SikhiWiki:Today's featured article/November 2009

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November 1

Mata Sahib Kaur (1 November 1681 - 1747) also Mata Sahib Devan is known as the "Mother of the Khalsa". She earned the distinction by instilling the first Amrit with the sweetness that balances its fierceness.

Mata Sundari ji (also known as 'Mata Jito ji') was the only wife of Guru Gobind Singh. Mata Sahib Kaur, who was called 'Sahib Devan' before receiving Amrit, was the Spiritual Mother of the Khalsa, however some historians have mistakenly confused Mata Sahib Kaur as having been married to Guru Gobind Singh.

Mata ji, whose name before taking Amrit was Mata Sahib Devan Ji, was born on the 1 November 1681 in a village called Rohtas, District Jehlum, in West Panjab, (now in Pakistan).

Her mother’s name was Mata Jasdevi Ji and father’s name was Bhai Rama Ji. Her father, who was an ardent sewak (devotee) of Guru Gobind Singh, influenced her to the extent that she wanted to devote her whole life in the service of the Guru Sahib. .....More

November 2
Guru Nanak-1024X768.jpg

In October/November every year, the Sikhs celebrate the birthday of Guru Nanak Dev, the founder of their religion; a youngish faith system called Sikhism. Although many in the world have not learnt about Guru Nanak, his contribution to our understanding of life and its deep meaning is immense. Why not learn more about the Guru's contributions to Sikhi and how this has benefited humanity?

Guru Nanak was born on April 15, 1469 but this year (2015), the Sikhs will celebrate this auspicious and momentous day on November 25. Next year (2016) this day will be celebrated on November 14.

Guru Nanak Dev came into this world at a time of extreme doom and gloom when the moral standards of the ruling class had vanished; the rulers had no respect for humanity; and law of the jungle prevailed everywhere. Men’s ideas and aspirations were at an all time low.

Materialistic wealth, plain greed and illusion of Maya fascinated the world and led everyone astray. Good acts and righteous behaviour no longer commended themselves to humans. .....More

November 3

Bhai Dharam Singh (3 November 1666 - 1708), one of the Panj Piare or the Five Beloved, the forerunners of Khalsa and was a farmer by profession. He was the son of Bhai Sant Ram and Mai Sabho, of Hastinapur, an ancient town on the right bank of the Ganges, 35 km northeast of Meerut (29°N, 77° 45'E).

Dharam Das, as he was originally named, was born around 1666. As a young man, he fell into the company of a Sikh who introduced him to the teachings of the Gurus. He left home at the age of thirty in quest of further instruction. At the Sikh shrine of Nanak Piau, dedicated to Guru Nanak, he was advised to go to Guru Gobind Singh at Anandpur, where he arrived in 1698.

A few months later came the historic Baisakhi gathering of 1699 at which five Sikhs responding to five successive calls of Guru Gobind Singh. One after the other, they offered to lay down their heads. The Guru blessed them and called them Panj Piare, the five beloved ones. .....More

November 4

This articles lists Gurbani relating to dancing and singing which are activities where many preconceived prejudices and views exist in the Sikh and Punjabi community. Singing and dancing are great traditions of Punjab which have been in existence for many thousands of years.

These traditions are encouraged and supported by Sikhi and Gurbani provided that they are used as a positive, communal and constructive function for unity and celebration of society. When used to escalate ones ego or pride; or for self-excitation; or for sensual gratification, these same activities are condemned by the Guru. The Guru tells us:

I am a sacrifice, my soul is a sacrifice, to those who look beautiful in the Name of the Lord, Har, Har. The Gurmukhs sing , the Gurmukhs dance, and focus their consciousness on the Lord. ((1)(Pause))

Singing and dancing are great to lift ones mood and bring brightness into the mind; they also provide great exercise and are very beneficial for the circulation of blood in the body. .....More

November 5

The Sikh religion has various established beliefs and values that are inherent in the basic philosophy of the faith. A Sikh's primary belief is in only one supreme God – This sole God is the same for all the peoples of the Universe.

Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru highlights this point by saying in the Sikh holy text called the Guru Granth Sahib, "There is only the One Supreme Lord God; there is no other at all" (SGGS p 45); this belief is the starting point of the Sikh faith.

Next, God is considered gender neutral in Sikhism. So when a Sikh refers to "God", this God can be referred to as masculine or feminine; so God can be called ‘He’ or ‘She’. Guru Arjan reinforces this concept by saying: "You are my Father and You are my Mother.....You are my Protector everywhere...." (SGGS p 103).

Further, this one God is the same God of the Sikhs, Hindus, Muslims, Christians, Jews, etc – of all the peoples of the world; everyone in this world belongs to that same one God! Guru Ram Das, the fourth Sikh Guru explains: "All living beings are Yours - You are the Giver of all souls" (SGGS p 10). .....More

November 6

Gurdwara Mata Kaulan Sahib or Gurdwara Kaulsar Sahib is a sacred Sikh shrine on the west-side of Gurdwara Baba Atal in Amritsar, Punjab near the main Darbar Sahib at Harmandar Sahib.

Next to the Gurdwara Mata Kaulan lies a Sarovar (pool) known as Kaulsar Sahib or Kaulsar Sarvor, named after a holy lady who was raised as a Muslim called Bibi Kaulan, the adopted (possibly Hindu) daughter of the Qazi of Lahore.

She was a highly spiritual woman who was above religious divides and took refuge with the sixth master Guru Hargobind Ji at Amritsar (1606-1645). The samadh of Mata Kaulan lies at the western end of the Kaulsar Gurdwara.

The significance of Gurdwara Mata Kaulan and Kaulsar sarovar could be adjudged from the fact that Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh guru, had directed the devotees to take a dip in the Sarovar Kaulsar before the Golden Temple sarovar. (sakhi to this effect is written right outside the entrance of Gurdwara Bibi Kaulan, adjacent to Darbar Sahib). .....More

November 7

Baba Ram Rai was the eldest son of the seventh Sikh Guru, Guru Har Rai Ji who had 2 other children. Guru Harkrishan was the youngest amongst the three siblings. Baba Ji's sister Sarup Kaur was almost four years older than him.

Ram Rai was nine years older than Guru Harkrishan. Baba Ji was born in a palace called Sheeh Mahal. It is said that this palace, the residence of Guru Har Rai, was constructed on the model of the Sheesh Mahal of Jaipur.

After Aurangzeb had imprisoned his father and had finally wrested the Mughal throne away from his eldest half-brother Dara Shikoh (who their father Shah Jahan had preferred as the next Emperor), Aurangzeb was goaded, by members of his Court, into accusing Guru Har Rai of lending Dara Shikoh support.

Aurangzeb demanded that Guru Har Rai make an appearance in Delhi. .....More

November 8

Baba Nand Singh ji (8 November 1870 - 29 August 1943) was born on Puranmashi night in the month of Katak (November) 1870 A.D. in the village of Sherpur, Ludhiana District, Punjab, India to father, Sardar Jai Singh, an artisan by profession and mother, Mata Sada Kaur.

He was a saintly person who attracted a considerable following during his lifetime. Being completely honest at work, with a extremely courteous manner, never telling a lie, he had an unmoveable faith in the Sikh Gurus.

At the age of five, he was discovered sitting cross-legged in deep meditation for several hours on a raised and narrow bricked edge of a well outside the village. (A little sleep could plunge the child deep into the well). Elderly people who spotted him found him in deep ecstasy and total absorption quickly lifted him up to a safe place.

When questioned why he selected that spot, he replied, "In the process of devotion and love of Sri Guru Nanak Sahib if sleep overpowers, it is then better to fall into the well and die rather than live a life otherwise [without the Guru's love and remembrance]". Such was the deep dedication and unfathomable faith of Babaji from an early age. .....More

November 9

The Sikh Gurus tell us very clearly that slowly our time in this world is running out.

