Battles by Guru Gobind Singh
The following are battles fought by the tenth master, Guru Gobind Singh
- The Battle of Bhangani ( 1689): Won against Raja Bhim Chand of Bilaspur.
- The Battle of Nadaun (1690) : Won against Mughals, in response to a request from Raja Bhim Chand.
- The Battle of Anandpur Sahib (1700): Against combined forces of the Mughals and the Hill Rajas. After a prolonged Siege, the Guru left Anandgarh Fort.
- The Battle of Chamkaur (1703): Forty Sikhs with the Guru fought valiantly against thousands of the enemies, and became martyrs. The two elder sons of the Guru also died fighting in this battle.
- The Battle of Muktsar (1703): Forty Sikhs, who had abandoned Anandpur Sahib, returned to the Guru and sacrificed their lives while fighting in his defence against a Mugal Army. They became martyrs and the Guru blessed them as muktas.
Account of all battles
The 1st Battle
Guru Ji had just created the Khalsa, a society based on equality and dutiful devotion to God. The concept of the Sikh Gurus that all men (and women) were equal, was too much of a threat for the Rajput hill chiefs to swallow. They laid siege to Guru Ji and his newly created Khalsa with 10,000 men. During the siege, the mughals asked Guru Ji to surrender and come out of the fort with their belongings; the safe passage to the Punjab was guaranteed to the Guru - no one would be harmed. The Mughal swore their pledge on the Holy Qu'ran.
The Sikhs pleaded with Guru Ji to trust their attackers, to take their offer and leave the safety of Anandpur Sahib, but Guru Ji wanted to show his Sikhs that the mughals were not to be trusted. Guru Ji sent out a wagon piled high with bulging sacks, wrapped in beautiful cloth. To the Mughal soldiers it must have seemed like a wagon load of gold, silver, jewelry and other valuable treasures. With their imaginations running wild, only a short distance from the safety of Anandpur, the oath of the the mughal Generals were rendered worthless, as the wagons were swarmed by men hungry for booty.
One can imagine their surprise and anger as the men eagerly opened the bags, finding them filled with trash, dirt, hay and other worthless materials.
Seeing this, those who had doubted the Guru, no longer were eager to trust the promises of their attackers. As the months wore on, the Sikhs were able, through the use of 'guerilla' tactics and night time attacks to effectively turn the tide in their favor. Eventually they chased the Mughals away, after killing their two leaders. The Sikhs gained a large booty in horses, arms and war equipment which the Mughals had left behind in their rush to escape with their lives.
The hill Rajas thought it highly dangerous to allow the Sikhs to continue their increase in power and number. They therefore, decided collectively to complain to the Delhi government against the Sikhs. With Aurangzeb still busy in the South, the viceroy of Delhi sent General Din Beg and General Painde Khan each with five thousand men to resist the Guru's 'encroachments' on the rights of the hill Rajas. When the imperial forces reached Rupar, they were joined by the hill Rajas.
The Guru appointed the Five Beloved Ones as generals of his army. The Sikh chronicler states that, when the engagement began at Anandpur, the Turks were roasted by the continuous and deadly fire of the Sikhs. General Painde Khan seeing determined resistance of the Sikhs, shouted to his men to fight to the death against the infidels. He came forward to engage in a single combat with the Guru and invited him to strike the first blow. The Guru refused the role of an aggressor and claimed that he had vowed never to strike except in self-defence. Upon this Painde Khan discharged an arrow which whizzed past Guru's ear. He charged another arrow which also missed the mark. The whole of Painde Khan's body except his ears was encased in armour. Knowing this the Guru then discharged an arrow at his ear with such an unerring aim that he fell off his horse on the ground and never rose again. This, however, did not end the battle. Din Beg assumed sole command of the troops. Maddened by Painde Khan's death they fought with great desperation but could not make any impression on the firm hold of the Sikhs. On the other hand, however, the Sikhs caused a great havoc upon the enemy. The hill chiefs left the field. In the meantime Din Beg was wounded and he beat a retreat but was pursued by the Sikhs as far as Rupar (upto the village of Khidrabad near Chandigarh where there is a Gurdwara in that memory).
