Sikhism does not endorse caste based distinctions in society that lead to unequal opportunities for some people. In fact, Sikhism completely rejects class or race based distinctions between humans, that leads us to make an inequitable society. Such distinctions have surfaced only due to ill interests of certain section of people, who, on the pretext of making a society more manageable through these classifications, eventually paved the way to an unequal grouping within the human race. This article is just for information purpose and to share how people from different castes came into the Sikh fold. So, please treat this article as a source of general information about this issue and kindly do not amend this article to highlight this important underlying Sikh principle. If you have any comments, please discuss them appropriately here
|Castes & Tribes|
|Significant populations in||Punjab (India)|
The Jatt (Jat, Jutt, Jaat) people are a community in the Punjab region of northwestern India, often mistaken as a caste, In broader terms they are an ethnic group, similar to Gujjars and Pashtuns,. They inhabit the states of Haryana, Punjab, UP and Rajasthan and are also numerous in Punjab, Pakistan, with small populations also found in Baluchistan and Afghanistan. They are thought to be descendants of Scythians by many historians who migrated to the fertile region of northwestern India through Sindh as nomadic farmers and settled with the local population. Jat lineage originally traces back to the Central Asian steppe, with people of the Jat ethnic origin showing the highest percentage of the R1a DNA marker, as well as over 20% NE European DNA, a figure higher than any other ethnic group in India. Jat people are mistakenly thought of coming under the shudra class in the Hindu Verna system mainly because of their mass migration occurring well after the caste system in India was established. They have never adopted the Brahmanical system of Hinduism.
Jat people were historically farmers, landowners and warriors. They are now found numerously in the West with over a third of Sikhs being of Jat origin.
The original home of the Jats was in Central Asia near the country we now call Kazakstan. During the early part of the Christian era, most of the Jats were uprooted by the Mongol people from their homeland in Central Asia, after ruling there for over one thousand years. In turn Jats split into 2 groups one invaded India to the South and other invaded the Roman Empire in the West. Thus, they established themselves as the Alans in France, Spain, Portugal and so on, in the fifth century A.D.
The Jat people ethnic group which live in Northern India and Pakistan regions, have many different types of religions, professions and languages. They have a distinct cultural history that can be historically traced back to ancient times. Some have moved to Western countries for business and commercial reasons. There some have become prominent sections of the immigrant peoples in the West.
The Jats were designated in a British report as a Martial Race. 'Martial Race' was a designation created by officials of British India to describe "races" (peoples) that were thought to possess qualities such as courage, loyalty, self sufficiency, physical strength, resilience, orderliness, hard working, fighting tenacity and military tactics. The British recruited heavily from these so-called 'Martial Races' for service in the colonial army.
Famous Jat People
Hardy Sandhu - An Indian singer
Gurdas Mann - An Indian singer, songwriter, choreographer, and actor
Diljit Dosanjh - An Indian singer, actor and television presenter
Manushi Chhillar - Miss World 2017
History and Study of the Jat Sikhs
A British Officer, Captain Falcon, in his Handbook on Sikhs  wrote, in 1896, "The back-bone of the Sikh people is the great Jat Race, divided and sub-divided into numerous clans. The Jats are thoroughly independent in character, and assert personal and individual freedom, as against communal or tribal control, more strongly than any other people". As far the origin of the Jat Sikhs or in that matter other Jats, Major Barstow  remarked in 1928, "It is from these Scythian immigrants that most of the Jat tribes are at any rate partly descended. They thus colonized the Punjab, Northern Rajputana (modern Indian state of Rajasthan), and the western half of the Gangetic Doab (western part of the modern Indian state of Uttar Pardesh in northern India), and a considerable proportion of the inhabitants of these countries are undoubtly of Scythian origin".
In regard to the characteristics of the Jat Sikhs Captain Bingley  quoted Thomason in 1899, "they are manly without false pride; undemonstrative; independent without insolence; reserved in manner, but good-natured, light-hearted, and industrious. No one could be associated with them for any time without conceiving both respect and liking for them".
Approximately one third of Jats in South Asia follow Sikhism. They make up the majority of Sikhs. Even though there are no up to date accurate available statistics, some people say their number is as high as 85%. As per the A.D. 1888 census returns [4,5] figure for the total number of baptised Sikhs in India was 1,706,909 and the Jats accounted for 66%. Their association with Sikhism is deeply rooted. For example, two of the well known followers of Guru Nanak (born in 1469), the founder of Sikhism, were Jats: Bala (a Sandhu Jat ) and Bhai Buddha (a Randhawa Jat).
Furthermore, Latif  said, "This vast delta (area surrounding the birthplace of Guru Nanak in Punjab called "Richna Doab"), during the period immediately preceding the establishment of the Sikh religion, was inhabited by the Jats and Bhattis (to the best of my knowledge Bhatti is also the clan name of some Jats). In addition, the world reknown Professor Ellsworth Huntington  of Yale University remarked, "…the Sikhs are the only one of these… …that has experienced any appreciable selection…. That as important religious selection took place among them in early days seem clear. People do not accept a new faith unless there is something in their temperament which responds to that faith…. Most of the original Sikhs were Jats…". Professor Huntington's assertion of the original Sikhs belonging to the Jat background is supported by several European eyewitness account writers of the eighteenth century:
- Colonel A.L.H. Polier (died in A.D. 1795)  wrote, "Originally and in general the Siques (Sikhs) are zemindars (landowners) or cultivators of land, and of that tribe called Jatts (Jats) which, in this part of India, are reckoned the best and most laborious tillers, though at the same time they are also noted for being of an unquiet and turbulent disposition. This tribe of Jatts (Jats) is very numerous and dispersed in all the country from the Sind (presently, a province of Pakistan or river Indus) to the southward far beyond Agra (a city in northern India).
In another document Polier  said, "But what is more to be admitted is that those Seik (Sikh) Sirdars (Chiefs), whose territories border on the King's were but very lately of the Jauts (Jats) and of their race and tribe ---- they have put on their iron bracelet, fifty of them are enough to keep at bay a whole battalion of the king's forces, such as they are".
- Griffiths, J. (his document dated February 17, 1794 A.D.)  said, "The Jaats (Jats) are said to observe some institutions similar to the Seiks (Sikhs), wear their hair and beards in the same manner, and are part of the same people, who under Swrudge Mul (Suraj Mal----consult Chapter 5 for more information on this powerful king of the Jats), etc., formerly possessed many of the countries in the North India---".