As we live and enjoy the pleasures of mother Earth "plugged" into the world through our sensual inputs, the body's time is slowly seeping away.

The body like any other material item in the universe is slowly withering away; slowly, our life is moving towards the end!

The human body has excellent sensory inputs; the five senses provide us with unlimited amounts of entertainments. In fact most people these days do not have enough time to enjoy all the excitements that are available in the world today. The planet is full of exciting places to visit and enjoy; amazingly fascinating sports, hikes, and adventures to go on; unimaginable films, plays and theatres to visits, etc. - the list is endless.

The quality of the inputs from our senses are almost unmatched anywhere; .....More

November 10

Gurdwara Mal ji sahib is in Nankana Sahib, Pakistan and near the local railway station but closer to this famous town associated with the founder of Sikhi, Guru Nanak. Mal (also called jal and van) is a shady tree.

It is said that once as Rai Bular was riding among the fields in this area, he saw young Nanak sleeping in the shade of a mal tree.

What struck Rai Bular was that the shade of the tree had not moved away from the sleeper as the movement and position of the sun warranted.

According to another version, the shade had moved away from the Guru but a large cobra had spread its huge hood over his face so that his sleep was not interrupted. This miracle and the incident related to Kiara Sahib convinced Rai Bular of the spiritual eminence of Guru Nanak Dev whose devotee he became.

This Gurudwara, too, was first built by Diwan Kaura Mal and renovated by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. It is larger and more imposing than Kiara Sahib with its broad copings mounted with domelets around the central dome, domed kiosks at the corners of the roof and porches on the sides of the hall. .....More

November 11
Sikh soldiers in Paris WW1 in 1916

With the outbreak of war in Europe, India, the Crown Jewel of the British Empire, joined the Allies in battle on the 4th of August 1914.

Contributing the most volunteers of any of the British imperial holdings that fought in the war, India produced between 900,000 to 1.5 million troops for combat by 1919.

Of these troops, the Sikhs, one of the two loyal 'martial races' of the British Raj, rallied in enormous numbers for the King, Empire, and the defence of Europe.

At the beginning of the war, Sikh military personnel numbered around 35,000 men of the 161,000 troops of the Indian Army, around 22% of the armed forces, yet the Sikhs only made up less than 2% of the total Indian population. By the end of the war 100,000 Sikh volunteers joined the British Armed forces with a few Sikhs also contributing to the French Air Service and the American Expeditionary Force. .....More

November 12

Maharaja Ranjit Singh (13th November 1780 - 27 June 1839) also called "Sher-e-Punjab" ("The Lion of Punjab") was the Sikh ruler of the sovereign country of Punjab and the Sikh Empire from about 1799. Maharaja was born on November 13, 1780 in Gujranwala in modern day Pakistan, into the Sansi-Sandhawalia family.

At the time, much of Punjab was ruled by the Sikhs, who had divided the territory among factions known as Misls. Ranjit Singh's father Maha Singh was the commander of the Sukerchakia misl and controlled a territory in west Punjab based around his headquarters at Gujranwala. Ranjit Singh succeeded his father at the young age of 12.

After several campaigns, his rivals accepted him as their leader, and he united the Sikh factions into one state and he took the title of Maharaja on April 12, 1801 .....More

November 13
Guru Hargobind leaves Gwalior Jail with 52 Rajas

This year (2014) on October 23,(next year its November, 11) the worldwide Sikh community celebrates the return of the sixth Nanak from detention at Gwalior Fort on the same day in about October/November 1619.

This historic event coincides with the Hindu festival of Diwali. This has resulted in similarity of celebration amongst Sikhs and Hindus.

When Murtaja Khan, Nawab of Lahore, noticed that Guru Ji had constructed Sri Akal Takhat Sahib, 'The Throne of the Almighty', at Amritsar, and was also strengthening his army, he informed the Mughal Emperor Jahangir about this.