The 2nd Battle
Summary In July-August 1699, the second battle of Anandpur began. The hill chiefs formed a coalition under Raja Bhim Chand and decided to attack Guru Ji together. The asked Guru Ji to leave the fort, Guru Ji replied that they had paid for this land. There were two forts within Anandpur Sahib, Fatehgarh and Lohgarh. Sher Singh and Nahr singh each commanding 500 men were given orders to defend Lohgarh. The defense of Fatehgarh was given to Bhai Uday Singh, who has 500 men. The siege began, the allied forces fell upon the Sikh strongholds. After several months, the Sikhs were on top, many hill chieftains were dead and so were their men but Sikh resources were low because the Hill chiefs had cut off their supplies. However, seeing the fortitude of the Sikh soldiers the Mughals planned to withdraw but not before trying one last thing - to intoxicate an elephant and send it towards the Sikh Forts. The job of dealing with this elephant was entrusted to Duni Chand, but he fled out of fear. Bhai Bachittar SIngh was given the job, he rode out with his Nagani (spear) and struck the elephant. The elephant ran back and trampled hundreds of its own men.
The Rajas of Jammu, Nurpur, Mandi, Bhutan, Kullu, Kionthal, Guler, Chamba, Srinagar, Dadhwal, Handur and others, assembled at Bilaspur to discuss the newly created situation. Raja Ajmer Chand of Kahlur (son of late Raja Bhim Chand) addressed them that if they overlooked the growing power of the Guru, he would one day drive them out from their territories. On the other hand if they were to seek assistance from Delhi again and again, they might be taken over by the Mughal empire for ever. It was, therefore, decided that they must defend themselves. If all the hill Rajas contributed reasonable contingents, they could muster a large army which would be sufficient to annihilate the Guru and his Sikhs. Thus a simple and feasible measure was thought out to invest the Guru's capital, Anandpur, and starve its occupants into submission.
Accordingly all the Rajas brought their contingents and marched towards Anandpur. On arriving near thecity they dispatched a letter to the Guru in which they wrote," The land of Anandpur is ours, we allowed your father to dwell on it and he never paid any rent. Now you have originated a new religion which is opposed to our religious system. We have endured all this up to the present, we can no longer overlook it. You should pay the arrears of rent for the occupation of our land and promise to pay it regularly for the future. If you fail to accept these terms, then prepare your departure from Anandpur or be ready for the consequences." The Guru replied," My father had purchased this land and he paid for it. If you deprive me of Anandpur, you shall have it with bullets added thereto. Seek my protection, and you will be happy in both worlds. Also seek the protection of the Khalsa and abandon pride. Now is the time for a settlement. I shall act as a mediator between the Khalsa and you. You may then rule your states without apprehension."
It was now clear to the Rajas that the Guru would not surrender. Next morning they beat the drum of war.As anticipated a large number of Ranghars and Gujars under the command of Jagatullah flocked to the side of the hill Rajas.
Five hundred men from the Majha area arrived under the command of Duni Chand to join the Guru's forces, and ther reinforcements from other quarters also arrived at that juncture. There were two main forts, Lohgarh and Fatehgarh. The Guru ordered his forces not to advance beyond the city but remain as far as possible on the defensive. Sher Singh and Nahar Singh were appointed as chiefs to guard Lohgarh, and Fatehgarh was entrusted to Ude Singh. Sahibzada Ajit Singh, Guru's eldest son, asked his father's permission to join hands with Ude Singh.
The hill Rajas opened fire with large guns on the Guru's fortress. Several brave Sikhs made a determined stand against the enemy and forced them to retreat. The allied chiefs then held a brief council of war in which it was decided to despatch Raja Kesari Chand, the haughty chief of Jaswal, to attack the right flank and Jagatullah the left flank of the Guru's position while Ajmer Chand himself and his troops made a front attack on Anandpur. Jagatullah was shot dead by Sahib Singh and the Sikhs did not retreat to allow the enemy to remove his body. Raja Ghumand Chand of Kangra rallied his troops but failed to cause the Sikhs to retreat. The hill chiefs were in great dismay at the result of the battle and held a council of war during the night. Raja Ajmer Chand advised the council for peace with the Guru saying that the Guru occupied Guru Nanak's spiritual throne and there would be no indignity in appealing to him as supplicants. Many Rajas agreed to the proposal but Kesari Chand of Jaswal opposed the reconciliation and promised to fight with more determination the next day in order to oust the Guru from Anandpur.
