Bachitar Natak

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Sri Dasam Granth Sahib
(ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ)

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Banis
Jaap - Akal Ustat - Bachitar Natak - Chandi Charitar Ukat(i) Bilas - Chandi Charitar 2 - Chandi di Var - Gyan Parbodh - Chobis Avatar - Brahm Avtar - Rudar Avtar - Sabad Patshahi 10 - 33 Swaiyey - Khalsa Mahima - Shastar Nam Mala - Ath Pakhyan Charitar Likhyate - Zafarnama - Hikayats
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Bhagauti Astotar - Ugardanti - Sri Kaal Chopai - Lakhi Jungle Khalsa - Asfotak Kabits - Sahansar Sukhmana - Vaar Malkauns Ki - Chandd Patshahi 10
History
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Scholar Views
Singh Sabha Lahore - Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha - Professor Sahib Singh - Bhai Veer Singh - Jarnail Singh Bhindrawale -
Critics
Ram Raaiyas of Payal - Teja Singh Bhasod - Gyani Bhag Singh Ambala - Professor Darshan Singh

Bichitra Natak (or Bachittar/Vichitra) (Gurmukhi ਬਚਿਤ੍ਰ ਨਾਟਕ (meaning Resplendent Drama)) is the a beautiful composition, a memoir of Guru Gobind Singh, which he added in Dasam Granth, commonly known as his Brief Autobiography. It is a part of the Dasam Granth and is the name given to the third Bani in the second holy scriptures of the Sikhs. This text spans from page 94 to page 175 of the 2326 pages of this holy book of the Sikhs at www.srigranth.org. (Original text is over 1428 pages)

This Bani is an autobiographical narrated by the tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh for the first 32 years of his life. Although the word "Natak" means "drama" in Punjabi, this is no drama. The Guru has outlined the circumstance and history of the time and how great courage and strength was required to overcome the many hurdles that were upon the community.

It starts with a praise of Akal Purakh. It then gives a genealogy of Bedis and Sodhis starting from Lord Surya. It gives the author's own biography and includes the battle of Nadaun, Husaini battle and the arrival of prince Muazzam in the Punjab. It continues up to AD 1696.

Summary

The summary of this Bani is narrated by Gobin Sadan at:

www.gobindsadan.org
"The third creation to be compiled in the Dasam Granth is the Bachittar Natak. As evident from the editorial notes at the end of the Chandi Charitra, Chaubees Avatars and Upavatar, they are all a part of Bachittar Natak. Obviously then the Bachittar Natak is not only an autobiographical narrative of the protagonist but it also includes the biographies of the great protagonists who emerged on the world scene over the past many ages. However, the literary piece entitled the Bachittar Natak that features in the Dasam Granth is purely an autobiographical piece which highlights incidents related to Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Only 32 years of his life are accounted for here in. Some references to his previous birth also exist.

As per the requirements of the times and the society, God is portrayed not only as benevolent, loving and beautiful but also awe-inspiring; fearsome and powerful. In order to inspire a fearful and cowardly society to deeds of glory and might it was necessary that the source of inspiration for them, the power they upheld as the ideal should be all powerful. Only then could the people who cowered with fear against tyrannical forces could rise and face the foe undaunted.

Although the writing is entitled Bachittar Natak it is not by any stretch of imagination a drama since it does not use any of the literary devices usually employed in drama writing. However, it does employ the use of dialogues and verse form. In fact the aim of writing this piece was to delineate the courage, the strength and the might of Guru Gobind Singh Ji against the backdrop of a world stage."


This text is written in early Braj bhasha with some Apabhramsha influence. Several translations in Punjabi, Hindi and English exist.

The life story of Guru Gobind Singh is further told by the court-poet Sainapat, who finished his Sri Gur Sobha in AD 1711, three years after the death of the Guru. Other early sources are Koer Singh's Gurbilas Patshahi, written in 1751 and the Bansawalinamah by Kesar Singh Chhibbar (1767).

