. Mani Longia was born on 21 July 1993 in Rupnagar, Pind Ropar district of Punjab. Mani Longia is 29 years old. And Mani is married, he has a daughter named Barkat Kaur. He has collaborated with several rising and renowned names in the music industry including Harjaap, Gurj Sidhu, Jasmeen Akhtar. Mani's musical style has been described as melodic and soulful with an emphasis on storytelling. Mani Longia has been creating masterful compositions for the Indian film industry, showcasing his exceptional talent and creativity in the realm of musical artistry. He often draws inspiration from his upbringing as well as his faith.

Sainis of Punjab: farmers and warriors

Agriculture and armed forces have been their major professions. Agriculture in Punjab has always been regarded as one of the most respectable professions from the time immemorial with all major forward communities, including Brahmins, proudly participating in it.

So it appears that after losing their kingdom , Sainis entered Punjab with Prince Arjuna's help and settled down as farmers and noblemen in self-governing and autonomous villages. Prince Arjuna shared maternal bloodline with Yadavs, whose sub tribe Sainis of Punjab claim to be. His mother Kunti was the daughter of Yadava chieftain Sursena, the founding father of the Saini sub-tribe of Yaduvanshi Kshatriyas.

After settling down in agriculture, Sainis continued to show their martial instincts whenever opportunities arose. They also actively aided Guru Gobind Singh ji's army and joined his army in good numbers. Some of the Saini dominated districts in Punjab were (and still are) the most fertile ground for army recruitment during British and Independent India. Sainis can be found among all ranks of Indian Army , from the level of sepoys to generals. Scores of Saini soldiers also fought as part of Indian National Army (INA) under the illustrious freedom fighter Subash Chandra Bose .

"The most industrious are the Rain, Mali, Saini, Lubana, and Jat...The Mali are chiefly gardeners. The Saini occupy sub-mountain tracts, and grow sugar-cane largely. Their village lands are always in a high state of tillage." -Source: The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial Industrial, and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures, Edward Balfour, pp 118, Published by Bernard Quaritch, 1885, Item notes: ,Original from Oxford University

“Holdings, as per revenue records, are mostly small and marginal. Very few owners have holding 10-15 acres. In general high caste Jat Sikhs and Saini Sikhs have bigger holdings and low caste people have smaller holdings” -Rajender Vora, Page 196, ‘Socio-Economic Profile Of Rural India (vol. 3 : Western And North Central India)’, Concept Publishing Company, 2005“[119]

Like any other Kshatryia tribe, Sainis of Punjab have always been a meat-eating community. Even Hindu Sainis commonly use "Singh" as part of their names. Liquor consumption , another typical Kshatriya trait, had always been prevalent among them. Most non-Kshatriya communities in India tend to be vegetarian. From Socio-anthropological standpoint these traits also give vital clue about their martial origin.

Kshatriyas and agriculture

As per ancient Hindu texts, agriculture is permissible to Kshatriyas under special circumstances [Laws of Manu, Chapter X, Verses 90, 95, 116 ] in the absence of opportunities in the military and feudal apparatus of a righteous Aryan king. Indeed, the service in the army of an unrighteous, or a 'Yavana', or a 'Maleccha', king was the biggest imaginable anathema for a concentious and observant vedic kshatriya in ancient India. A vedic kshatriya was not a mercenary soldier but a defender of faith and righteous order (dharma). All other kshatriya origin Hindu tribes in Punjab , like Minhas, Janjua, Salahri, etc, in the absence of opportunities in the armies of observant vedic kings turned to agriculture in some way.

Economic degeneration of Hindu Rajput tribes in Punjab

Describing the tough economic condition for largely Hindu Rajputs of Punjabi plains , colonial administrator , J.A.L. Montgomery wrote [Final Report of Revised Settlement, Hoshiarpur District, pp 53, 1879-84 ,J. A. L. Montgomery] :

"By the pressure of circumstances, they are overcoming their aversion to agriculture, and even Jaswáls and Dadwáls are now to be found who have taken to the plough, and I have seen a Náru Rajput spade in hand, and drawers tucked up, turning up the soil of his field which had become covered by sand, a laborious process called sirna." For the full seven hundred years in the history of Punjab, there was no non-Muslim king until Banda Bahadur stormed Sarhind in middle of the 18th century. In this period high feudal positions were only available to Hindu groups who either converted to Islam or had become Muslim collaborators. It is not surprising that most of the kshatriyas tribes that were able to maintain their Rajput status in the Punjab plains had converted to Islam. This included Janjuas, Chauhans, Jaswals, Minhas, etc in large numbers who had predominantly converted to Islam to maintain their social status. "These tribes may have been able to retain their Rajput status in a convoluted way after conversion to Islam but by vedic canon they had degenerated to the Malechha level and thus had lost their kshatriya status in entirety." In the plains of Punjab there were hardly any Hindu Rajputs left, and those who were still in the Hindu fold had turned largely to agriculture and other occupations to subsist, rather than to curry favor with Muslim rulers who extracted Jizya from the Hindu subjects in order to create financial hardship for them to remain in the faith of their ancestors.

According to "The Punjab Alienation of Land Act of 1900" , all Rajput tribes in Punjab were notified as agriculural tribes [The Punjab Alienation of Land Act. XIII of 1900 (Lahore: Amrit Electric Press, 1924), pp 146-9, Appendix A — Notified Tribes ] .

Price of not converting to Islam

The condition of Muslim Rajputs was much superior to Hindu Rajputs in Punjabi plains. By converting to Islam and becoming collaborators of Turkish military and administrative machine in Punjab, they had managed to retain all of their pre-Islamic pomp and glory. They owned most of the land in Punjab while the Hindu Rajputs sank deeper into poverty and turned to agriculture and other occupations to survive with some sense of dignity, rather than converting to Islam or becoming collaborators of Muslim monarchs who were openly hostile to all Hindu interests. Only Pahari Rajputs escaped this economic and cultural degeneration in some way as they were insulated by the rugged terrain of the mountains. Hindu Rajput of Punjabi plains had no where to turn to except farming to retain some semblance of dignity. Rajputs of Rajputana saved their kingdoms by entering unequal matrimonial alliances with non-Hindu Moghuls. These alliances were treated with contempt by self-respecting Rajputs like Maharana Pratap and they chose poverty over the more convenient and tempting prospect of collaboration with the non-Hindu expansionist military machine.

Until the British started giving them opportunities once again in army, Hindu Rajputs subsisted entirely by agriculture. Describing the impoverished state of Hindu Rajputs in Punjab in the late 19th and early 20th century and their dependence on agriculture, writes Mazumdar: [The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab, pp 25, Rajit K. Mazumder, Orient Blackswan, 2003]

"In the northern part of Shakargarh tahsil in Gurdaspur district, the bulk of the population comprised of Hindu Rajputs trying to make a living on bare and arid land...Access to military income allowed these Rajputs of to cope with the disadvantages of adverse soil and weather conditions."

Geographic distribution and relative population size

According to the census of india 1881, which is the most authentic record as it predates the era before all kinds of groups adopted Saini identity, Sainis were not found outside undivided Punjab which in present day's terms mean the following states:

  • Punjab
  • Haryana (Northern Part is almost all Real Shoorsaini's, Southern Part of Haryana are Mali Saini's)
  • Himachal Pradesh (parts that were Previously connected to Punjab like UNA Belt, Kangra Belt)

Geographical distribution as per A. E. Barstow

According to A. E. Barstow the total population of Sainis as per 1911 census was only 113,000 and their presence was restricted mainly to Delhi, Karnal, Ambala and Lyallpur (modern Faislabad in Pakistan) distrcts, the Jalandhar and Lahore Divisions and the Kalsia, Nahan, Nalagarh, Mandi, Kapurthala and Patiala states. According to him, only 400 of them were Muslims and the rest were Hindu and Sikh.[120] As per 1881 census the largest Saini clans were in Hoshiarpur district of Jalandhar division where they were in quite commanding position in terms of land holdings and influence, holding at least two zails. In Lahore division they were chiefly concentrated in Gurdaspur where the Salahrias (Salariya) were returned as the largest Saini clan. The Sainis of Jammu area were essentially part of Sainis from the bordering Gurdaspur district.[93]

Present day cross-reference of divisions of British Punjab

In British Punjab Jalandhar division comprised of the following districts: Kangra, Hoshiarpur, Jalandhar, Ludhiana and Ferozepur. Lahore division comprised of the following districts: Lahore, Amritsar, Gurdaspur, Sialkot, Gujranawala and Sheikhupura. The present day Ropar district fell in Ambala district before partition. Hence Ropar Sainis were included in that district in the colonial accounts. [121]

It is clear from Barstow's account that the majority of the Saini population fell in the areas which are now part of present day Punjab, with a smaller population in the areas falling in present Haryana and Himachal Pradesh, and absolutely no Saini population in UP or Rajasthan or beyond. People returning themselves as Saini in Bijnore and Saharanpur in 1881 census were excluded from Saini category in 1901 census after mistakes of the previous census were detected.[74][122]

Relative population size as per 1881 census

The population of Sainis has not been enumerated separately since independence but their relative population is rather small compared to the other groups. As per 1881 total Saini population all over India was no more than 137,380 which was further reduced to 106,011 in the 1901 census . [74] [122] In the same census the total population of Khatris as 439,089 [74] while according to 1881 census figures the population of Jats was 2630,994 on an all-India basis. This makes proportionate Saini population to be approximately 1/4 of Khatris and 1/25 of Jats.[123]. With 4 Khatris and 25 Jats for every Saini, it is clear that numerically Sainis are among the minority groups when compared to these most significant ethnic groups of present day Indian Punjab and Haryana.

Since the independence of India, Saini's have diversified into different trades and professions other than military and agriculture. Saini's are now also seen in increasing numbers as Businessmen, Industrialists, Lawyers, Professors, Civil servants, Engineers, Doctors and Research scientists, etc. [124] A significant section of Punjabi Sainis now lives in Western countries such as USA, Canada and UK , etc and forms an important component of the global Punjabi diaspora.