Next morning the allied forces contented themselves with concentrating their attack on one particular part of the city but the Sikhs again offered valiant resistance. The allied forces rallied many times but could not overcome the brave Sikhs and so they decided to siege the city which lasted for a few weeks. As the blockade prolonged successfully, Raja Kesari Chand prepared to intoxicate an elephant and direct him against the city. Whole body of the elephant was encased in steel. A strong spear projected from his forehead for the purpose of assault. The intoxicated elephant was directed towards the gate of Lohgarh fort and the allied army followed him. The Guru blessed his Sikh, Bachittar Singh to combat the elephant. Bachittar Singh took a lance to meet the furious animal. He raised his lance and drove it through the elephant's head armor. On this the animal turned around on the hill soldiers, and killed several of them. Meanwhile Ude Singh continued to advance against Kesari Chand, challenged him, and then with one blow cut off his head. Mohkam Singh, one of the Five Beloved Ones, cut off the mad elephant's trunk with one blow of his sword. What remained of the hill army now fled. In the retreat the Raja of Handur was severely wounded by Sahib Singh.
On the following day Ghumand Chand of Kangra directed the efforts of his troops against the city. Ghumand Chand's horse was killed by a bullet from the musket of Alim Singh. The battle lasted with varying success until evening, when Ghumand Chand, as he was proceeding to his tent in the evening, was mortally wounded by a chance bullet. All the hill chiefs now became disheartened and demoralized. Raja Ajmer Chand was the last to leave Anandpur and marched home in the dead of night. This battle was fought in 1701.
The 3rd Battle
Hindu Rajas led by Ajmer Chand of Kahlir and his father Bhim Chand personally went to Aurangzeb and stirred up the wrath of the Emperor by telling him that Guru Gobiñd Singh claimed to be Sachä Patshãh: True King, sat on a raised platform; a prerogative of the Emperor only, and was corrupting both Hinduism and Islam. Aurangzeb ordered a large army under Amir Khan of Sarhand and Zabardast Khan of Lahore to proceed against the Guru. All the Chiefs except the Raja of Nahan joined the Imperial forces. Guru Gobind Singh divided the army into five commands, each of which was posted in a fort. His eighteen years old son Ajit Siñgh, was stationed in the Kesgarh fort with five hundred soldiers under him. Sher Singh and Nãhar Singh commanded the Lohgarh fort. Udai Singh and Alam Singh commanded the division of Agampura, while Mohkam Singh was posted with 400 men in Holgarh. Daya Singh commanded the northern ramparts, while the Guru remained in the Anandpur fort. Seeing the Imperial armies approaching in countless numbers, Guru Gobind Singh ordered his artillery men to light their fuses : and discharge their cannons. The battle raged with fearful violence. Daya Singh and Udai Siñgh came out of their forts and gave a terrific fight to the Imperial army who lost about nine hundred soldiers. Unable to fight the Sikh armies in the open, the Imperialists laid a siege to the city and stopped all ingress and egress. The Sikhs planned night attacks. They sallied forth from their defensive positions and attacked the enemy unawares. The Mughal Generals tried to storm the citadel in utter distress and desperation, but the Sikhs brought forth their bigger guns, named Baghan: Tigress and Bjai Gosh: Roaring Victory, and fired at the enemy, killing many in the enemy ranks. As the supplies were constantly failing, the Sikhs resorted to desultory sallies to seize the supplies from the enemy. The siege lasted for about seven months Jeth 1762 Bk/May 1705 to Rh Sudi 1, 1762 Bk/December 5-6, 1705 when the Guru’s army lived on starvation level. But Guru Gobiñd Singh refused to surrender.
Battle of Nirmoh (4th Battle)
Ajmer Chand in spite of the defeat of the allied forces, determined to oust the Guru. He sent an envoy to the Emperor's viceroy in Sirhind and another envoy to the viceroy of Delhi to complain against the Sikhs and sought their help to assist the hill chiefs in destroying the Guru's power and expelling him from Anandpur. Accordingly the imperial forces were directed to assist the hill chiefs.