Outline of Bichitra Natak

Main article: Bachitar Natak index

The chapters are numbered at the beginning, but the title of each chapter is given at the conclusion, following the traditional Indian convention.

  1. Chapter 1: Eulogy of Akal Purakh, the ultimate being.
  2. Chapter 2: My Story. Opening statements and mention of Lava and Kusha, the two sons of Rama.
  3. Chapter 3: Descendants of Lava and Kusha and emergence of the Bedi and Sodhi clans (in which 8 of the 10 Sikh Gurus were born).
  4. Chapter 4: The Recitation of the Vedas and the Offering of Kingdom. The interaction of the two clans.
  5. Chapter 5: Description of the Spiritual Rulers, i.e. of the nine Sikh Gurus preceding Gobind Singh himself, from Nanak to Teg Bahadur (father of Gobind Singh).
  6. Chapter 6: The Command of Supreme Lord to Me be born into the World. Includes an account of Gobind Singh performing "tapa" at Hemkunt in the Himalayan mountains, in a previous birth.
  7. Chapter 7: Description of the Poet. Starts with his birth in Patna, and arrival in the Madra desh (i.e. Punjab region).
  8. Chapter 8: The Battle of Bhangani. Includes his settlement of the Ananadpur, which was to be the center of his spiritual and literary activities.
  9. Chapter 9: Description of the battle of Nadaun.
  10. Chapter 10: Description of the Expedition of Khanzada and his flight.
  11. Chapter 11: Description of the fight with Hussaini and loss of his associates Kirpal, Himmat and Sangatia.
  12. Chapter 12: Description of the battle of Jujhar Singh.
  13. Chapter 13:Arrival of the Mughal Prince and his officers.
  14. Chapter 14: The Supplication to the Lord, Destroyer of All.

Scholars says that the autobiography terminates here abruptly. They thought that Guru became engaged in other affairs.

The next book in the Dasam Granth is Chandi Charitra. This composition is thought to have occurred just prior to the founding of the Khalsa order by the Guru.

Concepts, History and Events

Genealogy - Family Tree

The genealogy of Sikh Gurus and Khalsa traces back from King Surya[1]:

  • Surya (Suryavansha)
  • Raghu, born in Suryavansha Dynasity, (Raghuvansha)
  • Aja, son of Raghu
  • Dasrath
  • Rama, Laxman, Bharath and Shatrugan - All born to Dasrath
  • Luva and Kusha - born to Rama.
  • Many (Not named by Guru Gobind Singh to prevent scripture length)
  • Kalket and KalRai
  • Sodhi Rai, born to Kal Rai
  • Sodhi Rai Decedents (Sodhivansha)
  • Kalket Decedents (Bedi Vansha)

First three Sikh Gurus of Sikhs born in Bedi Vansha and last 7 Gurus Born in Sodhisvansha. Guru Gobind Singh called Nihang Khalsa, as Son of, him and Mata Sahib Kaur, and transferred his will in Khalsa Mahima, Dasam Granth. This genealogy starts from Oankar who created whole world makes all of us creation of Oankar.

It is often claimed by few orthodox Hindu organizations and few Sikh institutions, that this genealogy makes Sikh, Hindus, but in actual Hindus born out of Sikhs.

  1. First fact, Sri Chand was a Yogi, Nanak was a Gurmukh and Nanak's father Mehta Kalu was an Idol worshipper, all three had different paths, but If Nanak's father was Idol worshipper we must not declare that Nanak was Idol worshipper too. Hence this claim is refuted. Bhagat Pipa was Shakta Ruler, then turned to Bairagi Ascetic then again turn to Gurmukh. Swami Ramanand was Bairagi ascetic and then adopted. Family tree has nothing to take with religion.
  2. Second Fact, Neither Rama, Raghu, Surya, Aja, Dasrath, Luv or Kusha, Kalket and Sodhi Rai called themselves Hindu in any Hindu Scriptures. So Sikhs are not bound to call them Hindu. Hindus worship them. Compared to others, Raghu is considered as an enlighten soul and true ruler, as per Guru Gobind Singh in Brahma Avtar. Moreover, None of them were Idolators.
  3. Third Fact, this genealogy forces Hindus to accept Sikh faith.