State of Saini Villages

Jammu and Kashmir - 22 The Saini community in J&K accounts for about 60,000 – 70,000 people, concentrated mainly in various pockets along the international border in Jammu, Samba and Kathua districts. [51] [52]

Himachal Pardesh - 58


Gurdaspur - 101

Jalandhar - 108

Hoshiarpur - 110

Ropar - 170

Patiala - 106

Sangrur - 10

Ludhiana - 29

Firozepur - 10

Fazilka - 4

Moga - 6

Muktsar - 4

Kotapura - 5

-Total - 663


Ganganagar - 15 (these are Punjabi speaking Sainis migrated from Punjab. Ganganagar is a mostly a Punjabi area of Rajasthan. Culturally , they are completely Punjabi with no marital links with communities in Rajasthan which assumed Saini identity after 1930s . Most are Sikhs who intermarry with Sainis in Fazilka, Firozepur, Moga areas. Many still retain links with areas in Hoshiarpur where they migrated from , starting middle of 18th century)


Kaithal - 8

Ambala - Unknown

Kurukshetra - 40-50 (estimated)

-Total - 150-175 (estimated)

Information is incomplete for Haryana. There are significant number of Saini villages in Ambala and Kurukshetra districts. The total number of villages are estimated to be anywhere between 15% -25% of Saini villages in Punjab. Real Yaduvanshi Sainis are found only in areas of Haryana immediately contiguous to Punjab. The rest are not considered authentic. Highest Saini population in Doaba areas i.e. areas between Satluj and Beas rivers (districts Jalandhar and Hoshiarpur). These two districts comprise the nucleus of Yaduvanshi Saini Rajput identity. Besides Punjab there is also large Saini population in Toronto, Calgary, Winnipeg and Surrey in Canada, Midlands in UK and Sacramento and Yuba City in USA. Before partition there was also significant Saini population in Lyalpur (modern Faislabad), Nankana Sahib, Shakargarh and Sialkot areas. These Sainis moved to Jammu and Gurdaspur after partition.

Villages with the Name Saini In Them

  • Garhi Sainian, Punjab 141115
  • Khadiala Sainia, Punjab 146113
  • Kothe Sainian, Kotkapura, Punjab 151204
  • Saini Majra, Punjab 140301
  • Saini Majra, Himachal Pradesh 174101
  • Saini Village, Kurukshetra, Haryana
  • Sainipura Village, Hansi-i Tehsil, Hisar District
  • Deeda Sainian, Punjab 143531
  • Garhi Sainian, Punjab 141115
  • Kottli Sainian, Punjab 143530
  • Bahurian Sainian, Punjab 143528


Saini Rajputs:Serological and Genetic Studies

"In the Punjab in the sub-mountainous region the community came to be known as 'Saini' . It maintained Rajput character despite migration." -Castes and Tribes of Rajasthan, p 107, Sukhvir Singh Gahlot, Banshi Dhar, Jain Brothers, 1989

Tomara-Yaduvanshi descent of Sainis can not only be confirmed by verifying a large number of their clan names which are also found among Hill Rajputs, Mewatis and ruling clans of Malwa and Maharashtra, but also from ABO blood group and gene frequency distribution studies.

One such serological study published in American Journal of Physical Anthropology in 1961 concluded that there is almost complete overlap between ABO blood strains as well as p, q, and r gene frequencies of Sainis and broader Rajput groups of neighbouring hill regions (SIngh IP, SIngh D., 1961) many of whom also have identical narratives of origin from kingdoms of Delhi and Mathura and migration to Punjab as part of extended warfare with Ghaznvide and Ghorid invaders ( Charles Francis Massy, 1890) . Thus these serological studies in a way corroborate of the narratives of royal origin available from within the community.

English administrator and an eminent scholar on the history of colonial Punjab, Hugh Kennedy Trevaskis, had also implicitly treated Sainis as a displaced Rajput group which co-opted a parallel agricultural identity to evade persecution specifically targetted at Rajputs in the era of Turko-Pathan ascendacy . Post-colonial scholars (Gahlot et al, 1989) have corroborated this view , although they have linked Sainis of Punjab with the Rajput army of Prithviraj Chauhan which fought Muhammad Ghauri . This association is also not without basis because Chauhans were strongly allied with Tomara-Yaduvanshis, with Prithviraj Chauhan himself being the grandson of the last Tomara king of Delhi.

Connection with other Rajput Dynasties

The Jadon dynasty of Karauli consider themself descended from the Historic Yadav dynasty and the Shurasaini branch of Mathura. Some area of ​​modern Karauli was in Matsya Pradesh and some part in Shurasen State. The capital of Shurasena state was Mathura city.

The Kingdom of Yaduvanshis which was earlier in Prayag, remained in Braj Pradesh (Mathura) during the time of Shri Krishna. In the Yadu clan, the descendants of Shri Krishna's grandfather Maharaja Shursen were called Yadavs of the Shursaini branch and after the name of Shursen, the son of Kirtavirya Arjuna, born in this Yadu dynasty, Mathura and its surrounding region were named Shursen Pradesh, which was derived from Shri Krishna's grandfather Shursen. Happened many generations ago. Some historians say that this region was named after Shri Krishna's grandfather Shurasen, which does not seem to be true. Shri Krishna ji earlier ruled in Brajbhoomi. Due to strong opposition and attacks from King Jarasandha of Magadha, Shri Krishna made Dwarka in place of Mathura, the capital of Yadavas. But later, through the diplomacy of Shri Krishna, Jarasandh was killed by Bhimsen and then Yadava Rajputs became independent in Mathura.

Some Dogra Rajputs also claim origin from same lineages as Sainis.


Though majority of Sainis were a Hindus. But with the rise of Sikhism in the fifteenth century, many Sainis who were Hindu converted to the Sikh faith so Now there is a substantial Sikh Saini population today especially in Punjab and its neighbouring states. And Many popular Personalities in Other Countries too.

Several Saini families profess in both the faiths simultaneously and inter-marry freely in keeping with the age-old composite Bhakti and Sikh spiritual traditions of Punjab.

There used to be an old proverb popular in rural Punjab, "Saini Sainiyan De Salläy", implying that a Saini will accept only another Saini as his brother-in-law , and will neither give nor take bride from any other caste or tribe.(Indicating The Hierarchy of Sainis in in the Society in Punjab)

At the top are the peasant castes which could be graded in vertical hierarchy. We thus have Jats, Rajputs, Sainis, Mahatons, Lobana, and Kamboh having high status in that order. --Caste Hierarchy, Dominance, and Change in Punjab by Paramjit S. Judge

i.e. when Jat community came to be known as Kshatriya rather than Chandal because of there Large Population and There Contribution in Sikh History. And Sainis earned there own Unique Identity different From Just being called Rajputs.


The word "Saini" is distinct from the similar-sounding Sahni/Sawhney and Sansi. Just Like Saini, Sahni/Sawhney is also a Punjabi clan. However, Sahnis/Sawhneys are a Kukhran Khatri community originating from the town of Bhera in Rawalpindi in Punjab (Pakistan). And The Sansi Rajputs are a Big Part of the Rajput and Jat Identity.

Mális : The Neo Saini's

Reference #1

"The Malis are chiefly gardners.

The Saini occupy sub-mountain tracts and grow sugarcane largely. Their village lands are always in a high state of tillage."

-The encyclopædia of India and of eastern and southern Asia , Volume 3, pp 118, By Edward Balfour, 1885

Reference #2

"At the time of 1941 Census most of them got registered themselves as Saini (Sainik Kshatriya) Malis."

-Census of India, 1961, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 7, Office of the Registrar General, India.

Mali caste, in southern districts of Haryana and beyond in the states of UP, MP, and Rajasthan, also started using the surname "Saini" in 20th century since 1930-40. Much like Ahirs were also given Yadava title by census commissioner in 1931.

However, this is not the same community as Tomar-Yaduvanshi descent Sainis of Punjab who according to renowned and peer-reviewed ethno-historians like SS Gahlot et al have maintained their Rajput character .This is testified by the fact that census of 1881 does not acknowledge of the existence of Saini community outside Punjab and, despite the insinuations of colonial writers like Ibbetson, records Sainis and Malis as separate communities.Sainis by Fiat: Enter the "Sainik Kshatriyas"

The Marwar State Census Report of 1891 A.D. also did not contain reference to any community called 'Saini' in Rajputana and recorded only two groups as Malis, namely, Mahoor Malis and Rajput Malis, among which the latter are also included in Rajput sub-category. Rajput Malis changed their identity to Saini in 1930 but in the later censuses other non-Rajput Malis such as Mahur or Maur , who ostensibly had no lineal link with Rajputs, also adopted 'Saini' as their last name. The way they sought to piggyback their way into the Saini identity was by seeking to project it as an abbreviated form of "Sainik" or "soldier" rather than linking it with properly historically grounded term "Shoorsaini" , a link which would have been impossible to prove. In this reference a review of the following order issued by Jodhpur state in 1937 is quite instructive.


Sainis of Punjab historically have never inter-married with the Mali community (a fact accepted even by Ibbetson and duly recorded in 1881 census report itself), or with any community other than Sainis for that matter, and this taboo prevails even today generally. Both the communities are socially, culturally and also geographically distinct.

Mali caste started identifying as Saini since 1931[53]. In 1937 Jodhpur State Ordered in Favor of renaming of Mali caste to "Saini". So the Mali people officially adopted the Saini surname in 1937 when India was under British colonial rules to become a Martial Caste and For Job Opportunities in the Military and Police. Malis wanted to become eligible for army by passing themselves off as Sainis and some leaders wanted to get their votes.

