|Sri Dasam Granth Sahib|
(ਦਸਮ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ)
|Jaap - Akal Ustat - Bachitar Natak - Chandi Charitar Ukat(i) Bilas - Chandi Charitar 2 - Chandi di Var - Gyan Parbodh - Chobis Avatar - Brahm Avtar - Rudar Avtar - Sabad Patshahi 10 - 33 Swaiyey - Khalsa Mahima - Shastar Nam Mala - Ath Pakhyan Charitar Likhyate - Zafarnama - Hikayats|
|Other Related Banis|
|Bhagauti Astotar - Ugardanti - Sri Kaal Chopai - Lakhi Jungle Khalsa - Asfotak Kabits - Sahansar Sukhmana - Vaar Malkauns Ki - Chandd Patshahi 10|
|Historical Sources - Memorials - Anti Dasam|
|Idol Worship - Pilgrimages - Chandi - Triya - Shastar|
|Singh Sabha Lahore - Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha - Professor Sahib Singh - Bhai Veer Singh - Jarnail Singh Bhindrawale -|
|Ram Raaiyas of Payal - Teja Singh Bhasod - Gyani Bhag Singh Ambala - Professor Darshan Singh|
Rudra Avtar is a composition and epic poetry under title Ath Rudra Avtar Kathan(n), written by Guru Gobind Singh, present in Dasam Granth Sahib considered as second most important Scripture of Sikhs. This composition covers the most important war of Gurmat philosophy i.e fight between Bibek Buddhi and Abibek Budhi which is actually fight between truth and false, fight between Wisdom and Ignorance.
This composition also covered the concept of Gyaan (Wisdom) and Dhyana(Attention) and is against Fake Ritualism and Practices. Guru Gobind Singh sanctified and narrated the Life history of following two souls, which is designated with title Rudra:
- Datt Muni or Dattatreya
- Paras Nath
- This epic poetry was written at Anandpur Sahib <ref>Sri Dasam Granth Sahib</ref>, probably in Samvat 1755/ 1698.
- This text is part of Bachitar Natak Granth, as per rubrics at the end. Although modern interpretations believed that portion of Guru Gobind Singh life, whom he refer Apni Katha is Bachitar Natak , viewing all the rest compsition are independent form of it.
- This composition is present in all old Manuscripts i.e Mani Singh's, Motibagh's, Sangrur's and Patna's Manuscripts.<ref>Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity, C. Shackle, Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair, Gurharpal Singh</ref>
- The Language of the composition is Hindi with mixture of Sanskrit words.<ref name= "sskpur">Dasam Granth, S.S. Kapoor, Page 17</ref>
- First six Chandds are Introductory. 849 Chands narrates Dattatreya and 359 Chandds narrates about Paras Nath.
- Unlike, Chandi Charitar and Krishna Avtar, The source of narration of Rudra Avtar are not any of 36 Puranas <ref name= "sskpur">Dasam Granth, S.S. Kapoor, Page 17</ref>.
Rudra in Adi Guru Granth Sahib
ਰੁਦ੍ਰ ਧਿਆਨ ਗਿਆਨ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਕੇ ਕਬਿ ਜਨ ਭਲ੍ਯ੍ਯ ਉਨਹ ਜ ਗਾਵੈ ॥
रुद्र धिआन गिआन सतिगुर के कबि जन भल्य उनह जो गावै ॥
With Rudra's attention and the spiritual wisdom of the True Guru, says BHALL the poet, these may be counted.
Adi Granth Sahib covers the concept of Rudra Dhyaan. Every living being's surt/dhyaaan (or attention) can be directed in two ways, one towards one's body (outer world), and the other towards one's own self (source of attention). As long as our attention stays on our body only, and we loose connection with our self, we are incomplete (half or daal as in Gurbani). That is why we remain tense, confused and make wrong decisions. But those who are complete (The one as in Gurbani), their attention is focused on the source of attention itself (self) and thus, they are immune to any influence of outside world such as vices. Such a one-mindedness and focus is called Rudra Dhyaan. From such a dhyaan, the thoughts that sprout are all under divine hukam (and are not self-conceived). Consequently, Hukam itself is called Rudra.
In Sikh Thought, Rudra is a qualitative name of Supreme Command(Hukam).
Rudra/Siva versus Mahadev
In Dasam Granth, Rudra and Shiva are generic terms while Mahadev is the name of one person, whom mistakenly people call Rudra or Shiva.
In Gurmat Philosophy, Mahadev was a Yogi who was dweller of Himalayas. In Hindu Myth, Mahadev is also called Shiv or Rudra but in Gurmat philosophy, Shiv term does not comes for Mahadev, because Shiv is Nirankar(Formless). In Chopai, Guru Gobind Singh cleared it as: Mahadev ko kehat sada shiv, nirankar ka cheenat nahin bhiv. In History, people give person the name whom he worship as Mahadev was worshipper of Shiva, he is also called Shiva, like Nanak was worshipper of Guru (Shabad Guru - The source of wisdom), he is also called Guru as Guru Gobind Singh said aad ant ekey avtara, soyi guru samjheyo hamara. From content of composition of Rudra Avtar, it is clear that Mahadev and Shiva/Rudra are seperate entities. Hence, Dattatreya is not considered as avtar of Mahadev.
Concept of Avtar
In Sikhism, an avatar is a deliberate descent of a soul to earth in any form.<ref name="Page 792, Line 7, Bhagat Kabir">Page 792, Line 7, Bhagat Kabir</ref>
Guru Granth Sahib believes in the existence of Dasavtara, as Kings of their times. In ancient history, Religious figures gave honorary title of Avtar to person for their revolutionary changes and promoted wisdom among people and mostly were Kings. As per Rudra Avtar, Dattatreya and Parasnath understood Hukam(Rudra) philosophy and propagate Gurmat thought at their times, for this reason they are given title of Rudra Avtar by Guru Gobind Singh.
Concept of Almighty in Rudra Avtar
- He is Creator, Birthless, Fearless. His Power of wisdom is above all.
- He is indestructible. Created All Beings.
- He is Blemishless(Nihkalanki = Kalki), Stable, Glorious, and of infinite qualities
Condemnation of Deities/Human worship in Rudra Avtar
- Whom people calls Shiva was not able to know his end as he practiced yoga for many Years.
- Here Guru Gobind Singh give a strong condemnation to following characters of history:
|Banis:||Jaap | Akal Ustat | Bachitar Natak | Chandi Charitar Ukat(i) Bilas | Chandi Charitar 2 | | Chandi di Var | Gyan Parbodh | Chobis Avatar | Brahm Avtar | Rudar Avtar | Shabad Hazarey | 33 Swaiyey | Swayyae| Shastar Nam Mala | Charitropakhyan | Zafarnama | Hikayats|
|History:||Historical References · Guru Gobind Singh · Paonta Sahib · Bhai Mani Singh · Mata Sundri|
|Philosphy:||Idol Worship · Pilgrimages · Chandi · Triya · Shastar · Waheguru|
|Sikh Scholars About Dasam Bani:||Singh Sabha Lahore · Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha · Professor Sahib Singh · Bhai Veer Singh · Jarnail Singh Bhindrawale · Anti Dasam Bani Movement|