Founding of Lahore and Kasur

After death of Ramachandra, his two sons Lava and Kusha became rulers. Both were married to princess of Punjab. Lava founded Lahore and Kusha founded Kasur city.

ਸੀਅ ਸੁਤ ਬਹੁਰਿ ਭਏ ਦੁਇ ਰਾਜਾ ॥ ਰਾਜ ਪਾਟ ਉਨਹੀ ਕਉ ਛਾਜਾ ॥
सीअ सढ़त बहढ़र भझ दढ़इ राजा ॥ राज पाट उनही कउ छाजा ॥
Then the two sons of Sita (and Rama) became rulers.

ਮਦ੍ਰ ਦੇਸ ਏਸ੍ਵਰਜਾ ਬਰੀ ਜਬ ॥ ਭਾਤਿ ਭਾਤਿ ਕੇ ਜਗ ਕੀਏ ਤਬ ॥੨੩॥
मदढ़र देस झसढ़वरजा बरी जब ॥ भांति भांति के जग कीझ तब ॥२३॥
They married the Madra (Punjabi) princesses and performed various types of yajnas.23.

ਤਹੀ ਤਿਨੈ ਬਾਂਧੇ ਦੁਇ ਪੁਰਵਾ ॥ ਏਕ ਕਸੂਰ ਦੁਤੀਯ ਲਹੁਰਵਾ ॥
तही तिनै बांधे दुइ पुरवा ॥ एक कसूर दुतीय लहुरवा ॥
There they founded two cities, the one Kasur and the other Lahore.

ਅਧਿਕ ਪੁਰੀ ਤੇ ਦੋਊ ਬਿਰਾਜੀ ॥ ਨਿਰਖਿ ਲੰਕ ਅਮਰਾਵਤਿ ਲਾਜੀ ॥੨੪॥
अधिक पुरी ते दोऊ बिराजी ॥ निरखि लंक अमरावति लाजी ॥२४॥
Both the cities surpassed in beauty to that of Lanka and Amravati. 24.

ਬਹੁਤ ਕਾਲ ਤਿਨ ਰਾਜੁ ਕਮਾਯੋ ॥ ਜਾਲ ਕਾਲ ਤੇ ਅੰਤਿ ਫਸਾਯੋ ॥
बहुत काल तिन राजु कमायो ॥ जाल काल ते अंति फसायो ॥
For a long time, both the brothers ruled over their kingdom and ultimately they were bound down by the noose of death.

ਤਿਨ ਤੇ ਪੁਤ੍ਰ ਪੌਤ੍ਰ ਜੇ ਵਏ ॥ ਰਾਜ ਕਰਤ ਇਹ ਜਗ ਕੋ ਭਏ ॥੨੫॥
तिन ते पुत्र पौत्र जे वए ॥ राज करत इह जग को भए ॥२५॥
After them their sons and grandson ruled over the world.25.

Bedis-Sodhis relation with Lava-Kusha

Among descendants of Lava and Kusha, those who took knowledge of Vedas were called Bedis.

ਜਿਨੈ ਬੇਦ ਪਠਿਓ ਸੁ ਬੇਦੀ ਕਹਾਏ ॥ ਤਿਨੈ ਧਰਮ ਕੇ ਕਰਮ ਨੀਕੇ ਚਲਾਏ ॥
जिनै बेद पठिओ सढ़ बेदी कहाझ ॥ तिनै धरम के करम नीके चलाझ ॥
Those who studied the Vedas, called Vedis (Bedis), they absorbed themselves in good acts of righteousness.