They also Claim to be of Suryavanshi Descent whereas Saini's are of Yaduvansh dynasty of King Yadu which is a Division of Chandravanshi lineage (Somavanshi or Lunar Dynasty). Another thing to note is that the Famous Saini King Porus/Puru's Dynasty was a Further division of the Yaduvansh Dynasty identified as Puruvansh dynasty which also had no connection to the Suryavanshi Clan whatsoever. Some Mali Sainis like to claim that Sainis were originally from Mathura, UP where Majority of them Live but they seem to Forget that there Parent Tribe(Mali) orignated from Rajasthan which itself leaves no connection between the Mali Sainis and the Shoorsainis. Another thing to Note is that the Original Shoorsainis were less in Numbers and that they all Migrated to Punjab (Modern Day Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana) and the Surrounding States like Jammu and Kashmir which they Continued the Lineage of Porus and then the Modern Day Sainis.

In all records of British era Sainis and Malis till 1931 have been identified as distinct and separate groups. After 1931 there was no caste based enumeration as the system of caste classification was found to be very contentiuous and unreliable.

Sainis have no links with Sakyas, Reddys, Malis, Phule, Vanmali, Patil, Sagarvanshi, Bhagrathi, Gola Mali/Saini, Kashwaha/Kushwaha, Koeri, and Maurya or any other related communities in Western UP who also describe themselves as "Saini" but with a different meaning and origin of the term. These groups have been erroneously linked with Sainis and are Addressed as Neo-Saini's.

"Likewise, the Malis living near the Ganga, Saharanpur and Haridwar are known as Bhagrathi Mali or Gola Mali...However, the Sainis do not consider most of the these related to them" -Source: People of India: Haryana, pp 431 , Kumar Suresh Singh, Madan Lal Sharma, A. K. Bhatia, Anthropological Survey of India, Published by Published on behalf of Anthropological Survey of India by Manohar Publishers, 1994

Colonial Theory

"The men who administered the territory for the East India company were more inclined to profiteering than to attempting to establish an effective government. By the beginning of the 19th century this type of attitude had begun to change....The freebooters of the 18th century were giving way to the bureaucrats of the 19th century. Ironically, it is highly debateable which of the two, freebooters or bureaucrats, were the most dangerous to the people of India. Treasure can be replaced. Cultures, once tampered with, are nearly impossible to reclaim." -The Indian Caste System and The British - Ethnographic Mapping and the Construction of the British Census in India , Kevin Hobson

Ibbetson's speculation

Unschooled in the complex historical and mythological texts of India, colonial ethnographer Denzil Ibbetson theorized the following about the origin of the term "Saini":

Some other contemporary authors, taking a cue from this confusing account, have attempted to theorize similarly.[125] [126] [127] . Apart from not being clearly able to club Sainis with Malis and Arains, colonial theories, and all their later derivatives in the foregoing citations, have severe limitations in the fact that the colonial ethnographical works of Ibbetson et al are througly devoid of any scholarly citations and references from historical texts and appear to be generally based on unreliable hearsay and subjective opinions of the contemporary authors and informants, not all of whom could be assumed to have been free from ignorance and malice toward other communities. Ibbetson's ethnographical work [Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1990] does not even qualify as a secondary source (or even a tertiary source) by the accepted standards of historiography. It is noteworthy that Ibbetson , Purser and Rose et al were not qualified anthropologists and historians and their work lacked citations and academic rigour needed for peer-reviewed or equivalent academic journals.

From Ibbetson's own disputed account it is clearly evident that Sainis claimed to be Rajputs from Mathura and did not intermarry with Malis [128] . This account is corroborated by Amir Khusro's account which carries more weight. Unlike Ibbetson's works, Amir Khusro's work is a primary source of history.

This is what he had to say About Saini's:-

The Mali and Saini (Caste Nos. 45 and 31)[129].— The Sainis would appear to be only a sub-division of the Mollis. In Bijnor they are said to be identical, and I am informed that the two intermarry in many, but not in all parts of the North-West Provinces. It is probable that the Sainis are a Mali tribe, and that some of the higher tribes of the same caste will not marry with them. The Máli, the Málakára or florist of the Purans, is generally a market or nursery gardener, and is most numerous In the vicinity of towns where manure is plentiful and there is a demand for his produce. He is perliaps the most skillful and industrious cultivator we possess, and does wonders with his land, producing three or even four crops within the year from the same plot. He is found under the name of Máli only in the Jamna zone, including the eastern portions of Hissar, his place being taken by the Saini in the eastern sub-montane distrietp, and lby the Arain or Baglibun in the remainder of the Province. He is almost always a Hindu. Most of the few Malis shown for the western districts were retui-ned as Maliar, the Panjali form of Mali ; and some of them as Phulara or Phulwara (but see section 485 for the inclusion of Maliar under Arain).

The Sainis, who, as T have just explained, are probably a Mali tribe, are said to claim Rajput origin in Jalandhar ; but Mr. Barkley writes of the Sainis of that district : " They consider themselves the same as the Malis of the " North-West Provinces, and to be connected with the Arains, though the " latter know nothing of the relationship. They are not found west of the " Chanab, but are numerous In some parts of the Ambala district." They appear from our figures to lie all along the foot of the hills between the valleys of the Jamna and Ravi ,but not to have reached the Chanab valley. Both they and the Malis are properly tribes of Hindustan rather than of the Panjab. About 10 per cent, of the Sainis are Sikhs, and the remainder Hindus. In Rawalpindi no fewer than 3,655 Mughals have returned their tribe or clan as Saini ; but It Is probable that these have no connection with the caste under discussion, as It would not appear to have penetrated so far westwards. The Sainis of Rupar In Ambala are described •' an ill-conditioned set, first-rate cultivators, but refractory and Intriguing."

The Malis and Sainis, like all vegetable growers, occupy a very Inferior position among the agricultural castes ; but of the two the Sainis are probably the higher, as they more often own land or even whole villages, and are less generally mere market gardeners than are the Mális.

The largest of the Mali sub-divisions are the Phul with 11,646, and the Bhagarti with 15,658 persons. The Sainis do not appear to have returned any large clans except In Hushyarpur, of which district some of the largest clans are shown In the margin, and In Gurdaspur where 1,541 Sainis showed their clans as Salahri. Mr. Barkley notes that some of the clans of Arains and of Sainis In Jalandhar bear the same names, and those not always merely names of other and dominant tribes.

Note:- Here Sir Denzil Ibbetson Clearly Appears to have Used the Words like 'Probable','Probably' and 'Said to be' a Lot. Which shows that he himself was not sure about the origin and connection between the Two Castes and He just assumed it to be true without any source to Back it up. He also states that the two intermarry in many, but not in all parts of the North-West Provinces. Here appears that he was unknown to the Fact that the Real Shoorsainis of The Chandarvanshi Decent lived in the North-west Provinces and they are Different from the Neo-Sainis of UP, Rajasthan etc who claimed to be Suryavanshis. It clearly happened due to Lack of Research in the Deep Roots of the True Chandarvanshi Yadava Descent Saini's. And then he also states that Of the two the Sainis are higher as they more often own land or even whole villages, and are less generally mere market gardeners than are the Mális.

Even colonial census authorities, somewhat eager to club Sainis with Malis for the sake of getting easier handle on complex Saini history and ethnography, were forced to acknowledge this stark fact with the remark: "...that some of the higher tribes of the same class (Sainis) will not marry with them (Malis). It is to be noted that Denzil Ibbetson was not an anthropologist, ethnographer or historian in the way these terms are understood in the contemporary academics. He was a census commissioner with no formal training in social anthropology or history, and a considerable portion of his work is derived from unidentifiable informant sources and hearsay. In great many cases his work is also conditioned with the ignorance and prejudice of both English and native colonial officials whose reports he compliled and relied on to produce his work titled "Punjab Castes" . For these reasons the citability of Ibbetson's work for strictly ethno-historic purposes is questionable but in the absence of any other work of acceptable academic standard written by a trained socio-anthropologist which encompasses the breadth of Ibbetson's work, his work continues to be in circulation despite a large number of factual and interpretive inaccuracies contained in it.

Amir Khusro's Ghurratu-L-Kamal account

There is a well-documented and authenticated evidence from Turk historical annals [130] [131] about a Saini General of 14th century who led a Sisodia Rajput force at Ranthanbore against the Khilji army. Amir Khusro, the noted poet-scholar in the court of Allaudin Khilji, records the presence of a very senior Saini General in the Sisodia Rajput army of Rana Hamir [see page 541 of the above referenced book by Ellot and Dowson [132]. Describing the 14th century battle between Turks and Rajputs, Amir Khusro writes the following about this daring and highly ranked Saini General:

"The rai was in affright, and sent for Gurdan Saini, who was the most experienced warrior amongst the 40,000 rawats under the rai, and had seen many fights among the Hindus. "Sometimes he had gone with the advance to Malwa ; sometimes he had gone plundering in Gujarat." The Saini took 10,000 rawats with him from Jhain, and advanced against the Turks, and, after a severe action, he was slain..." This is a textual slam dunk against Ibbetson's speculation about the probable Mali origin of Sainis. This account, which clearly appears to have come from a hostile Turk source , is very significant. First of all it clearly authenticates that Sainis had been a warrior tribe even in the medieval times. Secondly it testifies to the fact that Sainis had a social status at par with Rajputs of Rajputana . This account fits well with the claim of Rajput or Yaduvanshi origin of Sainis of Punjab, a claim which even Ibbetson reluctantly acknowledges. The present day Mali community of Rajasthan, and elsewhere outside Punjab, started using surname "Saini" much later in 20th century [133][134]. Given the place of Malis in the social structure of Rajputana, it would have been impossible for anyone deemed to be of that origin to gain such elevation in a medieval Rajput force of Sisodia feudals when the caste dogmas were at their peak.

According to Ibbetson's own account, Sainis sometimes owned the entire villages in Punjab. [Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1990, Page 346] . All this evidence indicates that Sainis had a formidable quasi-feudal status in Punjab even in the British India and before. The Chaudhary of Saini villages was always a Saini and Sainis were super-ordindate to every other caste and community in these villages.