- Francklin, W. (Documented during A.D. 1798-1803)  wrote, "Considerable similarity in their (Sikhs) general customs may be traced with those of the Jauts (Jats); though these, in some districts, apparently vary, the difference is not material, and their (Sikhs) permitting an interchange of marriages with the Jauts (Jats) of the Doab and Harrianah (probably same as the modern Haryana state of India) amounts almost to a conclusive proof of their affinity of origin.
- The Seiks (Sikhs) allow foreigners of every description to join their standard, to sit in their company, and to shave their beards, but excepting in the instances of the Jauts (Jats), they will not consent to intermarriages----. If indeed some regulations which are in their (Sikhs) nature purely military ----be excepted, it will be found, that the Seiks (Sikhs) are neither more or less than Jauts (Jats) in their primitive state".
- Browne, J. (Major and who written the first book in English on Sikhs "History of the Origin and Progress of the Sikhs" in A.D. 1788)  said, "The people known by the name of Sicks (Sikhs), were originally the common inhabitants of the provinces of Lahore and Multan (now both in Pakistan), and mostly of the Jaut (Jat) tribe ----".
- Francklin, W. (documented during A.D. 1798-1803)  wrote, "The Seiks (Sikhs), in their person, are tall, and of a manly erect deportment; their aspect is ferocious, their eyes piercing and animated; and in tracing their features a striking resemblance is observable to the Arabs who inhabit the banks of the Euphrates (river in modern Iraq)". This is an interesting observation on and appears to have some historical connection because General Sir Sykes  says in his book that a large number of Jats from the Indus Valley were taken to the marches of the Tigris (river in modern Iraq) in eighth century A.D. For more information on this topic the reader is directed to Chapter 3.
Regarding the founding of Khalsa (baptised Sikhs or saint soldiers in A.D. 1699) by Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth and the last Guru of the Sikhs,
- Lt. General Sir MacMunn  wrote, "The Jats of the Punjab, sturdy and quarrelsome, flocked to the new brotherhood (Khalsa), and he (Guru Gobind Singh) soon had a force which enabled him to try conclusions… …with the forces at Delhi (Emperor of India's). A strong religious sense did animate these warlike, muscular Jats…. The Jat tribes about the Sutlej and the Ravi rivers hastened to join the faith…. No longer would they turn the cheek to their persecutor, and they began to group themselves by tribes and confederacies known as Misals…".
The Twelve Misals
In the eighteenth century Sikhs were very successful in establishing twelve principalities or confederacies called Misals (Misal is a Arabic word means alike or equal ). At least nine of these Misals were founded by the Jats. The history of each of the Misals founded in the eighteenth century by the Jats is briefly described below [6, 7, 15-17].
This powerful Misal of the Sikhs was founded by Bhim Singh of the Jat background. The name "Bhangi" is derived from the members of the confederacy who made use of Bhang, an intoxicating drug manufactured from hemp [7, 16]. Bhim Singh was succeeded by his nephew named Hari Singh belonging to the Dhillon clan of the Jats. Hari Singh's sons, Jhanda Singh and Ganda Singh played an instrumental role in strengthening the Misl. Also, they are credited for constructing the Bhangi fort at Amritsar (the holy city of the Sikhs in Punjab) and enlarging and beautifying the town with many noble edifices  in the later part of the eighteenth century.
The first chief of this Misal was Jai Singh, a Jat of the Sandhu clan belonging to a village named Kanah, fifteen miles from Lahore (now in Pakistan) [7, 16]. The name of the Misal is derived from the name of Jai Singh's village and one time the Misal was the strongest of the Sikh confederacies north of the river Sutlej in Punjab .
The chief of this Misal was Hira Singh, a Jat of the Sandhu clan [7, 16]. The area lying between Lahore and Gogaira (now both in Pakistan) was called Naka country and during the middle of the eighteenth century A.D., Hira Singh took possession of it; thus the Misal became known as Nakai Misal.
This is also known as the Fyzulpuria Misal after a village near Amritsar (Punjab) called Fyzullapur. The Misal was founded by a Jat landlord named Kapur Singh Virk who later on was popularly known as Nawab Kapur Singh Virk . He died at Amritsar in A.D. 1753.
Krora Singhia Misal
Sometimes it is also known as the Panjgarhia Misal, from the village of its first chief, Karora Singh. Karora Singh belonged to the Jat background  and the Misal was popularly known after his name.
Two Jats named Sangat Singh and Mohar Singh were the founder of this Misal . These two warriors were the standard-bearers of the assembled Khalsa (baptized Sikh or pure) army, hence, the name Nishanwala was given to this Misal.
This Misal was founded by Charat Singh, a Jat of the Sandhawalia clan and grandfather of the Maharaja (great King) Ranjit Singh, the ruler of the Sikh empire of the nineteenth century . The Misal is named after the native village of Charat Singh, called Sukerchak in Amritsar district of Punjab or Manjha country .
As per Latif , the chief of this Misal was a Jat named Phul of the Sandhu (Sidhu?) clan; thus the Misal is known by his name. Phul had seven sons who became the ancestors of the royal families of Patiala, Nabha, and Jhind States (now in modern Punjab).
Latif  wrote, "The founder of the Misal was Khoshal Singh, a Jat of Mouza Guga near Amritsar, Punjab. After his death he was succeeded by Nodh Singh of Sahangi also near Amritsar. Three most daring brothers named Jassa Singh, Mali Singh, and Tara Singh of Tarkhan (carpenter) background and belonging to Mouza Sarsang in the Lahore district (now in Pakistan) became devout followers of Nodh Singh. After the death of Nodh Singh, Jassa Singh became the chief of the Misal. The Misal seized the fort of Ram Raouni (Fortalice of God) and then renamed it Ramgarh (God's Fort )". Later on the Misal was popularly known as the Ramgarhia Misal. The largest Bunga with two watchtowers, at the Complex of the Harmandar Sahib was built by the Ramgarhia Misl. The Bunga served as home base for the Ramgarhias during the yearly visits to the Temple and also as a military barracks from which the Ramgarhias could defend the Sacred Site. A gaint block of granite called the 'Coronation Stone' of the Grand Mughals is located in the second floor of the Bunga in the open balcony area. During the period when the Sikhs controlled Delhi the stone on which Emperors were installed and from which they read their edicts was removed from the Lal Killa and carted to Amritsar. This is said to be the very same stone from which the death sentences for Guru Tegh Bahadur and Banda Bahadur were pronounced.