At the same time to save their faces, the hill chiefs pro posed to the Guru through Pamma Brahman, thatthey would be friends with him for ever only if he left Anandpur for a while and come back later. The Guru agreed to the proposal and left for Nirmoh, a village situated about a mile from Kiratpur. After he reached Nirmoh, Raja Ajmer Chand and Raja of Kangra both thought that since he was now in the open and he had no fort around him for protection, it would be better to launch an attack. They attacked the Guru's army without even waiting for the arrival of the imperial army. A fierce battle ensued in which the Sikhs were ultimately victorious. One afternoon as the Guru was sitting in his open court, the hill chiefs engaged a Mohammadan gunner to kill him for an adequate remuneration. The gunner fired a cannon ball which missed the Guru but took away the life of Sikh who was fanning im. The Guru picked up his bow and shot an arrow which killed the gunner and with another arrow killed his brother ho was assisting him. On seeing this the hill men quit fighting. The two Mohammadans were buried on the spot called Siyah Tibbi or the black hill and a Gurdwara was erected by the Sikhs to commemorate Guru's escape from the bullet.
The army of Wazir Khan, the viceroy of Sirhind, arrived in due time. The Guru found himself in a verydangerous position between the hill Rajas on one hand, and the imperial army on the other. But he resolved to defend himself in whatever way it was and his Sikhs stood faithfully and valiantly by him. Wazir Khan gave an order to his troops to make a sudden rush and seize the Guru. The Guru was successfully protected by his son Ajit Singh and his other brave warriors. They stopped the advance of the imperial forces and cut them down in rows. The carnage continued until night. Next day the imperial army and the hill chiefs made a furious assault when the Guru decided on retiring to Basoli whose Raja had frequently invited him to his capital. Until the Guru's army reached the river Satluj, fierce fighting continued in which brave Sahib Singh was slain. Bitting his thumb Wazir Khan admitted that he had never before witnessed such desperate fighting. The Guru with his troops crossed over the river and reached Basoli. The hill chiefs were overjoyed and presented elephants to Wazir Khan and departed to their homes. Wazir Khan returned to Sirhind. This battle was fought at the end of 1701.
Daya Singh and Ude Singh requested the Guru to return to Anandpur. After staying a few days at Basoli, he marched back to Anandpur and the inhabitants of the city were delighted to see him again among them.Finding the uru again firmly established at Anandpur, Raja Ajmer Chand thought it most wise to pursue for peace. The Guru told Ajmer Chand that he was willing to come to terms with him, but he would punish him if he were again found guilty of treachery. Ajmer Chand was glad to find peace with the Guru and he sent his family priest with presents to him. The other hill Rajas also followed Ajmer Chand's example and made good relations with the Guru.
After this the Guru went to Malwa for the propagation of his mission. In January 1703 he went to a fair held at Kurukshetra on the occasion of a solar eclipse in order to purchase horses to replace those which were killed or stolen in previous warfare. The custom of sale and barter of horses and other animals at religious fairs was prevalent even during the time of the Guru.
Two Mohammadan generals, Saiyad Beg and Alif Khan, were on their way from Lahore to Delhi. Raja Ajmer Chand who also went to Kurukshetra along with other hill chiefs, thought to secure their assistance. He promised the generals large remuneration if they attacked the Guru. Instead on hearing favorable accounts of the Guru, Saiyad Beg withdrew his army, and when the battle ensued at Chamkaur between the Guru's and Alif Khan's troops, he joined the Guru's forces. Upon this Alif Khan retired from the contest thinking that he had no chance for victory. The Guru returned to Anandpur. Saiyad Beg threw his lot with him and accompanied him to Anandpur, and remained with him as a trustworthy and powerful ally.
After two years of peace, the old hostilities reappeared. The reasons being, the increasing prestige of the Guru and the clashes as a result between the hill Rajas and the Sikhs
The 5th Battle
Owing to the repeated representations of the hill chiefs, the Emperor sent a large army under the command of General Saiyad Khan to subdue the Guru. Saiyad Khan was a brother-in-law of Pir Budhu Shah of Sadhaura who ought on the side of the Guru at the battle of Bhangani. On his way to Anandpur Saiyad
Khan met Pir Budhu Shah and heard all favorable accounts of the Guru and, thus, had a wish to behold him. It was the end of March, 1704 and was a crop-cutting time of the year, so the majority of the Guru's Sikhs had dispersed to their homes. There were only five hundred strong troops left at Anandpur at that time. The Guru had to make best defence with the present force. Maimun Khan, a faithful Mohammadan who had attached himself to the Guru, asked his permission to show his bravery. The brave and faithful Saiyad Beg also came forward to render his services. Both Musalmans fought like tigers in the battle, and were followed by the Sikhs.