For a more expansive treatment on how the bulk of works authored by colonial census officials such as Ibbetson, Purser, Barkley, etc were inaccurate, reductionist and strongly conditioned with the prejudices resulting from the imported Euro-centric social models, which these officials blindly applied to Indic sociology, the reader is referred to the works of Dr. Sher Singh Sher, Dr. Ronald Inden, Dr. Malavika Kasturi , etc. For a quick reference a quote from the preface of Malavika Kasturi's Cambridge University thesis is given below: "Although official analyses perceived the flexibility of these heirarchies in face of overwhelming evidence, they seldom recognized the historical circumstances shaping Rajput identities...Ronald Inden, for example, argued that colonial officials and ethnographers, obsessed by constructs such as caste, kinship and the "village community" which they felt ordered Indian society, viewed most social and political forms as fixed and timeless essences. This understanding not only underlay colonial policies but also influenced the construction of caste identities such as that of the "Rajput". However, there were variations , contradictions and tensions within British constructions of caste identities...The decline of pre-colonial political culture and the concomitant rise of colonial power in north India had great significance for the construction of caste identities. Many studies have testified to the fact that religious and community boundaries were reinvented in nineteenth century in response to radically altered forms of politics, public spaces and nature of the state." -Embattled Identities: Rajput lineages and the colonial state in nineteenth century North India, Introduction, pp6-12,Kasturi M, Oxford University Press, 2002

The "variations , contradictions and tensions" indicated by this scholar were quite clearly evident in the perfunctory description of Sainis that Ibbetson left in his largely inaccuate but influential work. But despite his ambivalence , his account does not fail to record that unlike Malis: Sainis claimed Rajput descent from Mathura (capital of historical Shoorsaini kingdom) Sainis did vegetable farming only in addition to ordinary farming (not in replacement of) . Editorial Note: Given the soil condition of submontane Punjab, other agricultural groups of the region (Jats, Mahton Rajputs, etc ) also had identical variations in their farming practices. According to Edward Balfour and Baden Henry, two English scholars contemporary to Denzil Ibbetson, Sainis were predominantly sugarcane farmers (not vegetable farmers). Similarly, Mahtons, another Rajput tribe engaged in agriculture, were regarded as expert melon farmers. Sainis were land owners and sometimes owned the entire villages in distinction from Malis who were invariably always gardners and vegetable cultivators. "Higher tribes" of Sainis did not intermarry with Malis, and that, except perhaps for Bijnore in North-West Provinces (UP), they were regarded as entirely separate from the Malis in undivided Punjab (a fact that made them record Sainis and Malis as distinct communities in 1881 census report). A note needs to be taken of the fact these so-called Sainis of Bijnore, who intermarried with Malis, were excluded from the Saini category in the 1901 census when the mistakes and mistrepresentations in the 1881 census were discovered by the authorities. Sainis were not found outside Punjab.

Hugh Kennedy Trevaskis "The Muhammadan invasions drove a wedge through the Rajput principalities of the eastern Punjab. Some of the Rajput clans fled to the deserts of Rajputana in the south, others overcame the petty chiefs of Himalayan districts and established themselves there. A few adventurers came to terms with the invaders and obtained from them grants of land. The Sainis trace their origin to a Rajput clan who came from their original home near Muttra [sic] on Jumna, south of Delhi, in defence of the Hindus against the first Muhammadan invasions" -Hugh Kennedy Trevaskis, Rajput clan movements- The land of the five rivers..., pp 99-100

Jogendra Nath Bhattachary Another work of 19th century by Jogendra Nath Bhattachary also treated Saini group to be completely distinct from Malis. In his work titlled "Hindu castes and sects", published in 1896, he refers to Sainis on pp 285 as a distinct agricultural group with a population of about 125000 and restricted to Punjab. He mentions Malis in a separate category and makes no attempt to link both communities. Bhattachary's work, unlike Ibbetson's, is considered academic grade and is regarded as first ever serious attempt at anthropology in colonial India.

Edward Balfour In 1885 Edward Balfour, another colonial scholar, clearly identified Sainis as distinct from Malis. What is more interesting is that Edward Balfour found Sainis to be largely involved with sugar-cane farming instead of vegetable farming while only Malis to be involved with gardening. Edward Balfour's account thus gives further confirmation, in addition to self-contradiction implied in Ibbetson's account, that Sainis were understood to be entirely different from Malis in the colonial times as can be seen from the following excerpt from his work: "The most industrious are the Rain, Mali, Saini, Lubana, and Jat. The Rain are diligent , persevering men, and on good land will often obtain three or four successive crops of vegetables, which they produce largely in addition to the grain crops. The Malis are chiefly gardners. The Saini occupy sub-mountain tracts and grow sugarcane largely. Their village lands are always in a high state of tillage." -The encyclopædia of India and of eastern and southern Asia , Volume 3, pp 118, By Edward Balfour, 1885 As can be seen there is no confusion about the difference between both the communities in this scholarly work of late 19th century. Balfour also enlists Syed, Pathan, Banjara, Brahman, Gujar, Rangar, and the Rajput as tribes engaged in agriculture. Mahton Rajputs, also sometimes called Sikh Rajputs, another agricultural tribe in rural Hoshiarpur was confused by English scholars to be identical with Banjaras at the time of writing of Balfour's work in 1880s. The Punjab Alienation of Land Act of 1900 AD The Punjab Alienation of Land Act of 1900 AD was instituted by the colonial government of Punjab to safeguard the lands of agricultrual tribes of Punjab from being appropriated by Khatri and Baniya moneylenders (Master Hari Singh, 1984) . The Act provided several protections to the members of the notified agricultural tribes against exploitation by urban mercantile castes. It also enumerated a district wise list of notified agricultural tribes which were to be extended special privileges. Some of the notified agricultural tribes included Jats, Arains, Janjuas, Bhattis, Awans, Sainis, Kharrals, etc. The Act once again made clear distinction between Saini and Mali and enumerates them as separate tribes (See The Punjab Alienation of Land Act of 1900 AD, XIII of 1907, pp 22-29, Sir Shadi Lal).

In a nutshell Saini presence, according to this authoritative goverment document, was only recorded in the following districts of colonial Punjab: Hoshiarpur Gurdaspur Jalandhar Ludhiana Lyallpur Sialkot Ambala (included present day Ropar) Delhi Ferozepur It is noteworthy that Malis were also notified as an agricultural tribe by this statute but no where does the language of the Act ever confuse both the communities. Mali presence was recorded in the following districts where no Saini presence was recorded: Hissar Rohtak Gurgaon Karnal In the following districts both communities are recorded but were once again enlisted as separate entities: Delhi Ambala

E.A.H Blunt E.A.H. Blunt who produced a seminal work on caste system of Northern India also placed Sainis as a group completely distinct from Malis, Baghbans, Kacchis and Muraos. He enlisted Sainis a landholding group while describing the latter groups as having mainly gardening, flower and vegetable cultivation as their major occupations. The strength of Blunt's work lies in the fact that he had the advantage of looking at the work of all the prior colonial writers like Ibbetson, Risley, Hunter, etc and revising their inconsistencies.

Post-colonial scholars

In Punjab there is no confusion whatsoever about the difference between Mali and Saini community and Sainis are nowhere confused with the Mali community. But in Haryana, a lot of Mali tribes have now adopted 'Saini' last name which has made the Saini identity somewhat confused in the state and southwards of it. Marking out the clear difference between Malis and Sainis of Haryana, an Anthroplogical Survey of India report published in 1994 states the following:

"Many of them are large landowners. Besides during the past, the Malis had served the royal courts and were mainly working as gardners;but the Sainis did not serve others; rather they were independent agriculturists. Arain, Rain, Baghban, the Mali and the Maliar constitute a mixed body of men denoting occupation rather than caste...

1) The Malis are not as rigid as the Sainis in accepting food from members of other castes;

2) Mali women were found working as agricultural labourers which is not the case with Saini women;

3) Educationally, occupationally, and economically, the Sainis are far better placed than are the Malis, and

4) Sainis are landownders and own large lands as compared to the Malis." Peer Reviewed University Academics Validate Rajput Descent and Character of Sainis. "Famines and Wars have been great shifters and as a result of them this community which was mainly agricultural was attracted to other areas with better facilities of cultivation and grazing. They in the course of centuries, gradually migrated to parts of Punjab in the nortn and Malwa, Gujrat and Maharashtra country in the south. In the Punjab in the sub-mountainous region the community came to be known as 'Saini . It maintained Rajput character despite migration." -Castes and Tribes of Rajasthan, p 107, Sukhvir Singh Gahlot, Banshi Dhar, Jain Brothers, 1989

Hari Singh Bhati "It is said about Balaram-Hercules that he came as a stranger to Greece from outside. (In my opinion he was Bhim of Harikula and Col. Tod also holds the same view). Yaduvanshis ruled here. 'Yehudi' is the distortion of 'Yadu'. In the land in which Saini Yaduvanshis settled, it was called 'Sinai'."

Note: the same page of this work Yadava King Shoorsen or Soor Sen is also described as originator of Saini Yaduvanshi clan.