Misaldars select a Punjab ka Maharaja
Maharaja Ranjit Singh, a Jat of the Sandhawalia clan and of the Sukerchakia Misal integrated all the Misals and ultimately established the Sikh empire in the North-West India, which ended with the British takeover in 1849. One time the Sikh empire embraced the whole of the undivided Punjab (prior to the creation of Pakistan), Kashmir, and a part of Tibet. Even though Maharaja Ranjit Singh was a Jat and a Sikh, during his rule he treated every individual and community very fairly which won him the admiration of people inside and outside his empire.
Members of his government belonged to the different communities of his empire. For example, his Foreign Minister was a Muslim and his Treasurer, a Hindu. Commanders of his army were Sikhs, Jat Sikhs, Muslims, Hindus, French, Italian, and Americans. French and Italian Generals of the Maharaja Ranjit Singh's army had fought in the battle of Waterloo alongside Napoleon and later on joined the Sikh army. These Generals were Allard, Court, and Ventura . Two of his famous Punjabi Generals were Hari Singh Nalwa and Sham Singh Attariwala (a Jat of the Sidhu clan ). Maharaja Ranjit Singh also employed several Western medical doctors and artists. According to Cunningham  in 1844 the estimated revenue of the Sikh Kingdom was 32.475 million in 1844 rupees and the breakdown for the army's forces was:
- Infantry (92,000)
- Cavalry (31,800)
- Field Artillery (384 Guns)
Ranjit Singh was the only ruler in South Asia who could have opposed British rule in India but he had befriended the British with which he entered into peace treaties. He died on June 27, 1839 and was succeeded by his son Kharak Singh. A year later on November 5, 1840 Kharak Singh also passed away (said to have been poisoned by the Dogra Brothers) and on the same day that his son Nau Nihal Singh became the de facto Maharaja, he was wounded in a suspicious freak accident while returning from his father's funeral, rushed from the scene and locked away from his family and friends by his father's Vasir, Dylan Singh Dogra (a Rajput who had declared allegance to Maharaja Ranjit Singh but did not, himself, become a Sikh). When the other Sikh courtiers finally forced the doors open to the chambers where Kanvar-Maharaja Nau Nihal Singh was held, he was found dead and in a much worse condition than when he was carried away on a palki with only minor injuries. Dylan Singh Dogra would now abandon the court of the Mahrani who wished to wait for the imminant birth of the Kanvar's child and move to the camp of Sher Singh, Kharak Singh's half-brother who was soon, after laying seige to The Lahore Darbar, proclaimed Maharaja of the Sikh Kingdom only to be assassinated a few years later along with his son and the treacherous Dogra Vazir.
Finally, the youngest son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Dalip Singh, became the ruler of the Sikh Kingdom and in A.D. 1849, after two failed Anglo-Sikh wars, his Kingdom became a part of the British Empire. The young Dalip Singh was taken to England by the British authorities and became a close friend of Queen Victoria's family. Interestingly, General Sir MacMunn  wrote, "Then was the Punjab annexed and the boy, Dalip Singh, eventually sent to be brought up in England with ample revenues. To him his friend, Colonel Sleeman, the famous Indian political officer, wrote, "I see you are going to live in Kent (district in South-East England). You will be among your own people there, for you are a Jat and the men of Kent are Jats from Jutland", and no doubt he was speaking ethnological truth". Dalip Singh died in Paris on October 22, 1893 .
The factors such as discussed above may have influenced the Western and other authors to say the following:
"Sikhism …which drew its adherents from all classes, each of which possessed distinctive manners and customs; the social and numerical preponderance of the Jats, however, carried such weight in the formation of the national character, that the customs of the Sikh, whatever his origin, may now be considered as practically identical with those of the Punjab Jat". (Major Barstow, A.E., , pp. 151)
"…the virtues of the Jats are identical with those of the Sikhs…". (Captain Bingley, A.H. , pp. 93)
"The virtues of the Jats are identical with those of the Sikhs, who have come out of this race, and the new creed has added a more military spirit, which is the principal tradition of the creed". (Captain Falcon, R.W. , pp. 65).
"If indeed some regulations which are in their (Sikhs) nature purely military… …be excepted, it will be found, that the Seiks (Sikhs) are neither more or less than Jauts (Jats) in their primitive state ". (Francklin, W. , pp. 240-241)
"The Jaats (Jats) are said to observe some institutions similar to the Seiks (Sikhs), wear their hair and beards in the same manner, and are part of the same people…". (Griffiths, J. , pp. 224-225)
"Gobind (Guru Gobind Singh, the last guru of the Sikhs) added religious fervour to warlike temper, and his design of founding a kingdom of Jats upon the waning glories of Aurangzeb's (Mughal Emperor of India in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries A.D.) dominion does not appear to have been idly conceived or rashly undertaken. The emperor perhaps thought that the leader (Guru Gobind Singh) of insurrectionary Jats…". (Cunningham, J.D. , pp. 69, 72).
"…possessed themselves (Jats) of the Punjab; and strange to say, have again risen to power, for the Sikhs of Nanuk (Guru Nanak, founder of the Sikhism) are almost all of Jit (Jat) origin. …the present Jit (Jat) prince of Lahore (Maharaja Ranjit Singh during the time of Col. Tod), whose successor, if he be endued with similar energy, may, on the reflux of population, find himself seated in their original haunts of Central Asia, to which they have already considerably advanced". (Lt. Col. Tod, J. , pp. 623 (Vol, I), 138 (Vol. II))
"Uncut hair was a Jat custom…". (Professor Pettigrew, J. , pp. 25)
"They (Jats) brought with them certain institutions, the most important being the pancayat (panchayat), an elected body of five elders, to which they pledged their allegiance. Every Jat village was a small republic…". (A well known Sikh scholar Khushwant Singh , pp. 14-15).