The Sikhs advanced boldly against the enemy. Saiyad Beg entered into a single combat with Raja Hari Chand. After they had repeatedly missed each other, Saiyad Beg at last struck off the hill chief's head. On seeing this Din eg of the imperial army rushed at Saiyad Beg and mortally wounded him. Maimun Khan from horseback charged in every direction and committed great havoc among the imperial troops. The Guru knew what was passing in General Saiyad Khan's mind, and advanced ostensibly to challenge him. Saiyad Khan on obtaining the wish of his heart to behold the Guru, dismounted and fell at his feet. The Guru conferred on him the true Name. After Saiyad Khan's defection, Ramzan Khan took command and fought with great bravery against the Sikhs. The Guru shot an arrow which killed Ramzan Khan's horse. The Sikhs rallied and presented a bold front to the enemy but being too few in number were overpowered by them. When the Guru saw that there was no chance of retrieving his position, he decided to evacuate Anandpur. The Mohammadan army plundered the city. After obtaining this booty they proceeded back to Sirhind. When the imperial army was resting at night, the Sikhs made a sudden attack, which created great confusion in the enemy camp. The Turks who turned to oppose the Sikhs, were killed and only those who fled, escaped the vengeance of the Guru's pursuing army. The Sikhs also deprived them of all the booty they had captured at Anandpur. After this the Guru returned and took possession of Anandpur.
The 6th Battle
The Emperor called on his troops to account for their cowardice. They pleaded that the Sikhs had taken an unfair advantage of their position in the battle field. At one point the Emperor asked what sort of person the Guru was and what force he possessed. A Mohammadan soldier gave highly colored accounts of the Guru's beauty, sanctity and prowess. He described him as a young handsome man, a living saint, the father of his people and in war equal to one hundred twenty-five thousand men. The Emperor was much displeased on hearing this elaborate praise of the Guru and ordered that he should be brought to his presence. In the meantime Raja Ajmer Chand made a strong representation to the Emperor for assistance to bring the Guru to submission. Accordingly the viceroys of Sirhind, Lahore and Kashmir were ordered to proceed against the Guru.
Some faithful Sikhs informed the Guru of war preparations as a result of Raja Ajmer Chand's representationto the Emperor. The Guru made arrangements accordingly and sent for his followers. The Sikhs of Majha, Malwa and Doaba and other places thronged to Anandpur. They were delighted at the prospect of battle, and congratulated themselves on their good fortune in being allowed to die for their Guru and their faith. The Guru affirmed that the death in the battle-field in the name of religion was equal to the fruits of many years' devotion, and ensured honor and glory in the next world.
The noteworthy point in this whole episode is that the Guru having won battle after battle, never captured an inch of territory, never nurtured enmity, and never attacked anybody as an aggressor. By the creation of the Khalsa he established equality and brotherhood of mankind. The down-trodden segments of the society which were ever ridiculed by the so called high caste Brahmans and Khatris, had now become undaunted saint-soldiers after being baptized by the Guru and joining the brotherhood of the Khalsa. The Brahmans and the hill chiefs considered all this a threat to their very existence. They were, therefore, waging a constant war against the Guru and his Sikhs.