-Source: Ghazni to Jaiselmer (Pre-medieval History of the Bhatis), pp 42 , Hari Singh Bhati, Publisher: Hari Singh Bhati, 1998, Printers: Sankhala Printers, Bikaner

Dr. Sukhvir Singh Gahlot is an internationally cited and peer-reviewed academic who is considered to be an authority on the history of Rajasthan, and ethnography of Rajputs in particular. Himself hailing from the Sisodia Rajput lineage of Gahlots, he has produced some of the best known academic tracts on the history and ethnology of Rajasthan. His works indicate towards a pattern of radical reorganization of Rajput clans during the period of Muslim dominance and he further adds that during this tumultous era, dubbed as "Calamitous Millenuium" by VS Naipaul, many Rajput clans either converted to Islam or started disguising their identity to avoid conversion. He enumerates Sainis of Punjab as one such Rajput clan which took up agriculture in this period of extreme adversity in order to avoid conversion to Islam or to avoid equally unpalatable prospect of having to marry their daughters to Muslim regents as a proof of fealty, which almost all Rajputs were expected to do. He and his co-author Bansidhar, go on to describe Sainis of Punjab as Rajputs who fought along with Prithvi Raj Chauhan against Muhammad Ghauri. This explanation is not much different from the native folklore of Punjabi Sainis that their forefathers moved there as part of extended hostilities between the Saini-Jadaun rulers of Mathura and earlier Muslim raiders. Hugh Kennedy Trevaskis the English scholar of colonial era had implicitly accepted it as historically accurate account. While explictly mentioning that Sainis of Punjab continued to maintain their historic Rajput character, Gahlot and Banshidhar go on to explain the entire process as follows in their joint work 'Castes and Tribes of Rajasthan' :

"The process began after the fall of Prithvi Raj Chauhan (the last Hindu emperor of India) in Vikram Samvat 1249 (1192 AD). When the Rajput soldiers of his army fell against Sahabbudin Ghori and the empires of Ajmer and Delhi were destroyed , some of the Rajputs became captives and could see no way of saving themselves except embracing Islam and they became known as Ghori Pathans. Some of the Rajputs were let off on the recommendations of a Royal gardner who represented the captive Rajputs as Malis. Others left carrying arms out of fear and took shelter in other communities....Famines and Wars have been great shifters and as a result of them this community which was mainly agricultural was attracted to other areas with better facilities of cultivation and grazing. They in the course of centuries, gradually migrated to parts of Punjab in the nortn and Malwa, Gujrat and Maharashtra country in the south. In the Punjab in the sub-mountainous region the community came to be known as 'Saini' . It maintained Rajput character despite migration."

(Emphasis this Editor's) This could only mean: 1) Sainis are a tribe of Rajput descent who took up agriculture after Muslim invasion to avoid conversion;

2) The agricultural community, which came out of Rajputs and was known as 'Sainis' , maitained its Rajput character in Punjab. (this could only mean that they continued militancy, did not practice widow remarriage, and maintained their tribal consanguinity despite being in agriculture).

3) Sainis of Punjab , although sharing a similar historical narrative, are distinct from Rajput Mali community, which is found in Rajputana and other part of country. It is noteworthy that even this latter community despite having taken up gardening continued to be classified as a subcategory within Rajputs (see Marwar state census 1891) but was never known as Saini until they switched their identity to Saini in 1930. This Rajput origin Mali community bears no more affinity with Saini group than it has with the local Rajput groups of Rajasthan such as Gahlots, Kachchwahas, Rathores, Sankhlas, Parihars, Bhatis, Chauhans,, Taks, etc.


"At the time of 1941 Census most of them got registered themselves as Saini (Sainik Kshatriya) Malis." Census of India, 1961, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 7, Office of the Registrar General, India. "...the Malis (ie gardners who call themselves Saini now).." A Muslim Sub-Caste of North India: Problems of Cultural Integration Partap C. Aggarwal Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Sep. 10, 1966), pp. 159–161, Published by: Economic and Political Weekly Rajasthan, Kumar Suresh Singh, B. K. Lavania, Dipak Kumar Samanta, S. K. Mandal, N. N. Vyas, p 845, Anthropological Survey of India Hindu castes and sects : an exposition of the origin of the Hindu caste system and the bearing of the sects towards each other and towards other religious systems, pp285, Jogendra Nath Bhattachary, Publisher: Calcutta : Thacker, Spink, 1896 The Indian village community, p 274, Baden Henry Baden-Powell, Adegi Graphics LLC, 1957 The Cyclopædia of India and of Eastern and Southern Asia, Commercial Industrial, and Scientific: Products of the Mineral, Vegetable, and Animal Kingdoms, Useful Arts and Manufactures, Edward Balfour, p 118, Published by Bernard Quaritch, 1885, Item notes: v.3,Original from Oxford University Alienation of land, Bill of 1900, Gazetteer of India, 1899, prt. V. For a comprehensive account of this Act see N.G. Barrier The Punjab Alienation of Land Bill, 1900, Durham, 1966. The Punjab Alienation of Land Act of 1900 AD, XIII of 1907, pp 22-29, Sir Shadi Lal, Printed At The "Addison" Press, Lahore, 1907 The Caste System of Northern India, pp 25, 166, 174, 247, E.A.H. Blunt, CIE, OBE, S. Chand & Co., 1969 People of India: Haryana, pp 432, 433, Author: T.M. Dak, Editors: Kumar Suresh Singh, Madan Lal Sharma, A. K. Bhatia, Anthropological Survey of India, Published by Published on behalf of Anthropological Survey of India by Manohar Publishers, 1994 The Castes of Marwar, Being Census Report of 1891, p vi, Hardyal Singh, Edition: 2, Published by Books Treasure, Original from the University of Michigan W.Chichele Plowden, ( 1883 ), Census of British India taken on the 17th of February 1881, Volume III, London, Eyre and Spottiswoode Castes and Tribes of Rajasthan, p 107, Sukhvir Singh Gahlot, Banshi Dhar, Jain Brothers, 1989 The Journal of the Anthropological Survey of India, p 20, By Anthropological Survey of India, Published by The Survey, 1993 The land of the five rivers; an economic history of the Punjab from the earliest times to the year of grace 1890, p 100, Hugh Kennedy Trevaskis, [London] Oxford University press, 1928 Census of India, 1901, p 50, By India Census Commissioner, Edward Albert Gait, Published by Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India, 1902 CENSUS OF INDIA , 1901. VOLUME XVII,THE PUNJAB ITSFEUDTATORIES, AND THE NORTH-WEST FRONTIER PROVINCE p 348, H.A. ROSE, SIMLA,1902 , PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT OF CENTRAL PRINTING OFFICE Embattled Identities: Rajput lineages and the colonial state in nineteenth century North India, Introduction, pp6-12,Kasturi M, Oxford University Press, 2002 Castes and Tribes of Rajasthan, pp 107-108,Sukhvir Singh Gahlot, Banshi Dhar, Jain Brothers, 1989 Census of India ,1911- Punjab- Vol XIV, By India Census Commissioner, Published by Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India, 1912 "One sub-category recognized among Rajputs is that of the minor agricultural castes which comprises among others, Sirvis, Mali and Kallu or Patel" , The Castes of Marwar, Being Census Report of 1891, pp vi, Hardyal Singh, Edition: 2, Published by Books Treasure, Original from the University of Michigan Origin of Saini Caste, Kartar Singh, pp 7, Khalsa College , Amritsar, 1964

ਸੈਣੀ (According to Gur Shabad Ratanakar Mahankosh by Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha)


ਸੰਗ੍ਯਾ- ਇੱਕ ਜਾਤਿ, ਜੋ ਕੰਬੋ ਅਤੇ ਮਾਲੀਆਂ ਸਮਾਨ ਹੈ।

੨. ਸਿਆਣੂ. ਵਾਕਿਫ. "ਹਰਿ ਪ੍ਰਭੁ ਸਜਣ ਸੈਣੀ ਜੀਉ." ( ਗਉ ਮਃ ੪)

੩. ਸੇਨਾਨੀ. ਸੈਨਾ ਵਾਲਾ।

੪. ਫੌਜੀ. ਸੈਨਿਕ.


Sangya- A caste, similar to the Kambos and Malis.(Highly Controversial But this was to be expected as little to no research was done at the Time on the origin of the Saini caste and its connection with the Chandarvanshi King Shurasaini.)

2. The Wise Knowledgeable "(ਹਰਿ ਪ੍ਰਭੁ ਸਜਣ ਸੈਣੀ ਜੀਉ) Hari Prabhu Sajjan Saini Jiu." (Section 4)by Guru Ram Das in Raag Maajh on Ang 173 of Sri Guru Granth Sahib.

3.The Fighter Army Man

4.Military Soldier

Rejection of OBC Status

All J&K Kshatriya Yuva Saini Sabha,led by its President Suksham Singh apprised the Divisional Commissioner Jammu, that the Government Order S.O 537, dated 19th October, 2022 brought Saini community under the ambit of OSC/OBC reservation without any proper surveys, terming it as a clear violation of all the set guidelines and parameters laid down by the Mandal Commission Report and the judgment in Indra Sawhney (Indra Sawhney Vs Union of India) 1992 Supp (3) SCC 217.[54]

The ShoorSaini Community were agitated for being Included with the Mali Saini(Neo-Sainis) Community. They Protested to be Recognized as a Distinct Community. The Saini community, included in the Other Backward Classes list, intensively campaigned for its exclusion from the reservation list. Saini community staged many protests on the roads, against the reservation benefits granted to them by the Government. Despite there Best Efforts The Government came up with no Solution.[55] The Struggle is Still On Going.

Visual Proofs:

Saini Gotras/Sub-castes

There are many gotras in the Punjabi Saini community which Sometimes overlap with Jatts, Ramgharias,Khatris and Other Rajput Castes due to the Practices of Clan Exogamy. The most common Gotras are generally: Badwal, Banwait, Banga, Bhela, Bola, Chera, Dhak, Dhamrait, Dhanota, Dheri, Dhoot, Dulku, Maheru, Mundh, Mundra, Gehlen, Gahir, Gahunia, Girn, Gidda, Japra, Kalyani, Kalotia, Salaria (Salehri), Nanua, Pabla, Pawan, Paama, Thind, Taunque, Manak,etc.

It is to be noted that a number of Saini Rajput clans are also found among Tomara Rajputs. Some of these clans are Dhamrait (Dhamrial/Dhamial), Mangar (Mangaria/Mangral), Indoria, Badwal, Bilauria, Dolay (Dolariye/Dulot) , Tirotia, Jangliya, Dheri (Dheria), Ughre (Oghre/Oghial), Salaria, etc which are also found among the Tomara origin tribes like Pathania Rajputs ,Chauhans etc on the Hills of Himachal Pradesh, in Mewat, and some even among 96 Kuli Marathas. In addition "Tambar" is a major Saini clan in Punjab which is also found among 96 Kuli Marathas as " Tombar" both as a sub-clan of Yaduvanshi or Jadhav line of Marathas and as an independent Maratha sept.