Description of the Jats Sikhs by British Military Officers
During British rule in India, the government periodically assigned the task, of producing handbooks to recruit new Sikhs for military service, to various military officers: Captain Falcon, R.W.  (A.D. 1896), Captain Bingley, A.H.  (A.D. 1899), and Major Barstow, A.E.  (A.D. 1928). Some of the descriptions of the Jat Sikhs given in the these Military documents are as follows:
"The Sikh Jat is generally tall and muscular, with well shaped limbs, erect carriage, and strongly marked and handsome features. The Jat Sikhs have always been famous for their fine physique and are surpassed by no race in India for high-bred looks, smartness, and soldierly bearing. They make admirable soldiers, when well led, inferior to no native race in India, with more dogged courage than dash, steady in the field, and trustworthy in difficult circumstances. The mass of Jat Sikh population may fairly be said to be contented and law-abiding ".
"The Jats of the Punjab proper (in modern Punjab almost all of them belong to the Sikh faith) have been truly described as the backbone of the province by character and physique, as well as by numbers and locality. They are stalwart sturdy yeomen, of great independence, industry, and agricultural skill, and collectively form perhaps the finest peasantry in India.
Sturdy independence, and patient vigorous labour, are perhaps the strongest characteristics of the Jat Sikhs. The typical Jat Sikh is faithful and true to his employer, seldom shows insubordination, and with a good deal of self-esteem has a higher standard of honour than is common among most Orientals " …tribes (clans) of the Jats from whom sprang the Sikh, these are typical Jats of the Punjab, which include those great Sikh Jat tribes (clans), who have made the race so renowned in recent history, occupying… …and great Sikh states of the eastern plains ".
Jat Sikh soldiers in World War I & II
A large number of Sikh soldiers fought on the side of Great Britain during both the First and Second World Wars. The recruitment policy concerning the Sikh soldiers into the British India Army appears to have been heavily biased towards the Jat Sikhs. For example, three handbooks [1-3] produced for the British India Government basically covered material concerning the Jat Sikhs and explicitly made statements such as follows:
Captain Falcon, R.W. , pp. 81, 106: "…if military service is made the exclusive right of Jat Sikhs and a few outcasts, still the Jat must ever be the main source for recruits, as he far and away outnumbers the other people, and possesses as a class qualities which no other people can claim. If, too, a Sikh belonging to a good Sikh tehsil (sub-district), does not give the name of a well known Jat Sikh tribe (clan) as his, he is pretty sure not to be a Jat…".
Captain Bingley, A.H. , pp. 111: "…a man will say he is a zamindar (landlord) or Jat and that he ploughs, to which fact the horniness of the palms of his hands will certify, he may be claiming to be a Jat…".
Major Barstow, A.E. , pp. 180-181 and 2: "…Jat Sikhs sent a very high percentage of their eligible men to army. Units whose standard prewar (World War I) were 5 feet 9 in. with proportionate chest development were through force of circumstances obliged to take men at 5 feet 3 in., and moreover instead of maintaining a Jat Sikh standard were required to open their ranks to every kind of…. Out of ten Punjabis, nine live in villages and…; it is from these plains, from the great tribe of Jats, that our recruits are obtained".
Professor Joyce Pettigrew  added, "the army (British India Army) had recruited only Jats (Jat Sikhs) and had been closed as an occupation to…".
Furthermore, Philip Mason  says "Most Sikhs-particularly in the army-are descended from Hindus who were Jats by race before their conversion (to Sikhism)…. They make good soldiers…".
British military officers appear to have regularly used the term "Jat Sikhs", for example, General Sir MacMunn  on page 4 of his book wrote regarding the arrival of the British Indian Army in France during World War I, "The martial races shall stride across the stage… …as they swung through Marseilles (France) with half the girls of France on their arms… …that Marseilles that went beside itself to see the smoke stacks and masts of the mighty. Armada that brought the Army of India. The Jat Sikhs mighty and curled of bears, kin perhaps of the men of Kent (a district in England), the Jutes from Jutland…".
Books on Jat Sikhs
There are at least four books which are fully or partially devoted to the subject of Jat Sikhs. All of those books were written by western authors: Captain Falcon  (A.D. 1896), Captain Bingley  (A.D. 1899), Major Barstow  (A.D. 1928), and Professor Pettigrew  (A.D. 1975).
- Under the orders from the British India Government, Captain Falcon  prepared his handbook on Sikhs for the use of regimental officers. This is a 142 page book and is divided into six chapters: Introductory and explanatory (Chapter 1), The Sikh religion (Chapter 2), on Race as affecting Sikhs (Chapter 3), Manners and Customs (Chapter 4), Districts (Areas), Race, and Tribes, with relation to their value for military purposes (Chapter 5), and Notes on recruiting (Chapter 6). All the chapters of the book cover substantial amount of material on Jat Sikhs and in particular Chapter 5 encompassing about one third of the book, is devoted to Jat Sikhs and provides information on Jats in all the districts of Punjab. The information covers Jat clan names and their location, population, a number of villages belonging to specific clans, and so on.
- In 1899 Captain Bingley  compiled, under the orders of the Government of India, another handbook for the Indian Army on Sikhs. The book is made up of 121 pages and is divided into five chapters plus an appendix: History and origin (Chapter 1), classification and geographical distribution (Chapter 2), Religion customs, sects, festivals, and fairs (Chapter 3), Characteristics (Chapter 4), Recruiting (Chapter 5), and List of districts and tehsils (sub-districts) with their relative value as recruiting grounds and the principal tribes (Jat clans) found there in (Appendix A), and List of the principal fairs held in the Sikh recruiting area (Appendix B).
- Throughout the book, the emphasis is on Jats and also traces the history of the Jats from their forefathers, the Scythians of the Central Asia. Also the book provides information on over thirty principal Jat clans (Gill, Mann, Her, Bains, Dhillon, Virk, Bhullar, Bal, Bath, Chima, Chahil, Deol, Dhaliwal, Grewal, Chaman, Goraya, Hinjra, Hundal, Khaira, Kang, Malhi, Khosa, Pannun, Randhawa, Sahi, Sahota, Sohal, Sansi or Sindhanwalia, Sidhu, Sandhu, Tarar, Varaich, Chung, Bajwa, and Aulak) and names of Punjab districts occupied by various Jat clans.
- In 1928, Major Barstow  revised the handbook on Sikhs by Captain Bingley  upon the request of the Government of British India. Major Barstow's book is composed of ten chapters plus an appendix divided into six parts. This is certainly a comprehensive book on Sikhs and again its emphasis is on Jat Sikhs.