The hill chiefs who arrayed themselves against the Guru were Raja Ajmer Chand of Kahlur, Rajas of Kangra, Kullu, Kionthal, Mandi, Jammu, Nurpur, Chamba, Guler, Garhwal, Bijharwal, Darauli and Dadhwal. They were joined by the Gujars and the Ranghars of the area, and all of them formed a formidable force. The imperial army of the viceroys' of Sirhind, Lahore and Kashmir came in large number. The chronicler judiciously remarks that the Khalsa must be congratulated because, though few in number, having the blessings of their Guru they had confidence in themselves to fight for their religion, and delighted in anticipation of the approaching conflict. It is recorded that there were ten thousand Sikhs at Anandpur while the opposing army came as strong as fifteen to twenty times in number than the Sikhs
The allied forces fell on Anandpur like locust. On seeing this the Guru ordered his artillery men to discharge their cannon into the hostile army at the thickest spot. The enemy made a charge to seize the artillery, but were quickly restrained by the fatal accuracy with which the Sikhs served their guns. They were supported by the infantry. The city of Anandpur was on a little higher elevation and the allied forces were in the open and had no protection, and consequently fell in heaps. A fierce battle was fought for a few days. The Mohammadan gunners were promised large reward if they killed the Guru but they were unsuccessful in their mission because their gun fire was either high or too low and could not hit the target. The allied army finding their guns useless tried hand to hand fight. On seeing this the Guru began to discharge his arrows with marvelous effect. The fearful carnage continued, horses fell on horses, men on men. The allied forces rallied a strong effort to conquer, but was so vigorously and successfully repulsed that they were obliged to uspend hostilities at the end of each day of warfare. The Mohammadans and the hill chiefs had different opinions as to the cause of the success of the Sikhs. Some thought that the Guru had supreme miraculous power and the supernatural forces fought on his side. Others maintained that the Guru's success was owing to the fact that his men were protected behind their ramparts. While this discussion was going on, the Mohammadan viceroys decided to storm the fortress where the Guru was stationed. On seeing this the Sikhs put their two guns called Baghan (tigress) and Bijai-ghosh (sound of victory) in position. The aims were taken at the enemy. The tents were blown away and great havoc was caused. On seeing this the Mohammadan viceroys retreated and the hill armies fled. That evening the Guru offered thanksgiving, and beat the drum of victory.
Having failed through dire ct assault, the allied army planned a siege of the city of Anandpur in such a waythat all entrances and exits for both goods and persons were completely closed. They completely besieged the city, and the Guru's supplies were failing. Food position became extremely serious and the Sikhs were driven to undertake some dangerous expeditions. They went out at night to snatch provisions from the besiegers. After some time the allies collected their stores at one place and guarded them day and night. When the enemy learnt about the distressful situation of the Sikhs, they planned a different strategy to induce the Guru to leave Anandpur. Raja Ajmer Chand sent his envoy to him saying that if he left Anandpur, their armies would withdraw and he could afterwards return whenever he pleased. The Guru did not pay any heed to this proposal. The offer was repeated several times, but the Guru did not accept it. Having suffered extreme hardships, the Sikhs besought the Guru to evacuate the fort, but the Guru counselled them patience for some time more. The Sikhs who heard enemy's proposal, went to the Guru's mother to use her influence on him. She pleaded with him but in vain. The Guru told her that the enemy's proposal was hypocritical since they planned to draw out the Sikhs from within the shelter of the city and attack them. Some of the Masands and the Sikhs who were influenced by the hill chiefs, insisted that the proposal of the enemy be accepted and the city be abandoned. Some Sikhs became impatient and
Dish eartened. The Guru asked them to declare their allegiance. Forty of them signed a disclaimer saying that the was not their Guru and they were not his Sikhs. After they signed the disclaimer, they were allowed by the Guru to go away. He then brought out a scheme to expose the hypocrisy of the enemy.
The Guru sent for Raja Ajmer Chand's envoy and told him that he would evacuate Anandpur if the allied armies would first allow the removal of his treasure and property. The Hindus swore on the Salgram (their idol) and the Mohammadans on the holy Quran, that they would not deceive or molest his servants departing with his property. The Guru then immediately ordered a number of cartloads of useless articles. To the bullocks' horns were attached torches and at the dead of night, the caravan of bullocks with their loads, started along with some Sikhs accompanying them. When the caravan reached the enemy lines they forgot all their pledges and fell upon the small company of the Sikhs to loot the treasure. Their disappointment was great when they found out that the treasure was made up of rubbish articles. In this way the Guru exposed the treachery of the enemy and told his Sikhs that everything they had endured had been by the Will of God, and he quoted Guru Nanak- "Happiness is a disease, the remedy for which is unhappiness".
At last came an autographed letter from the Emperor to the Guru- "I have sworn on the Quran not to harm. You. If I do, may I not find a place in God's court hereafter! Cease warfare and come to me. If you do notdesire to come hither, then go whithersoever you please." The Emperor's envoy added that the Emperor promised that he would not harm the Guru. The hill Rajas also swore by the cow and called their idols to witness, that they would allow safe passage to the Guru. The Guru told the enemy," You are all liars, and therefore all your empire and your glory shall depart. You all took oaths before and then perjured yourselves."