He also incorrectly emphasised that the Sikh Guru was making preparations to take revenge for his father's torture and martyrdom. When Jahangir came to know about this he at once sent Wazir Khan and Guncha Beg to Amritsar in order to arrest Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji.

But Wazir Khan who was a well-wisher of the Sikh Guru’s requested the Guru to accompany them to Delhi as Emperor Jahangir wanted to meet him. .....More

November 14
"Those who worship and adore God in Maghar, do not suffer the cycle of reincarnation ever again."(p135)
(photo:Prabhu Singh)

On November 14, begins the ninth Sikh month of Maghar. The Sikh calendar called the Nanakshahi calendar governs activities within Sikhism and is based from date of birth of the founder of Sikhi, Guru Nanak in 1469.

This month coincides with November - December of the Western/Georgian/Julian Calendar and is 30 days long.

The Guru tells us that in the month of Maghar (November/December): "... those who sit with their Beloved Husband Lord are beautiful. How can their glory be measured?
Their Lord and Master blends them with Himself. Their bodies and minds blossom forth in the Lord; they have the companionship of the Holy Saints.
Those who lack the Company of the Holy, remain all alone. Their pain never departs, and they fall into the grip of the Messenger of Death.
Those who have ravished and enjoyed their God, are seen to be continually exalted and uplifted. They wear the Necklace of the jewels, emeralds and rubies of the Lord's Name.
Nanak seeks the dust of the feet of those who take to the Sanctuary of the Lord's Door. Those who worship and adore God in Maghar, do not suffer the cycle of reincarnation ever again. ((10)) "
(SGGS page 135) .....More

November 15

Baba Gurditta (15 November 1613 - 1638), was the eldest son of the sixth Sikh Guru, Guru Hargobind. He was born on 15 November 1613 to Mata Damodari at Daroli Bhai, District Firozpur in Punjab, India.

He was also an elder brother of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru and the father of Guru Har Rai and Dhir Mall. He was married to Mata Nihal Kaur. He had his training in religious lore and in the martial arts under the supervision of his father.

A beautiful Gurdwara stands at this site called Gurdwara Daroli Bhai, Dist. Firozpur. This Gurdwara marks the birthplace of Baba Gurditta, who was a great saint. The family of Guru Hargobind's wife Mata Damodari still live here and are custodians of some rare personal belongings of the sixth Sikh Guru, Guru Hargobind as well as a handwritten copy of Sri Guru Granth Sahib bearing the personal seal of Guru Gobind Singh. Similarly there is also an another Gurudwara at Anandpur Sahib of Baba Gurdita on a small hill nearby. .....More

November 16

Kartar Singh Sarabha (1896-1915) began his involvement in the Gadar Party in San Francisco in 1912. Sarabha was born in India in the year 1896.

After his graduation from high school in 1911, he arrived at the University of California, Berkeley to continue his studies in engineering.

In Berkeley, he joined the Gadar party in 1913. Around this time, he also learned how to fly. He returned to India in 1914 to fight for his country's independence. On November 16th, 1915, Sarabha was hanged at the tender age of 19.

Sarabha, whose father's name was Sardar Mangal Singh, was born into a Grewal Jat Sikh family at village Sarabha in the district of Ludhiana, Punjab in 1896. When he was fifteen, his parents put him on board a ship bound for America to work there. The ship landed at the American port of San Francisco in January 1912.

At that time Asian immigrants were put through rigorous questioning and there numbers were strictly limited, while people of Western European countries were allowed to pass after slight checks. .....More

November 17

Peer Budhan Ali Shah, also called Peer buddan Shah, Baba Buddan Shah, Faqir Buddhan Shah, Shams -ud -din, was a great noble Muslim saint who was a resident of Kiratpur before the township was established.

It is mentioned that on a black hill on Kehloor Mountain, there lived Pir Buddhan Shah, who had some goats. It is also said that he also kept a lion which daily took the goats grazing into the forest. One day Guru Nanak visited him and discussed spiritual matter with the Pir.