- The chapters of the book are entitled Introductory (Chapter 1), Origin of Sikhism and its history (Chapter 2), Distribution of Sikhs: ethnological and ethnographic glossary of castes (Chapter 3), Salient features of the lives of the Gurus (founders of the Sikhism) (Chapter 4), The Sikh religion (Chapter 5), Sikh sects and sub-divisions of the Jat Sikhs (Chapter 6), Customs (Chapter 7), Characteristics and Matters pertaining to village life (Chapter 8), Agricultural (Chapter 9), and Recruiting (Chapter 10). Similarly, the appendices are entitled List of districts, etc., showing relative value of Sikh recruiting grounds (Appendix 1), Description of the "Adi Granth" (Sikh holy book) and "Daswen Padshah ka Granth" (holy book written by the tenth Guru of the Sikhs) (Appendix 2), Rites of initiation in Sikhism (Appendix 3), The Sikh Gurdwara (Church) Act, 1925 (Appendix 4), The Caste System (Appendix 5), and The Tankha Nama, or letter of fines or restrictions on Sikhs (Appendix 6).
- The book covers briefly the history of the Jats from their Scythian origin, Jat clans of various districts of Punjab and their population in each district as per the Census returns of A.D. 1911, Jat characteristics, etc. The districts covered are Ludhiana, Ambala, Patiala state, Nabha state, Ferozepore, Faridkot State, Hissar, Amritsar, Lahore, Sialkot, Gurdaspur, Gurjarnwala, Jullundur, Kapurthala State, Hoshiarpur, and Jind State.
- The book by Professor Pettigrew  published in 1975 is totally devoted to Jat Sikhs. It contains 272 pages in seventeen chapters, and an appendix divided into eight sections. The chapters are grouped into three parts: Part I: The environment (Chapter 1), Part II: Sikh Jats (Chapters, 2-5, and Part III: Factionalism (Chapters 6-17).
- The titles of the chapters are Introduction (Chapter 1), Perspective on community studies (Chapter 2), Significant events in Jat history (Chapter 3), Patterns of allegiance I (Chapter 4), Patterns of allegiance II-Sikh Jat families (Chapter 5), The Structure of coalitions-factions at all levels (Chapter 6), Vertical links of a state leader with a national leader (chapter 7), The relationships of the Chief Minister (of Punjab) at state level (Chapter 8), The Kairon-Rarewala (two powerful Jat politicians) rivalries (Chapter 9), The general nature of factional rivalries in rural areas (Chapter 10), Factional participants in the local area (Chapter 11), Vertical links between leaders of the faction in the local area and those at state level (Chapter 12), The factional attachments of village participants (Chapter 13), Relationships between village participants and local area leaders (Chapter 14), Factions in competition (Chapter 15), Assessment (Chapter 16), and Personal postscript: real people and images (Chapter 17).
Noted Historical Jat Sikhs of the Punjab
Some of the well-known Jat Sikhs of the Sikh history are Baba Deep Singh (a Sandhu Jat), Bhai Bala (a Sandhu Jat), Baba Buddha (a Randhawa Jat), Bhai Dharam Singh (a Jat), Bhai Mani Singh (a Jat) and Mehtab Singh (a Bhangu Jat). Two of the well known Jat Sikhs of the early part of the twentieth century were Shahid Bhagat Singh (a Sandhu Jat), Colonel Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon (a Dhillon Jat) and General Mohan Singh of the Indian National Army (INA).
All but one or two Chief Ministers or Premiers of the Punjab state have been Jat Sikhs: Partap Singh Kairon (a Dhillon Jat), Gurnam Singh (a Grewal Jat), Lachhman Singh Gill (a Gill Jat), P.S. Badal (a Dhillon Jat) and etc. Examples of the Jat Sikhs who held important portfolios in the federal government of India are Baldev Singh (first defense minister of the independent India), Sawarn Singh (a Purewal Jat and served as Foreign and Defense Minister of India), Dr G.S. Dhillon (a Dhillon Jat and served as speaker and Transportation Minister of India).
Jat Sikhs in Western Countries
Over the last hundred years, many Jat Sikhs have settled in various Western countries: Canada, the United States, Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand, etc. In fact, at least 80 per cent of the Sikhs settled in these countries belong to the Jat background. Some of the Politicians belonging to the Jat Sikh background in Canada and the United States are Moe Sihota (a Cabinet Minister of British Columbia), H. Dhaliwal (Parliamentary Secretary for Fisheries and Member of Parliament of Canada), G.S. Mahli (Member of Parliament of Canada), Dr. G.S. Cheema (former member of the Manitoba Legislative Assembly), U.S. Dosanjh (Member of the British Columbia Legislative Assembly), H.S. Lalli (Member of the British Columbia Legislative Assembly), H.S. Sohal (Member of the Alberta Legislative Assembly), and I.S. Dhillon (former Assistant Secretary of Transportation of the United States and now a candidate for the U.S. House of Representatives).
Rebuttals to "Jatt as a Caste" Theory
The biggest Misconception regarding the term "Jatt" is defining it as a "Caste" as per the standards set by the Indian Caste System. Nothing can be far away from truth as this misconception. The fact that Jatt is a Race has been widely supported by both historians and raciologists working in this field and has been discussed in detail. Here are some negations and rebuttals to the false claim that Jatt is a so called "Caste". These rebuttals have not been and cannot be negated and the truth lies in the fact that Jatt is a Race and not a Caste as traditionally thought. Here are five rebuttals that will prove this point.