The Sikhs went again to the Guru's mother to complain of his refusal to listen to reason. He, however, felt that their pleading was not reasonable but it was not appropriate to accept the terms of the enemy and leave the fort. The Sikhs stricken with hunger, supported the envoy's representation. The Guru comforted them," My brethren, waver not, I only desire your welfare. You know not that these people are deceivers and design to do us evil. If you hold a little longer, you shall have food to your heart's content." When the Sikhs refused to wait any longer, he asked them to wait only a few days more when the great God would send them relief. The Sikhs, however, refused to wait even for a day. The Guru repeated his request saying that the enemy would then retire and they would all be happy. He also warned the Sikhs," O dear Khalsa, you are rushing to your destruction, while I am endeavoring to save you."
The Sikhs were so much hunger stricken that they refused to stay even for a day. The Guru's mother was also in favor of evacuating the fort. The allied armies sent a Saiyid (a Mohammadan priest) and a Brahman, both of whom were to swear, on behalf of the allied armies, solemn oaths of safe conduct for the Guru should he evacuate Anandpur. On seeing this the Sikhs began to waver in their allegiance to the Guru, and in the end only forty Sikhs decided to remain with him and share his fortunes. He told them that they too might desert him. They refused and said that they would either remain within the fort or force their way out as the Guru directed. He knew that the seed of his religion would flourish. He then finally decided to leave Anandpur and gave orders to his men that they all were to march at night. Anandpur was finally evacuated on 6-7 Poh, Sambat 1762 (20-21 December, 1705).
Bhai Daya Singh and Ude Singh walked in front of the Guru, Mohkam Singh and Sahib Singh on his right, the second batch of baptized Sikhs on his left. His sons Ajit Singh and Jujhar Singh followed with bows and arrows. Then came Bhai Himmat Singh carrying ammunition and matchlocks. Gulab Rai, Sham Singh and other Sikhs and relations accompanied him. The rest of the followers brought up the rear, about five hundred in all. The moment the enemy got the news of Guru's departure, they again forgot all about their pledges and set out in hot pursuit immediately. Skirmishes started from Kiratpur onwards. Realizing the impending danger the Guru charged Ude Singh with the responsibility to check the advance of the enemy. Bhai Ude Singh fought a bloody battle at Shahi Tibbi. The enemy surrounded and killed the dauntless and the bravest of the Guru's brave warriors, Ude Singh. When the battle of Shahi Tibbi was in progress, the Guru had reached the bank of Sarsa river. At that time a news came that a contingent of enemy troops was fast approaching. Bhai Jiwan Singh, a Rangretta Sikh, was given a band of one hundred warriors to encounter the pursuers. With the rest of his people the Guru plunged into the flooded waters of the Sarsa river. The flood was so strong that many were drowned and many were scattered in different directions including the Guru's mother with two younger sons, Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh. Besides, there was a heavy loss of valuable literature and property. The Guru accompanying his two eldest sons and some veteran Sikhs reached the village Ghanaula on the other side of Sarsa river. Apprehending that the route ahead might be beset with danger, the Guru gave Bhai Bachitar Singh a band of one hundred Sikhs and instructed him to march by the direct route to Rupar, whereas he with some veteran Sikhs preferred to take a longer route and reached Kotla Nihang near Rupar to stay with Pathan Nihang Khan who was an old and sincere devotee of the Sikh Gurus. Bhai Bachitar Singh and his men had to fight their way through a cordon of the Ranghars of Malikpur, a village near Rupar, and the Pathans of Rupar. During the fierce fighting that took place on this occasion, majority of the Sikhs fell dead and Bachitar Singh was mortally wounded.
The Guru did not stay long at Kotla Nihang. It seems that he was to proceed to Machhiwara and Rai Kot. Accompanied by his two eldest sons and forty Sikhs, the Guru halted at Bur Majra after Kotla Nihang. A news was received that a large body of Sirhind troops was chasing them. Immediately the Guru decided to face the enemy from within the Garhi of Chamkaur and he hurried towards it. He was well aware of the importance of this Garhi (mud fortress) as he had, on a previous occasion, fought a battle at this place.