ਪਠੇ ਕਾਗਦੰ ਮਦ੍ਰ ਰਾਜਾ ਸੁਧਾਰੰ ॥ ਆਪੋ ਆਪ ਮੋ ਬੈਰ ਭਾਵੰ ਬਿਸਾਰੰ ॥੧॥
पठे कागदं मदढ़र राजा सढ़धारं ॥ अपो आप मो बैर भावं बिसारं ॥१॥
The Sodhi king of Madra Desha (Punjab) sent letters to them, entreating them to forget the past enmities.1.

ਨ੍ਰਿਪੰ ਮੁਕਲਿਅੰ ਦੂਤ ਸੋ ਕਾਸਿ ਆਯੰ ॥ ਸਬੈ ਬੇਦਿਯੰ ਭੇਦ ਭਾਖੇ ਸੁਨਾਯੰ ॥
नढ़रिपं मढ़कलिअं दूत सो कासि आयं ॥ सबै बेदियं भेद भाखे सढ़नायं ॥
The messengers sent by the king came to Kashi and gave the message to all the Bedis.

ਸਬੈ ਬੇਦ ਪਾਠੀ ਚਲੇ ਮਦ੍ਰ ਦੇਸੰ ॥ ਪ੍ਰਣਾਮੰ ਕੀਯੋ ਆਨ ਕੈ ਕੈ ਨਰੇਸੰ ॥੨॥
सबै बेद पाठी चले मदढ़र देसं ॥ पढ़रणामं कीयो आन कै कै नरेसं ॥२॥
All the reciters of the Vedas came to Madra Desha and made obeisance to the king.2.

Sacrifice of Guru Tegh Bahadur

ਹਰਿਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਲੋਕ ਸਿਧਾਰੇ ॥ ਹਰੀਰਾਇ ਤਿਹ ਠਾਂ ਬੈਠਾਰੇ ॥
When Hargobind left for the abode of the Lord, Har rai was seated in his place.

ਹਰੀਕ੍ਰਿਸਨ ਤਿਨ ਕੇ ਸੁਤ ਵਏ ॥ ਤਿਨ ਤੇ ਤੇਗਬਹਾਦਰ ਭਏ ॥੧੨॥
Har Krishan (the next Guru) was his son; after him, Tegh Bahadur became the Guru.12.

ਤਿਲਕ ਜੰਵੂ ਰਾਖਾ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਤਾ ਕਾ ॥ ਕੀਨੋ ਬਡੋਕਲੂ ਮਹਿ ਸਾਕਾ ॥ He protected the forehead mark and sacred thread (of the Hindus)which marked a great event in the kali age.

ਸਾਧਨ ਹੇਤਿ ਇਤੀ ਜਿਨਿ ਕਰੀ ॥ ਸੀਸੁ ਦੀਆ ਪਰਸੀ ਨ ਉਚਰੀ ॥੧੩॥
For the sake of saints, he laid down his head without even a sigh.13.

ਧਰਮ ਹੇਤਿ ਸਾਕਾ ਜਿਨਿ ਕੀਆ ॥ ਸੀਸੁ ਦੀਆ ਪਰਸਿਰਰੁ ਨ ਦੀਆ ॥
For the sake of Dharma, he sacrificed himself. He laid down his head but not his creed.

See also

External links

References

  • The Wondrous Play, Dr. Jodh Singh.
  • The Life and Ideals of Guru Gobind Singh by Surindar Singh Kohli, 1986, Munshiram Manoharlal
Dasam Granth     |     Bachitar Natak     |     Bachitar Natak index

1. Akal Purakh | 2. Ancestry | 3. Descendants | 4. Vedas & Offering | 5. Spiritual Rulers | 6. My Coming | 7. Birth of Poet | 8. Bhangani Battle | 9. Nadaun Battle | 10. Khanzada | 11. Hussaini & Kirpal | 12. Jujhar Singh | 13. Mughal Shahzada | 15. Supplication


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