As the time for the return of the lion was approaching, he asked the Guru to leave, as the lion might attack the Guru. But to his utter surprise, as the lion returned it touched the feet of Guru Nanak.

The Pir realized the greatness of the personality of Guru Nanak and offered him some fresh milk. Guru sahib took half of the milk and told him to preserve half of the same that would be taken by his Sikh Gurditta by name, who might visit him one day. .....More

November 18
Cruelty free world.jpg

In Sikhi cruelty is not permitted; it is an aspect of human life that has been addressed very clearly by the Sikh Gurus. "Cruelty, material attachment, greed and anger are the four rivers of fire. Falling into them, one is burnt, O Nanak!" (SGGS p 147).

If anyone wants to follow the Sikh way of life, they must discard cruelty, material attachment, greed and anger otherwise they will end up as ashes! What is the point of living a life where in the end you are thrown into the fire!

So don't be a Manmukh (ego-centric, self willed person), observe the Guru's prudent directions and become a Gurmukh; follow the well thought out instructions of the wise ones!

The Guru Ram Das tells us, "The hearts of the self-willed manmukhs are hard and cruel; their inner beings are dark. Even if the poisonous snake is fed large amounts of milk, it will still yield only poison." (SGGS p 171) Remove that "hardness" and "darkness" in your heart and become pure and pristine; .....More

November 19

Dara Singh Randhawa (born November 19, 1928) is a Punjabi wrestler and film actor from the Sikh holy city of Amritsar, Punjab in India.

He was a well-known wrestler before he started acting in Hindi films in 1962.

  • Standing tall at 6’2” with rippling muscles, this wrestler has been a part of cinema for many years and is known for his portrayal of Hanuman in Ramayana.

Dara Singh is from India's state of Punjab. Due to his physique he was encouraged to study Pehlwani, an Indian style of wrestling, in the milked sand wrestling pits of India called "akhara". During the 1940's and 1950's, Dara Singh was a favourite in wrestling tournaments in India. .....More

November 20

It was here at Takhat Patna Sahib, that Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru was born in 1666. He also spent his early years here before moving to Anandpur. Besides being the birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh, Patna was also honored by visits from Guru Nanak as well as Guru Tegh Bahadur.

This is one of only five Takhats or "Seats of Authority" of the Sikhs. The Gurdwara Patna Sahib was constructed in honour of Guru Gobind Singh; like many historical Gurdwara's in India and Pakistan, this present Gurdwara was initially built by Maharaja Ranjit Singh.

Originally, at this place stood the haveli of Salis Rai Jouri, who was a great devotee of Guru Nanak. He was so much influenced by the teachings of the Guru that he converted his palatial home into a dharamsala (place where dharam is learned).

When Guru Tegh Bahadur visited Patna, he stayed in this exact site. A magnificent house was built above the dharamsala of Salis Rai. .....More

November 21
Guru Nanak-1024X768.jpg

In October/November every year, the Sikhs celebrate the birthday of Guru Nanak Dev, the founder of their religion; a youngish faith system called Sikhism. Although many in the world have not learnt about Guru Nanak, his contribution to our understanding of life and its deep meaning is immense. Why not learn more about the Guru's contributions to Sikhi and how this has benefited humanity?

Guru Nanak was born on April 15, 1469 but this year (2015), the Sikhs will celebrate this auspicious and momentous day on November 25. Next year (2016) this day will be celebrated on November 14.

Guru Nanak Dev came into this world at a time of extreme doom and gloom when the moral standards of the ruling class had vanished; the rulers had no respect for humanity; and law of the jungle prevailed everywhere. Men’s ideas and aspirations were at an all time low.

Materialistic wealth, plain greed and illusion of Maya fascinated the world and led everyone astray. Good acts and righteous behaviour no longer commended themselves to humans. .....More

November 22

Gurdwara Chakki Sahib, at Eminabad is located where a large millstone was kept which was once used by Guru Nanak. In the Janamsakhis, it is mentioned that Guru Nanak Dev was taken as a prisoner along with thousands of his fellow countrymen by Babar's men.