It is well established fact, needing no further attestation , that a large number of Maratha clans are of Rajput descent with a large contribution from Rajputs of Yaduvanshi stock from historical Shoorsaini kingdom. Some of these clans had originated in Eastern Rajputana, Bundelkhand and Malwa, i.e the historical and essential Shoorsaini kingdom, and had gradually migrated into Maharashtra. They have common ancestry with a number of North Indian Kshatriya groups including Sainis. Some of the other Saini clans found among Marathas are Pablay as Pawlay, Bhondi as Bhond, Attar as Attarde, Partole as Patole, Pingalia as Pingle, Ughre or Oghre as Ughadhe, Chandel as Chandle, Khobe as Khobre, Dolle as Dhole, Khargal as Kharale or Kharag, Badwal or Badhwal as Wadhale, Dulku as Dalu, Dhak as Dhake, Bhauray as Bhoware, Toggar or Taggar as Tigharkar, Nawe as Nawre, etc. This list is by no means exhaustive.[56]

Some Sainis pray to their dead ancestors like many other Sikh Castes in a practice called Jathera which is actually unbacked by Sikhism.

List of Gotra's

Adhopia, Agarwal, Andhaia, Annhe, Attar, Badwal, Bagri, Banait, Banga/Bangwai, Banwait, Baria, Basoota, Basuta, Bawal, Bharal, Bhardwaj, Bhati, Bhela, Bhella, Bhele, Bhogal, Bhowra, Bimbh, Bodwal, Bola, Bondi, Budwal, Caberwal, Chandan, Chande, Chandolia, Chaudhary/Choudhary, Chayor, Chelley, Chepru, Chera, Chere, Chibb, Chilne, Chouhan, Dadwal, Dagdi, Dakolia, Darar, Daurka, Dhamrait, Dhand, Dhanota, Dhaul, Dhek, Dheri, Dhole, Dhoore, Dhorka, Dhorke, Dola, Dolka, Dolle, Dulku, Fharar, Gaare, Gahir, Gahunia, Galeria, Galhe, Garhamiye, Garhania, Garore, Gehlan, Gidda, Giddar, Gidde, Gillon, Girn, Gogan, Gogna, Gogia, Gogiaan, Gogian, Golia, Haad, Hadwa, Hamdard(pseudonym for the Family of Sadhu Singh Hamdard), Hankhla, Hans, Hansi, Hoon, Jagait/Jugait, Jaget, Jagit, Jandauria, Jandeer, Jandor, Jandoria, Janglia, Japra, Japre, Joshi, Kaan, Kabad, Kabarwal, Kabli, Kadauni, Kainthlia, Kalia, Kaloti, Kamboe, Kamokhar Kapoor, Kapooria, Kariya, Kataria, Keer, Khabra, Khad, Kharga, Khargal, Khatri, Khelbare, Khobe, Khube, Khute, Kuchrat, Kuhar, Kuhare, Lata, Longia, Loyla, Lularia, Maan/Mann, Mair, Maheidawan, Maheru, Malhotra, Masute, Matoya, Mundh, Mundra, Nagoria, Nanua, Nawen, Neemkaroria, Pabe, Pabla, Pabme, Pama, Panesar, Pangeli, Panghliya, Panthalia, Papose, Parihar, Partole, Patrote, Pawar, Pharar, Pingalia, Pundrak, Puria, Saggi, Sahnam, Sair, Sajjan, Sakhla, Salaria, Salariya, Sandoonia, Sangar, Sangowalia, Saroha, Satmukhiye, Satrawala, Satrawla, Satrawli, Satrole, Savadia, Sehgal, Shahi, Singodiya, Sinh, Solanki, Sona, Songra, Sooji, Sukhayee, Tabachare, Tak, Tamber/Tumber/Tanwar, Tandoowal, Taral, Taunque/Taank, Tank, Taraal, Tarotia, Tatla, Tatra, Tatri, Thind, Tikoria, Togar, Tondwall, Tonk, Tor, Toor/Tomar, Tundwal, Tuseed, Ughra, Vaid, Vim, Virdee.