- Rebuttal 1 - ETHNIC NATURE: If you look at the Nature of a "Caste", you will notice that its spread throughout India. Eg Caste consists of professions divided into four Categories called Varnas. The Caste System, in its present form, is further based solely upon birth. Thus, as per Caste Rules, Farmer Profession is categorized under Vaisya Category (Varna). And Remember that as per Caste SYSTEM in its present form, this is to be based upon Birth i.e. Farmer's son MUST ONLY be Farmer if Caste System has to be maintained. This point will further be used as a rebuttal in proving how Jatt is not a Caste. Now talking about Ethnicity, you will notice that Caste is not Ethnic in nature at all. Eg a Priest living in North of India will belong to a Brahmin Caste and a Priest living in South of India will also belong to Brahmin Caste. THERE IS NO ETHNIC SIMILARITY HERE. In the same way, NOTE VERY CAREFULLY that a Farmer of North India will be a Vaish and a Farmer of South of India will also be a Vaish. This Logic leads us to conclude that IF Jatt is a Caste (assuming the proposition that Jatts are Farmers) then Jatts must also be Present uniformly throughout India, (just like Brahmins) the land where Caste System is present. But observation tells us that Jatts are only present in Punjab, Haryana and parts of Uttar Pardesh. This gives an Ethnic Nature to Jatt Identity strongly proving the case that assumption "Jatt means Farmer" is false and thereby further concluding assumption that Jatt is a Caste is False too. FIRST REBUTTAL OVER.
- Rebuttal 2 - RACE PRESENCE: It should be noted that this discussion is yet not concerned with Historical viewpoint and raciological and archaeological study of Jatt History. Its just about rebuttals to how Jatt is not a "Caste". What it is then, is a matter of study that will be made in further papers.
- Caste is present in different Races. Eg Priestly Caste Brahmins are present in South Indian Dravidian Race as well as in North Indian Races. If its assumed that Jatt is a caste, why then are there no Jatts in, lets say, Dravidian Races? Again, the Ethnic Nature Rebuttal further strengthens this point and further helps this rebuttal in making yet another point in how Jatt is not a Caste.
- Rebuttal 3 - FUNDAMENTALS OF CASTES: All the fundamentals, rules and regulations of Castes are goverened by Religious Law Books such as Manusmriti written by a man called Manu. All of these books are part of Hinduism, written by Hindu Mystics. Two thirds of Jatt Community does not follow Hinduism and thereby Manusmriti, that defines and regulates the basic backbone of Caste System holds no relevance for this two thirds of Jatt Community who are not Hindus but are Jatts. Yet another strong rebuttal as how Jatt is not a Caste.
- Rebuttal 4 - PROFESSIONAL NATURE OF CASTES: Castes are professional in nature. Though Caste System further makes it a compulsion to make it based upon birth. But Jatts can be found in just any profession: Business, Politics, Sports and so on. Proving further Jatt is Not a Caste.
- Rebuttal 5 - CASTE-EXCOMMUNICATION: This is yet another important point. As a punitive measure, the Caste of a person can be degraded if some pre-defined rules are not set i.e. a person who is a Brahmin can be degraded to a Shudra Caste and so on. Thus Caste follows the rule of Ex-Communication. But a Jatt born among the Jatts can, under no condition, be ex-communicated. Good or Evil, a Jatt shall always remain a Jatt.
Together, the above five points of rebuttals thereby confirm the fact that - without doubt that Jatt is not a Caste.
Jatt Clans, A-Y
Ablana, Abra, Abni, Agwana, Ahlawat, Ahulana, Alpah, Alwi, Amlawat, Andar, Ansari, Antaal/Antal(also Untal), Anuja, Anwal, Arab, Arar, Arwal, Arya, Asar or Asra, Athangal, Atwal, Aujla, Aulakh or Aurak, Ayasi
Babbar, Bachhal, Badah, Badanah, Badechh, Badeesha, Bader, Badhan/Bidhan or Pakhai, Badohal, Badro, Badye, Bagga, Bagrah, Bagri, Bahia, Bahniwal, Baidwan, Bains, Bairwal, Bajwa, Bakarki, Bal, Balagan, Balham, Balho, Balwatrah, Banb, Band, Bandal, Bandechh, Bandejah, Banhor, Banipal/Behnipal/Benipal, Barian, Barn , Baryar, Basi/Bassi, Basra/Basran, Batth, Basanti,Bat or Bath, Batar, Bati, Battar, Batuhe, Bawah, Bawre, Behar/Bhar, Berag, Bhadah, Bhadiar, Bhagar, Bhaggu, Bhalar, Bhalerah, Bhaman, Bhamrai, Bhandal, Bhandar, Bhander, Bhango/Bhangoo/Bhangu, Bhaniwal, Bhanrar, Bhar/Behar, Bharah, Bharal, Bharanch, Bharwal, Bharwana, Bharyar, Bhati, Bhatthal, Bhatti, Bhatia, Bhati Wad, Bhidal, Bhindal, Bhindar, Bhojiya, Bhola, Bholar, Bhonah, Bhotah, Bhotar, Bhullar, Bhutha, Bilan, Binning/Birring, Birak, Biring, Bochah, Bojak, Bola, Bonah, Bopahrae, Boperai, Bosan, Botar or Buttar, Brar/ Barar, Bubak, Buch, Buhar, Bura, Burana, Burra, Buta