Baba ji was, along with many of his fellow prisoners, forced to grind corn with hand-driven chakkis (millstones). His captors were surprised to see that the millstone used by Guru Nanak was turning, by itself, while Baba ji was simply pouring grist into the opening in the stone as he sang songs to the Glory of One God.

The Guru's songs to 'One God' (the Mughals as Muslims also believed in One God) and, even more the stone's turning by itself amazed the Mughal soldiers who brought this to the immediate attention of Babar. .....More

November 23

In November 1675 at Chandni Chowk in the historic city of Delhi India, Bhai Mati Dasi, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dayal Das, the three chosen companions of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, the 9th Sikh Guru were all martyred under the orders of the chief Qazi of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Bhai Mati Das was publicly sawn in two, Bhai Sati Das was covered with cotton and set alight on fire and Bhai Dayal Das was boiled alive in a boiling hot cauldron.

Over the period 18 November to 24 November, 1675 the three Sikhs were first tortured and then killed for their refusal to renounce their own chosen faith of Sikhi and embrace under duress the faith of the Mughal government which was Islam.

The first to be tortured was Bhai Mati Das (d. 24 November 1675) (Punjabi: ਭਾਈ ਮਤੀ ਦਾਸ). He is one of the great martyrs in Sikh history. .....More

November 24

On November 24, the Sikhs remember the Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur, their ninth Guru.

An extremely important event in Sikh history that had a profound impact on the future direction of Sikhism, the religion of the Sikhs. Guru Tegh Bahadur undertook the supreme sacrifice for the protection of the most fundamental of human rights - the right of a person to freely practice his or her religion without interference or hindrance.

In the modern day we tend to take this freedom for granted – but in 1675, millions of people were denied this basic right.

However, what is even more astonishing is the fact that the Guru was not protecting the right of the Sikhs to practise their religion but instead the rights of non-Sikh peace-loving people from Kashmir. These people from Kashmir were very respected Hindus who were being converted to Islam under the threat of death by the "Mughal" Emperor Aurangzeb. In 1669, the Mughal ruler Aurangzeb departed from the policy of tolerance practised by his predecessors and unleashed instead a policy of religious persecution against non-Muslims. .....More

November 25
Guru Gobind Singh

On November 24, every year the world has celebrated the Gur Gaddi (guruship) of the tenth and last of the Ten Gurus in human form of Sikhism since 1675.

Guru ji was born on January 5, 1666 and became Guru on November 24, 1675 at the age of about nine, following in the footsteps of his father Guru Teg Bahadur. Guru Ji moulded the Sikh religion into its present form with the formation of the Khalsa in 1699.

The tenth Guru (teacher) of the Sikh faith, was born Gobind Rai. It may not be out of order to say here that throughout the annals of human history, there was no other individual who could be of more inspiring personality than Guru Gobind Singh.

Guru ji infused the spirit of both sainthood and soldiership into the minds and hearts of his followers to fight oppression and support righteousness (Dharma) in order to restore justice, peace and to uplift the down-trodden people in this world. In the short 42 years of life and a Guruship lasting only 33 years, the Guru contributed immensely to Sikhi, to India and to the world; his enormous gift to all the peoples of the world still remains unmatched to this day.

In glowing terms Swami Vivekananda writes "Guru Gobind Singh by a flash of his sword filled the dying soul of India with the life-giving light of Truth and Lo! it shone in all its glory again in the life of the new born Khalsa." .....More

November 26

On 16 June of every year since 1606, the Sikhs have commemorated the martyrdom of Guru Arjan, the fifth Sikh Guru and the first Sikh Martyr.

The story of the execution of the Sikh Guru, under the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir has suffered at the hands of poets, street entertainers and historians alike; the reality of the facts has been lost.