External Links


  1. ^ Castes and Tribes of Rajasthan, pp 108,Sukhvir Singh Gahlot, Banshi Dhar, Jain Brothers,1989
  2. ^ "The Sainis trace their origin to a Rajput clan who came from their original home near Mathura [sic] on the Jamuna, south of Delhi, in defence of Hindus against the first Muhammadan invasions." The land of the five rivers; an economic history of the Punjab from the earliest times to the year of grace 1890, pp 100, Hugh Kennedy Trevaskis, [London] Oxford University press, 1928
  3. ^ a b c d e "In the Punjab in the sub- mountainous region the community came to be known as '. It maintained its Rajput character despite migration." Castes and Tribes of Rajasthan, pp 108, Sukhvir Singh Gahlot, Banshi Dhar, Jain Brothers, 1989 Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; name "Saini Rajput" defined multiple times with different content; $2
  4. ^ Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Shoorsaini; $2
  5. ^ " People of India: Haryana, pp 430 , Kumar Suresh Singh, Madan Lal Sharma, A. K. Bhatia, Anthropological Survey of India, Published by Published on behalf of Anthropological Survey of India by Manohar Publishers, 1994
  6. ^ Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Surasena as Yadava; $2
  7. ^ "Surasena was a Yadava. One of his descendants could, therefore, call himself a Yadava or a Surasena as he liked..." Chauhĝn Dynasties: A Study of Chauhĝn Political History, Chauhĝn Political Institutions, and Life in the Chauhĝn Dominions, from 800 to 1316 A.D., By Dasharatha Sharma, pp 103, Published by Motilal Banarsidass, 1975
  8. ^ a b Visnu Purana , Section 5
  9. ^ a b c "We have assigned to the Yadus the honour of furnishing King Puru, who opposed Alexander" , History of India: (from the earliest times to the fall of the Mughal Empire) , pp 86, 91-95, Indian Press (1947),Dr. Ishwari Prashad, ASIN: B0007KEPTA
  10. ^ a b Proceedings, pp 72, Indian History Congress, Published 1957
  11. ^ a b According to Arrian, Diodorus, and Strabo, Megasthenes described an Indian tribe called Sourasenoi, who especially worshiped Herakles in their land, and this land had two cities, Methora and Kleisobora, and a navigable river, the Jobares. As was common iin the ancient period, the Greeks sometimes described foreign gods in terms of their own divinities, and there is is a little that the Sourasenoi refers to the Shurasenas, a branch of the Yadu dynasty to which Krishna belonged; Herakles to Krishna, or Hari-Krishna: Mehtora to Mathura, where Krishna was born; Kleisobora to Krishnapura, meaning the "the city of Krishna"; and the Jobares to the Yamuna, the famous river in the Krishna story. Qunitus Curtius also mentions that when Alexander the Great confronted Porus, Porus's soldiers were carrying an image of Herakles in their vanguard. Krishna: a sourcebook, pp 5, Edwin Francis Bryant, Oxford University Press US, 2007
  12. ^ a b c "This Herakles is held in special honour by the Sourasenoi, an Indian tribe, who possess two large cities, Methora and Cleisobora" Arrian, Indika, viii, Methora is Mathura ; Growse (Mathura, 3rd ed. 279) suggests Cleisbora is Krisnhapura , 'city of Krishna', ANNALS AND ANTIQUITIES OF RAJASTHAN, James Tod, Vol. 1, pp 36, Oxford University Press, 1920
  13. ^ The other 'agriculturists' were Rajputs, Mughals and Pathans with some Gujars and Dogars."The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab,pp 149, By Rajit K. Mazumder, Permanent Black
  14. ^ Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Saini Rajput2; $2
  15. ^ The Indian Army and the Making of Punjab,pp 99, 205, By Rajit K. Mazumder, Permanent Black
  16. ^ Annual Class Return, 1919, pp 364-7
  17. ^ Annual Class Return,1925, pp 96-99
  18. ^ Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Marriage mores; $2
  19. ^ People of India: Haryana, pp 437 , Kumar Suresh Singh, Madan Lal Sharma, A. K. Bhatia, Anthropological Survey of India, Published by Published on behalf of Anthropological Survey of India by Manohar Publishers, 1994
  20. ^ Ancient India As Described By Megasthenes And Arrian by Mccrindle, J. W, pp 201, Kessinger Publishing, 1877
  21. ^ [ "...Arjuna settled some of the Yadavas in Punjab." (Visnu Purana , Section 5)]
  22. ^ ["...The eighteen tribes of the Bhojas, from fear of Jarasandha, have all fled towards the west; so also have the Shoorsenis..." "(Mahabharata, Book 2, Chapter 14) ]
  23. ^ "To convince the reader I do not build upon nominal resemblance , when localities do not bear me out, he is requested to call to mind , that we have elsewhere assigned to Yadus of the Punjab the honour of furnishing the well known king named Porus; although the Puar, the usual pronunciation of Pramar, would afford a more ready solution." Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan, pp 283, By James Tod, Edition: 2, Published by Asian Educational Services, 2001, ISBN 8120612892, 9788120612891
  24. ^ Ghazni to Jaiselmer (Pre-medieval History of the Bhatis), pp 93, Hari Singh Bhati, Publisher: Hari Singh Bhati, 1998, Printers: Sankhala Printers, Bikaner
  25. ^ Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han, Or, The Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, James Tod, pp 36, Published by Higginbotham and co., 1873, Item notes: v. 1, Original from Oxford University
  26. ^ Chandragupta Maurya: a gem of Indian history‎, pp 76, Purushottam Lal Bhargava, Edition: 2, illustrated, Published by D.K. Printworld, 1996
  27. ^ A Comprehensive History of India: The Mauryas & Satavahanas, pp 383, edited by K.A. Nilakanta Sastri, Kallidaikurichi Aiyah Nilakanta Sastri, Bharatiya Itihas Parishad, Published by Orient Longmans, 1992, Original from the University of California. Note: The Shoorsainis were called 'Prasioi' or 'Prachaya', or 'Easterners' because they had migrated to Punjab from Mathura which is in the east of Punjab.The etymology of 'Porus' is derived from 'Prasioi' or 'Pracahaya', or 'Easterner', not from 'Paurava', or the descendant of Puru.
  28. ^ a b c Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Cunningham1; $2
  29. ^ a b c REPORT OF A TOUR IN EASTERN RAJPUTANA IN 1882-83 , VOLUME XX, A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey of India, pp 59, Published by Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1885 ,Item notes: v.20 1882-1883, Original from the University of Michigan Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; name "Cunningham2" defined multiple times with different content; $2
  30. ^ Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Yadava origin; $2
  31. ^ a b "In Jullundhur the Sainis are said to claim Rajput origin...and lived principally in the Muttra district. When Mahmud of Ghazni invaded India their ancestors came into Jullundur and settled down there...". See pp 346 of Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1990 Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; name "Punjab relocation" defined multiple times with different content; $2
  32. ^ " When Muhammad Ghori captured Tahangarh many of the Jadon families dispersed and settled wherever they could find a home. " REPORT OF A TOUR IN EASTERN RAJPUTANA IN 1882-83 , VOLUME XX, A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey of India, pp 25, Published by Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1885, Item notes: v.20 1882-1883, Original from the University of Michigan
  33. ^ a b c "The Order of St. George, Imperial Russia's highest exclusively military order, was instituted in 1769 and came to be considered among the most prestigious military awards in the world... The order was awarded to officers and generals for special gallantry, such as, personally leading his troops in rout of a superior enemy force, or capturing a fortress, etc. Before membership in the Order could be granted, a candidate's case had to be investigated by a council composed of Knights of the Order." Source:
  34. ^ a b "I will give you here the names of three of those men who have earned fame by their heroism. Jamadar Gurmukh Singh, a Saini Sikh of Gadram Badi in Rupar, won the 1st Class Order of Merit and the 2nd Class Cross of the Russian Order of St. George for his splendid courage on the night of the 1st March 1916 when he advanced under the greatest difficulties, continually crawling forward and digging himself in." War speeches (1918), pp 128 , Author: O'Dwyer, Michael Francis, (Sir) 1864-, Subject: World War, 1914-1918; World War, 1914-1918 -- Punjab Publisher: Lahore Printed by the Superintendent Government Printing
  35. ^ Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Subedar-Major Joginder Singh OBI; $2
  36. ^ a b c Final Report of Revised Settlement, Hoshiarpur District, pp 58, 59 1879-84 By J. A. L. Montgomery
  37. ^ a b c d e " Chaudhri Dewan Chand Saini was another lawyer practicing on the criminal side those days. Later on he became Rai Sahib and leader of the Criminal Bar, but unfortunately died of cancer at a comparatively young age." Looking Back: The Autobiography of Mehr Chand Mahajan, Former Chief Justice of India, pp 45,Mehr Chand Mahajan, Published by Asia Pub. House, 1963
  38. ^ a b History of Hisar: From Inception to Independence, 1935-1947, pp 312, M. M. Juneja, Published by Modern Book Co., 1989
  39. ^ a b c d e f The Punjab Legislative Council Debates. Official Report,pp 1028 & 1047, Published By Legislative Council, Punjab (India), 1936, Item notes: v.27, Original from the University of California, Digitized 7 Feb 2007
  40. ^ a b c Who's who of Indian Martyrs, pp 83, 165, By Yashwantrao Balwantrao Chavan, India Ministry of Home Affairs, Published by Ministry of Education and Youth Services, Govt. of India, Item notes: v.1, Original from the University of Michigan
  41. ^ a b c "..the second martyr of march 16 was Harnam Singh Saini of Fatehgarh, Hoshiarpur. He was arrested from Battavia by the Dutch." A day to remember Lahore's martyrs, 16 Mar 2002, KS Dhaliwal, Time of India[1] Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; name "Lahore Conspiracy-Harnam Singh" defined multiple times with different content; $2
  42. ^ a b Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Mahan Singh; $2
  43. ^ a b Senior journalist, Punjabi writer Ajit Saini passes away , Punjab Newsline Network, Monday, 10 December 2007
  44. ^ a b Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Raja Nahar Singh Ka Balidan; $2
  45. ^ Freedom Struggle of India by Sikhs and Sikhs in India: The Facts World Must Know, pp87, By Gurdial Singh Grewal,Published by Sant Isher Singh Rarewala Education Trust, 1991, Item notes: v.1, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 2 Sep 2008
  46. ^ Shaheed Gulab Singh Saini, by B.P. Dheeraj (Correspondent), Punjab Kesari, March 12, 1997 Edition
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Flame of Freedom and Hoshiarpur District, pp 6, pp 157, pp 168, pp 175, pp 211, pp 224, pp 232, pp 233, O. P. Ralhan, Research India Publications, 1992
  48. ^ Sikh Encyclopedia
  49. ^ a b c d e f Who's Who: Punjab Freedom Fighters: Punjab Freedom Fighters, pp 152,156, 205, 304, 430, 476, By Fauja Singh, Chaman Lal Datta, Bakhshish Singh, Punjabi University, Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, Published by Dept. of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University, 1991, Original from the University of Michigan
  50. ^ Post-independence India, pp 203, Om Prakash Ralhan, Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 2002
  51. ^ A Guide to Sources, Ghadar Movement, pp 79, By Darshan Singh Tatla, Published by Guru Nanak Dev University, 2003
  52. ^ The Political Memoirs of an Indian Revolutionary,pp 82, By Naina Singh Dhoot, Surinder Singh, Published by Manohar Publishers & Distributors, 2005, Original from the University of Michigan
  53. ^ Forgotten warriors of Indian war of independence, 1941-1946: Indian National Army, S. S. Yadava, All India INA Committee, Hope India Publications, 2005
  54. ^ a b c d e f g h i History of the Babar Akalis, pp 494, 606, Bakhshish Singh Nijjar, Published by ABS Publications, 1987, Original from the University of Michigan. Note: According to this author the village Pandori Ganga Singh was entirely Saini owned.
  55. ^ THE GHADR DIRECTORY, COMPILED BY The Director, Intelligence Bureau, Home Department Government of India,1934 [2]
  56. ^ a b Who's who of Delhi Freedom Fighters, pp 224, 278, By Prabha Chopra, Uma Prasad Thapliyal, Published by Gazetteer Unit, Delhi Administration, 1985, Original from the University of Michigan
  57. ^ Agrarian Scene in British Punjab, pp 71, By Hari Singh, Published by People's Pub. House, 1983, Item notes: v.2, Original from the University of Michigan
  58. ^ a b Farmers protest against non-payment of dues, 10 Sep 2002, The Tribune, Chandigarh, India[3]
  59. ^ a b Rebels Against the Raj: Who is who of Freedom Fighters in Haryana, 1885-1947, pp 59, 116, By Kripal Chandra Yadav, Rĝmeśvara Dĝsa, Published by Mounto Pub. House, 1994
  60. ^ The India Office and Burma Office List for. (1945). p.101, United Kingdom: (n.p.).
  61. ^ Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island: An Excavation Report/A.S. Gaur, Sundaresh and K.H. Vora. New Delhi, Aryan Books International, 2005
  62. ^ Sri Dasam Granth, pp 1368, verse 141
  63. ^ see page 541 of the above referenced book by Ellot and Dowson [4]
  64. ^ This account tallies with Cunningham's account of the ruling Surasena (Saini) Yadavas of Mathura region prior to the Turk invasion. See pp 57, REPORT OF A TOUR IN EASTERN RAJPUTANA IN 1882-83 , VOLUME XX, A. Cunningham, Archaeological Survey of India, Published by Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, 1885 ,Item notes: v.20 1882-1883, Original from the University of Michigan
  65. ^ Gurdashan Singh Dhillon, "The Sikh Rule and Ranjit Singh", A Gateway to Sikhism
  66. ^ Ahluwalia, M.L., Bhai Maharaj Singh. Patiala, 1992
  67. ^ Kirpal Singh, Bhdl Maharaj Singh : Panjab de Modhi Swatantarta Sangramie. Amritsar, 1966.
  68. ^ ^ Harbans Singh, "The Sikh Encyclopedia",
  69. ^ Documents Relating to Bhai Maharaj Singh, Died as State Prisoner on 5th July 1856 at Singapur, pp 228, By Nahar Singh, Published by Sikh History Source Material Search Association, 1968, Original from the University of Michigan , Digitized 3 Aug 2007 389 pages
  70. ^ Sant Nihal Singh, Alias Bhai Maharaj Singh: A Saint-revolutionary of the 19th Century Punjab, pp 105 & 114, By M. L. Ahluwalia, Published by Punjabi University, 1972, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 31 Oct 2006, 117 pages
  71. ^ Freedom Struggle of India by Sikhs and Sikhs in India: The Facts World Must Know, pp87, By Gurdial Singh Grewal,Published by Sant Isher Singh Rarewala Education Trust, 1991, Item notes: v.1, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 2 Sep 2008
  72. ^ Rebels Against the British Rule ,pp 190, By Nahar Singh, Kirpal Singh, Published by Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1989, Item notes: v.2, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 2 Sep 2008
  73. ^ a b c Post-Pĝinian Systems of Sanskrit Grammar,Dedication page, Ranjit Singh Saini , Published by Parimal Publications, 1999
  74. ^ a b c d Census of India, 1901, pp 50, By India Census Commissioner, Edward Albert Gait, Published by Office of the Superintendent of Government Printing, India, 1902
  75. ^ "In the 1881 Census, there were only 132,000 Sainis in Punjab, but Sidhus, a Jat Community tribe, numbered 208,000." Peasant Communities of Punjab ,By Kulwant Singh Virk [5]
  76. ^ Asian Recorder,pp 16492 Published by K. K. Thomas at Recorder Press, 1982, Item notes: 1982, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 26 Aug 2008
  77. ^ Forefront for Ever: The History of the Mahar Regiment, By V. Longer, pp 271, Published by Mahar Regimental Centre, 1981
  78. ^ Big Reshuffle in Naval Headquarters Bharat Shakti 2021-05-29 Retrieved
  79. ^ Chief of Personnel (COP) | Indian Navy Retrieved
  80. ^ Six chopper pilots of Indian Navy honoured in Chennai Retrieved
  81. ^ RADM Ravneet Singh, NM Assumes Command of Western Fleet of Indian Navy Retrieved
  82. ^ IC-36200[6]
  83. ^
  84. ^ Indian Air Force VSM List Award Date 26 Jan 91, Announced 26 Jan 91[7]
  85. ^ Limca Book of Records, pp 343, Published by Bisleri Beverages Ltd., 1998
  86. ^ [8]
  87. ^ [9]
  88. ^ IC-47701[10]
  89. ^ Gazette of India , 16th April 1977 - No.38 - Pres/77 dated 26th January 1977
  90. ^ a b "his conspicuous gallantry in action on the 17th November 1914 when with a party of Sappers under the command of a British Officer he was always to the fore and led his men with great determination into the enemy's trenches. Subedar-Major Jagindar Singh, Saini Sikh of Kheri Salabatpur in Bupar, gained the 2nd Class Order of Merit at the battle of Loos in Belgium for striking leadership and conspicuous bravery in action after most of his company and all but one British Officer in his regiment had been killed or wounded. This officer was also awarded the 2nd Class of the Order of British India for distinguished conduct in the field."War speeches (1918), pp 129, Author: O'Dwyer, Michael Francis, (Sir) 1864-, Subject: World War, 1914-1918; World War, 1914-1918 -- Punjab Publisher: Lahore Printed by the Superintendent Government Printing
  91. ^ IC-10902, 1970[11]
  92. ^ "The Saini have a Salahri got." Glossary of the Tribes and Castes of the Punjab and North West Frontier Province, pp 848, H. A. Rose, IBBETSON, Maclagan, Published by Asian Educational Services, 1990 2076 pages
  93. ^ a b "The Saini do not appear to have returned any large clans except in Hushyárpiir, of which district some of the largest clans are shown in the margin, and in Gurdáspur where 1,541 Saini showed their clans as Salahria." W.Chichele Plowden , ( 1883 ), Census of British India taken on the 17th of February 1881, Volume III , London , Eyre and Spottiswoode , p. 257
  94. ^ Where Gallantry is Tradition: Saga of Rashtriya Indian Military College : Plantinum Jubilee Volume, 1997, By Bikram Singh, Sidharth Mishra, Rashtriya Indian Military College, Contributor Rashtriya Indian Military College, Edition: illustrated, Published by Allied Publishers, 1997
  95. ^ IC-50950 [12]
  96. ^ 21021 F(P)
  97. ^
  98. ^ KS Pabla & Chittranjan Garu of A&N Police Chosen for President’s Medal [13]
  99. ^
  100. ^
  101. ^ Akali Lahir de Mahan Neta. Amritsar, 1976
  102. ^ Ashok, Shamsher Singh, Panjab dian Lahiran. Patiala, 1974
  103. ^ Pratap Singh, Giani, Gurdwara Sudhar arthat Akali. Lahir. Amritsar, 1975
  104. ^ Dilgeer, Harjinder Singh, Shiromani Akali Dal. Chandigarh, 1980
  105. ^ Shiromani Akali Dal, By O. P. Ralhan,pp 305, Published by Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 1998ISBN 8174884750, 9788174884756
  106. ^ Punjab Peasant in Freedom Struggle (Volume II), pp 71-72, Master Hari Singh, Published by People's Pub. House, 1984
  107. ^ Senior journalist, Punjabi writer Ajit Saini passes away , Punjab Newsline Network, Monday, 10 December 2007
  108. ^ Limca Book of Records, pp 219, Published by Bisleri Beverages Ltd., 1997, Item notes: 1997, Original from the University of Michigan, Digitized 4 Sep 2008
  109. ^ "I was born in 1935 in Govindpura village in Muzaffargarh district in West Pakistan in a Rajput Rathore family", Interview with Flying Sikh Milkha Singh, Sify Sports, August 8, Friday, 2008 [14]
  110. ^ Bold
  111. ^
  112. ^ रायबरेली विधायक अदिति सिंह और एमएलए अंगद सिंह शादी के बंधन में बंधे, देखें खूबसूरत तस्वीरें|url=
  113. ^ a b "...examination was instituted in 1922, the following IP officers who came to the Indian Punjab in 1947 had joined: SR Chaudhari, 1923", Police and politics in twentieth century Punjab, pp 57, Bhagwan Singh Danewalia, Ajanta, 1997
  114. ^ The India Office and Burma Office list for 1945, pp 324, Great Britain. India Office, Harrison and Sons, ltd., 1945
  115. ^ a b The Times of India directory and year book including who's who, pp 698, Times of India, Bombay, The Times of India Press, 1952
  116. ^ "The Police Administration in the State was headed by an Inspector General of Police who was also Inspector General of Police for Union Territories of Delhi and Ajmer. Sh. S.R. Chaudhary IP, was the first IGP.", BRIEF HISTORY OF HIMACHAL PRADESH POLICE
  117. ^ Zscaler founder Jay Chaudhry grew up in a village with no running water – now he's worth $15.4 billion |url=
  118. ^ |title=Mercury News interview: Jay Chaudhry, CEO of Zscaler, a cloud computing security firm |url=
  119. ^ Rajender Vora, Page 196, ‘Socio-Economic Profile Of Rural India (vol. 3 : Western And North Central India)’, Concept Publishing Company, 2005
  120. ^ The Sikhs, an Ethnology: An Ethnology, pp 71, By A. E. Barstow Published by B.R. Pub. Corp., 1985, Original from the University of Michigan
  121. ^ The Social & Economic History of Punjab, 1901-1939 (including Haryana, and Himachal Pradesh, Administrative Divisions of the Punjab), pp 367, B. S. Saini MA Ph.D, Ess Ess Publications, Delhi, 1975
  122. ^ a b Cite error Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named 1901 Census-Bijnor; $2
  123. ^ W.Chichele Plowden , ( 1883 ), The Indian Empire Census of 1881 Statistics of Population Vol. II. , Calcutta , Superintendent of Government Printing India , p. 30
  124. ^ "The members of Saini community are employed in business and white-collar jobs and as teachers, administrators, lawyers, doctors and defence personnel." People of India, National Series Volume VI, India's Communities N-Z, pp 3091, KS Singh, Anthropological Survey of India, Oxford University Press, 1998
  125. ^ ["Opportunity and Response" T.S. Epstein, D.H. Penny, C. Hurst, 1972, p172]
  126. ^ ["Structure and change in Indian society:" (conference of the University of Chicago, 1965)by Milton B. Singer, Bernard S. Cohn, Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research, University of Chicago Committee on Southern Asian Studies,Aldine Pub. Co., 1968, p96]
  127. ^ ["Urban Sociology in India" M.S.A. Rao, 1979, p493]
  128. ^ [ "Saini, writes Ibbetson, would apprear to be only a subdivision of Malis and it is probable that they are a Mali tribe: some of the higher tribes of the same caste will not intermarry with them . In Jullundhur the Sainis are said to claim Rajput origin," see pp 346 of Denzil Ibbetson, Edward MacLagan, H.A. Rose "A Glossary of The Tribes & Casts of The Punjab & North-West Frontier Province", 1990]
  129. ^ Panjab castes by Sir Denzil Ibbetson, 1847-1908 Pg.188-189
  130. ^ The history of India, as told by its own historians the Muhammadan period. by H. M. Sir Elliot, John Dowson , pp 541 (Used, New, Out-of-Print) - Alibris
  131. ^ Alibris: 8981381131
  132. ^ [15]
  133. ^ [W.Chichele Plowden, ( 1883 ), The Indian Empire Census of 1881 Statistics of Population Vol. II. , Calcutta , Superintendent of Government Printing India, pp 243-258 ]
  134. ^ [Rajasthan , Kumar Suresh Singh, B. K. Lavania, Dipak Kumar Samanta, S. K. Mandal, N. N. Vyas, pp 845, Anthropological Survey of India]