Chaddu, Chahal, Chaina, Chakora, Chamal, Chamer, Chanan, Chanbal, Chandar, Chandarh, Chander, Changala, Chankar, Channar, Chanon, Chanwan, Chasti, Chatha/Chattha, Chatyal, Chemiya, Chhajra, Chhaju, Chhamia, Chhana, Chhanb, Chhaner, Chhatta, Chhatar, Chhina/China, Chholiana, Chhon or Chhoni, Chimma/Chima/Cheema, Chohan/Chauhan, Chohang, Chokahi, Chokhia, Choniya, Chosar, Chowah/Chowan
Dabb, Dadu, Dagar, Daha, Dahal, Dahalo, Dahamrai, Dahan, Dahang, Dahar, Dahawa, Dahba, Dahiya, Dahko, Dahloli, Daho, Dahon, Dahrala, Dahrija, Dal, Dalani, Dalo, Dammar, Dandi, Dandiwal, Danwar, Dargh, Daspal, Daul, Dehia, Deo, Deol, Deoania, Derija, Deswal/Deshwal, Dewala, Dewar, Dhadah, Dhadli/Dhandli/Dhadly, Dhadwal, Dhakku, Dhalan, Dhali, Dhalon, Dhami, Dhanda, Dhandiwal, Dhandsahar, Dhankar/ Dhankhar, Dhanoa/Dhnoa/Danoa/Dhanoya, Dhanoe, Dhanri, Dhar, Dharni, Dhaliwal/Dhariwal, Dhasi, Dhatt, Dhaunchak, Dhed, Dhendsa, Dher, Dhesi, Dhillon, Dhindsa, Dhinsa, Dhol, Dhori, Dhotar, Dhudhi, Dhudi, Dhuga/Dhugga, Dihadrae, Dodi, Dolat or Dulhat, Domarah, Dosanjh, Drigs, Duleh/Dulay/Dulai, Dun, Dund Rai, Dusanj
Faqartadari, Faqrakh, Fagura
Gabhal, Gabir, Gadarah, Gadari, Gadwar, Gagrah, Gahlla, Gakhal, Gal, Galhar, Galwatrah, Ghandu, Gandia, Gangah, Ganj, Ganwan, Ganwanen, Ganwen, Ganwari, Garalwal, Garcha, Garewal or Grewal, Garhar, Gat, Gatab, Gawaria, Gazdar, Gazzi, Gelan, Gendas, Ghagah, Ghagrah, Ghalo, Ghalo Kanjanarah, Ghalowaknun, Ghaman, Ghan, Ghanghas, Ghatwal, Ghumman, Gill, Gir, Girwanh, Godara, Gohra, Goj, Golia, Gondal, Gopalak, Gopa Rai/ Gopirai, Gor, Gorae, Gorah/ Gora, Goratah, Goraya/ Guraiya, Gori, Goria, Goron, Gorwah, Gosal, Grang, Guda, Gujjral, Guraha/Gurrah
Hajra, Hakim, Hal, Hamar, Hamara, Hamath, Hamdi, Hamshirah, Hanbi, Handal, Hanjan, Hanjra, Hans, Hansalah, Hansarah, Hara, Harar, Hari, Harl, Hasam, Hathar, Hatiar, Hayer/Hayre, Heer, Heera, Heeray, Her or Porawal, Hijra or Hinjra, Holi, Hondal or Hundal, Hothi, Huda, Hural
Jabar, Jagal, Jaglan, Jagpal, Jahanbar, Jahanbo, Jai, Jajjah or Jathol, Jakhar, Jali, Jamra, Janer, Jangali, Jangla, Jani, Janil, Janjua, Jarah, Jaria, Jassowal, Jastar, Jaswal, Jatana, Jatatier, Jathol, Jatowal, Jaun, Jawa, Jawanda, Jawia, Jhad, Jhaj/Jhajj, Jhakar, Jhalan, Jhalli, Jhamat, Jhandir, Jhari, Jhawar, Jhonjah, Jhor, Jhotah, Jhuti, Johal, Jojah, Joldaha, Jomar, Jondah, Jopo, Josan, Jun, Junhi, Jurai, Juta
Kachala, Kachela, Kadian, Kahl, Kahlon, Kahon, Kahut, Kajlan/ Kajla, Kalar, Kalasarah, Kaler, Kaleroth, Kalhir, Kalhora or Sarai, Kal Khand, Kallu, Kalo, Kalon, Kalru, Kamera, Kamon, Kanag, Kanaich/Knaich/Knech, Kanchi, Kanda, Kanda, Kandola, Kandwa, Kaneran, Kang, Kangrah, Kanjan, Kanon, Kanonkhor, Kanwari, Kanwen, Kanyaal/Kanyal, Kapai, Karhalah, Kat, Kataria, Kator, Katrah, Kauri, Kawari, Kawera, Kehal, Kejah, Kejar, Kele, Kerah, Kes, Khab, Khadal, Khadar, Khagah, Khajah, Khajan, Khak, Khakh, Khaki, Khal, Khalah, Khalani, Khalwah, Khamah, Khaman, Khand, Khangura, Khanjan, Khar, Khara/ Kharra, Kharak, Kharora, Kharral, Kharwala, Kharye, Khatkar, Khatra, Khatrai, Khera, Khichar, Khichi, Khilchi, Khira, Khojah, Khadal, Khokar/Khokhar, Khor, Khoreja, Khosar, Khroud, Khubbar/Khubar, Killa, Kingra, Kodan, Kohar, Kohja, Kohri, Kokarah, Kokraya, Kooner, Kuk, Kular/Kulhar, Kuliar, Kundu, Kuretanah
Labar, Ladhana, Ladhar, Lahar, Lahil/Lail/Lehal/Lel/Lehel, Lak, Lakha, Lakhi, Lakhiwal, Lakwera, Lali/Lalli/Lally, Lang, Langah, Langanah, Lapeja, Lar, Lasai, Lat, Lathar, Lather, Laur, Lawar, Lekho, Lel, Leli, Lillas, Lodhara, Lodhran, Lodrah, Lohan, Lolah, Loleri, Lorimalanah, Lotha, Ludher, Lunghere, Lurka, Lehndra
Mader, Magsi, Mahad, Mahal, Mahil, Mahani, Mahir, Mahar, Mahara, Maharana, Mahe, Mahesar, Mahi, Mahli or Malhi, Mahota, Mahra, Mahtarmalhi, Makol, Makoma, Mal, Malan, Malana, Malanhans, Malhah, Mallhi, Malli, Mamar, Mamarha, Mamra, Mamrai, Mann, Mand, Mandair/Mandare, Mang, Mangan, Mangat/Mangath, Marahar/Marrahar/Madarhar, Markanda, Markha, Marrar, Marula, Maryal, Masan, Maswan, Mat, Mattu, Matu, Megal, Megla, Mekan, Menas, Meri, Mermalha, Mesar, Metla, Miana, Minhas, Mitru, Mochani, Mochhar, Mohal, Mond, Mondah, Month, Mor/Maur, Moran, Morare, Motha, Mula, Mundi, Mundtor