In about a century after Guru Nanak, Sikhism turned from a small minuscule sect into a mass movement. Many thousands of dedicated adherents followed the teachings of the Sikh Gurus; even some prominent Muslims who enjoyed a privileged position in the Mughal state during this period embraced Sikhism. The Gurus ideology was gaining great momentum.

The Mughal rulers found it difficult to tolerate the growth of Sikhism and its ever-increasing popularity. The reaction of the orthodox Muslims is found in the memoirs of Emperor Jahangir, the Tuzuk-i- Jahangiri. The main reasons for the execution of the Guru can be listed under three headings- Religious, Personal and Political. .....More

November 27

The word Sikh literally means "a learner" and is derived from the Sanskrit word "shishya" which means disciple or student or pupil; the term is also related to "Saknoti" which means "able and strong".

In the Punjabi language the word Sikh literally means to learn. A Sikh is a follower of the religion called Sikhism, which is the fifth largest organised religion in the world. A Sikh is a disciple of the Guru Granth Sahib which is more than a Holy book for the Sikhs - It is their perpetual and living spiritual teacher and guide.

Who is a Sikh? Fortunately for us, this question has been answered by the Sikh Gurus who created this word; so it is not difficult to arrive at an answer. However, it appears that many politicians and the Courts in India have taken it upon themselves to redefine this word. .....More

November 28

On 28 November every year, the Sikhs celebrate the birthday of the third son of Guru Gobind Singh, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh (28 November 1696 - 26 December 1705).

He was born to Mata Jito ji (also known as Mata Sundari ji) at Anandpur on this sacred day in 1696 and was barely nine years old at the time of the evacuation of Anandpur on the night of 5-6 December 1705.

Since the death of his mother, Mata Jito, on 5 December 1700, his grandmother Mata Gujari who had been especially attached to young Zorawar Singh and his infant brother, Fateh Singh took charge of both of them as the column moved out of Anandpur.

While crossing on horseback the rivulet Sirsa, then in flood, the three were separated from Guru Gobind Singh and the main party of Sikhs. .....More

November 29

SOBHA SINGH (29 November 1901 - 21 August 1986), famous Sikh painter, well known especially for his portraits of the Sikh Gurus, was born on 29 November 1901 in a Ramgarhia family of Sri Hargobindpur, in Gurdaspur district of the Punjab. His father, Deva Singh, had been in the Indian cavalry.

In 1905, when he was only 4 years old, his mother Bibi Acchran died and some 12 years later, when he was about 16, his father S. Deva Singh died in 1917. At the age of 15, Sobha Singh entered the Industrial School at Amritsar for a one year course in art and craft. It is said that in 1919 he was present in Jalianwala Bagh at the time of firing.

As a draughtsman in the Indian army he served in Baghdad, in Mesopotamia (now Iraq). On coming back from Baghdad, he married Inder Kaur. Whatever amount he had been sending to his sister from overseas, she had not saved anything out of it for him. They had a real hard beginning due to the stringency of money.

He left the army in 1923 to pursue an independent career in drawing and painting, initially in Amritsar at Bazar Mai Sewan. .....More

November 30

Gurdwara Sis Ganj Sahib is built at the site in the Chandni Chowk area of Old Delhi, where the revered ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded, on Wednesday, November 24, 1675, on the orders of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb for refusing to convert to Islam. Before his body could be quartered and exposed to public view, it was stolen under the cover of darkness by one of his disciple, Lakhi Shah Vanjara, who then set his home alight to cremate the Guru's body.

The 'Sis' (head) of Guru Tegh Bahadur was taken to Anandpur Sahib by Bhai Jaita, another devotee of the Guru where it was cremated by the Guru's young son, Guru Gobind Rai.

Bhai Jaita who had been of the Majhabi (scavenger) caste, was renamed Bhai Jivan Singh on the day that Guru Gobind Rai in 1699 created the Khalsa and added the names Singh or Kaur to the names of Sikhs. Bhai Jivan Singh was one of the Martyrs at Chamkaur. Guru Gobind Singh was the tenth and last "living" Guru of the Sikhs. .....More