Sects & Cults

♣♣ Ad Dharm ♣♣ Akalis ♣♣ Bandai Sikhs ♣♣ Balmiki ♣♣ Bhatra ♣♣ Brindaban Matt ♣♣ Daya Singh Samparda ♣♣ Dhir Malias ♣♣ Handalis ♣♣ Kabir Panthi ♣♣ Kirtan jatha Group ♣♣ Kooka ♣♣ Kutta Marg ♣♣ Majhabi ♣♣ Manjis ♣♣ Masand ♣♣ Merhbanieh ♣♣ Mihan Sahibs ♣♣ Minas ♣♣ Nirankari ♣♣ Nanak panthi ♣♣ Nanakpanthi Sindhis ♣♣ Namdev Panthi ♣♣ Namdhari ♣♣ Nanaksaria ♣♣ Nihang ♣♣ Nikalsaini ♣♣ Niranjaniye ♣♣ Nirmala ♣♣ Panch Khalsa Diwan ♣♣ Parsadi Sikhs ♣♣ Phul Sahib dhuan ♣♣ Radha Swami ♣♣ Ram Raiyas ♣♣ Ravidasi ♣♣ Ridváni Sikhs ♣♣ Suthra Shahi ♣♣ Sewapanthi ♣♣ Sat kartaria ♣♣ Sant Nirankaris ♣♣ Sanwal Shahis ♣♣ Sanatan Singh Sabhais ♣♣ Sachkhand Nanak Dhaam ♣♣ Samparda Bhindra ♣♣ Tat Khalsa ♣♣ Sikligars ♣♣ Pachhada Jats ♣♣ Satnami's ♣♣ Udasi Sikhs ♣♣

Social Groups

Rajput ♣♣ Khatri ♣♣ Lohar ♣♣ Kumhar ♣♣ Nai ♣♣ Chamar ♣♣ Arora ♣♣ Bhatra ♣♣ Agrawal ♣♣ Bania ♣♣ Sindhi ♣♣ Saini ♣♣ Julaha

Social Groups

Rajput ♣♣ Khatri ♣♣ Lohar ♣♣ Kumhar ♣♣ Nai ♣♣ Chamar ♣♣ Arora ♣♣ Bhatra ♣♣ Agrawal ♣♣ Bania ♣♣ Sindhi ♣♣ Saini ♣♣ Julaha