Nachang, Nadho, Nagra, Nagri, Naich or Nech, Nain, Najar, Naloka, Nanad, Nadal, Nahal (also written as Nehal), Nandlah, Nanwa, Narath, Narhoach, Narwal, Narwan, Nat, Natri, Natt, Nawar, Neera, Nehal, Neola, Nijjar, Nordaha, Nun/Noon
Obhai, Odhana, Oesi, Ojal, Ojh, Okhal, Olak, Olakh, Omara, Otar, Otara, Othwal
Padah/Padda, Pahal/Pahil, Pahor, Pakimor, Palahi/Plahay, Palu, Panaich/Pnaich, Pan, Pandah, Pandeshi, Pandher, Pandi, Pandohal, Panehal, Panjotarah, Panjuttha, Pannu, Pannuhan, Panohan, Panon, Panwar, Panwaria, Parer, Parhar, Passani, Patoha, Paton, Patre, Paungar, Pawri, Phakiwar, Phagura/Fagura, Phalar, Phalron, Phalyon, Phiphra, Phoghat/Phogat, Phulsawal, Pogal, Pohea, Pokhwat, Ponar, Poni, Poniya, Pontah, Pote, Puni, Punia, Punn, Punnun, Purahwal/Purewal/Puriwal,
Qalhari, Qom, Qurejah
Rahal, Rahan, Rahola, Rai, Raibdar, Rain, Rajwa, Rajwana, Rak, Rakhya, Rakkar,rakhra, Ramana, Ran, Randhawa, Randhay, Rando, Rangi, Ranidhar, Ranjha, Ratah, Rathi, Rathyah, Rato, Rattol/Ratol, Rawaki, Rawat, Rawani, Rayar, Redhu/Redu, Reman, Riar or Riyar, Rihan, Rokhe, Ronga,Rongar,Roth,Ruhil/Ruhal
Sabrahi, Sadhana, Sadho, Sadhra, Sagal, Sahansi, Saharan, Sahi, Sahol, Sahon, Sahota/Sihota, Sahrawat, Sahwal, Sajra, Sakhra, Salahah, Salaich/Slaich, Salotra, Sall, Samdarani, Samejah, Samor, Samra, Samrae, Samrao, San, Sanbhal, Sanda, Sandah, Sandelah, Sandhal, Sandhar, Sandhawalia, Sandhi, Sandho, Sandhu/Sindhu/Sindhar, Sandi, Sangah/Sangha, Sange, Sangere, Sanghera, Sanghi, Sangi, Sangoke, Sangrah, Sangrota, Sangwan, Sani, Sankhalan, Sanmoranah, Sanond, Sansi, Sapra, Sarai, Saran/Sra/Sran, sarna, Sarao, Sarawat, Saraye, Sardiye, Sargana, Sarlah, Saroiah, Sarot, Sarsar, Sarwar, Sarwi, Sategrah, Sathar, Satiar, Satwahan, Saunan, Segar, Segrah, Sehi, Sekan, Sekhu or Sekhon, Sekun, Semi, Seni, Serah, Seti, Sethi, Sewarah, Sewari, Shajra, Sheokhand/Shaukhanda/Seokand, Shekhon, Shekhra, Shergill, Sheroran, Sian, Siar, Sibia/Sivia/Sibiya, Sidhu/Sidhu-Barar/Brar, Sinhmar, Soha, Sohal, Sohi, Sojani, Solgi, Solkah, Somal, Sonal, Sontra, Soro, Sotbah, Sotrak, Suda, Sudan, Sumra, Sunner, Sura, Surwat, Swanch, Swaich/Sawaich
Tajar, Tajra, Tak-Seroa, Talah, Taleri, Talot, Tanwari, Taoni, Tanor,Tara, Tarar, Tareli, Tarholi, Tatla, Tatli, Tawri, Tewatia, Thahal, Thandi, Thathaal, Thiara, Thind, Thotha, Tiwana, Todi, Tokas, Tola, Toniyan, Toor, Trag, Tulla, Tung, Tur
Udhana, Udhoke, Untal~Dhaliwal/Dhariwal, Uppal, Uthi, Uthwal, Uttamzais
Valana, Varaich/Baraich/Braich/Warraich, Virk/Wirk
Wabah, Wadah, Wadala, Wadhwa, Wag, Wagan, Wagar, Wagh, Wagha, Waghmal, Wagi, Wahal, Wahala, Wahandi, Wahgah, Wahlah, Wahniwal or Bahniwal, Wahroka, Wahujah, Wains, Wairar, Wairsi, Wajar, Wajba, Wajla, Wajwarah, Walar, Wallerai, Walot, Wamak, Wanda, Wandar, Wanghaya, Wanjo, Wanwar, Warah, Waran, Warbhu, Warhe, Wark, Warya, Warye, Wasir, Wasli, Watarah, Wato, Welan, Wijhi, Wulana
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-  - Barstow, A.E., (Major, 2/11th Sikh Regiment-Late 15th Ludhiana Sikhs), The Sikhs: An Ethnology (revised at the request of the Government of India), reprinted by B.R. Publishing Corporation, Delhi, India, 1985, pp. 62-63, first published in 1928.
-  - Bingley, A.H. (Captain, 7th-Duke of Connaught's own Bengal Infantry, Handbook for the Indian Army: Sikhs, Compiled under the orders of the Government of India, Printed at the Government Central Printing Office, Simla, India, 1899, pp. 90-91, 11, 92.
-  - Census of India, Vol. 1, Book 1, Lahore (now in Pakistan), 1883, pp. 100-108.
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|Sects & Cults|
♣♣ Ad Dharm ♣♣ Akalis ♣♣ Bandai Sikhs ♣♣ Balmiki ♣♣ Bhatra ♣♣ Brindaban Matt ♣♣ Daya Singh Samparda ♣♣ Dhir Malias ♣♣ Handalis ♣♣ Kabir Panthi ♣♣ Kirtan jatha Group ♣♣ Kooka ♣♣ Kutta Marg ♣♣ Majhabi ♣♣ Manjis ♣♣ Masand ♣♣ Merhbanieh ♣♣ Mihan Sahibs ♣♣ Minas ♣♣ Nirankari ♣♣ Nanak panthi ♣♣ Nanakpanthi Sindhis ♣♣ Namdev Panthi ♣♣ Namdhari ♣♣ Nanaksaria ♣♣ Nihang ♣♣ Nikalsaini ♣♣ Niranjaniye ♣♣ Nirmala ♣♣ Panch Khalsa Diwan ♣♣ Parsadi Sikhs ♣♣ Phul Sahib dhuan ♣♣ Radha Swami ♣♣ Ram Raiyas ♣♣ Ravidasi ♣♣ Suthra Shahi ♣♣ Sewapanthi ♣♣ Sat kartaria ♣♣ Sant Nirankaris ♣♣ Sanwal Shahis ♣♣ Sanatan Singh Sabhais ♣♣ Sachkhand Nanak Dhaam ♣♣ Samparda Bhindra ♣♣ Tat Khalsa ♣♣ Sikligars ♣♣ Pachhada Jats ♣♣ Satnami's ♣♣ Udasi Sikhs ♣♣