Bhai Bachittar Singh
At Anandpur, Guru Gobind Singh was along with a few hundred of his Sikhs. A Mughal army under the Subedars of Sirhind and Lahore marched against the Guru. They laid siege to the Anandpur Fort. For many months, the Sikhs fought with determination and kept the enemy at bay. It was there that Sikh warriors displayed a miraculous new spirit.
The Mughal Commanders sent a fierce war-elephant to smash the gate of the fort. As the elephant charged furiously towards the gate, the Guru asked one of his Sikhs to go out and fight the wild beast, but no one dared face the ferocious drunken elephant.
It was Bhai Bachitter Singh who took up the challenge and armed with a Nagni (a special spear), which Guru Gobind Singh gave to him, went out to face the armoured elephant, which came charging. The Mughal army on the one side and the Guru and his Sikhs on the other watched the battle.
To the relief and amazement of all, the brave Bhai Bachitter Singh threw the Nagni Spear at the forehead of the elephant, which pierced the iron plate and injured the elephant and sent it back towards the Imperial troops. The weapon with which he fought and injured the elephant can still be seen at the Anandpur museum.
Bhai Uday/Udei/Udai Singh
Bhai Uday Singh was one of the four sons of renowned Sikh martyr Bhai Mani Singh Ji, a resident of village Alipur, District Multan (now in Pakistan) who offered his services along with those of his four sons, to Guru Gobind Singh Ji. Bhai Bachiter Singh and Bhai Uday Singh, were two of the four sons who joined the band of dedicated Sikhs in the Army of the Guru.
Bhai Uday Singh was a very good marksman. Once, while he and a few other Sikhs accompanied Guru Gobind Singh Ji on a hunting expediton, they were suddenly attacked by two Hill chiefs named Balia Chand and Alamchand. Bhai Alam Singh from Guruji’s party engaged hill chief Alam Chand and cut off his right arm with a single stroke of his sword. Bhai Uday Singh surged forward and caused serious injury to the Hill Chief Balia Chand with a gun shot. With both the Hill chiefs seriously injured the soldier accompaning the two Hill Chiefs beat hasty retreat into the thick jungle. Guru praised Bhai uday Singh’s brave act in the battle in presence of Sikh sangat.
Bhai Uday Singh took a very active part in almost all the battles that took place between Gururji’s forces and those of Hill Rajas, from time to time. When all the Hill Chiefs mounted a combined attack on Anand Pur Sahib, Bhai Uday Singh was deputed for the defence of Fort Fatehgarh by Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
While Bhai Bachitter Singh, one of the brothers of Bhai Uday Singh, was sent out of the fort by Guru Ji to face an intoxicated elephant, who was being used by the enemy forces for breaking down the fort gate. Bhai Uday Singh sought Guru Ji’s permission to engage in battle the commander-in-chief of enemy forces, Raja Kesri Chand of Jaswal Hill State. After obtaining Guru Ji’s permission and accompanied by some sikh soldiers, Bhai Uday Singh attacked enemy forces like a hungry lion attacking its prey. In the lightening attack, the Sikhs accompanying Bhai Uday Singh, killed many enemy soldiers whose bodies lay scattered every where.
When Bhai Bachitter Singh caused serious injury to the intoxicated elephant with his spear and the elephant turned back and started crushing Hill soldiersunder its feet, Raja Kesri Chand got terribly upset and angry. At this very moment, Bhai UdaySingh dared Kesri Chand for a straight man to man fight. Launching a lightening attack, Bhai Uday Singh cut off the head of Kesri Chand and mounting the same (head) on his spear, returned to the Fort. With the death of their commander-in-chief, the Hill forces retreated in disgust Bhai Uday Singh was declared, the hero of that battle. He led the Guru Ji’s forces against the army of Hill chiefs in the fifth battle of Anandpur Sahib and inflicted heavy casualities on the enemy forces.
Thereafter, combined forces of Hill chiefs and those of Emperor Aurangzeb laid a siege of Anandpur Sahib, lasting more than six months. Guru Gobind Singh vacated Anandpur Sahib for various reasons in Dec. 1704 A.D. When enemy forces, violating all their vows and undertakings attacked Guru Ji’s entourage, Bhai Uday Singh along with Bhai Daya Singh, Bhai Alam Singh and other brave Sikh warriours, kept the enemy at bay under the leadership of Sahibzada Ajit Singh for a considerable time, facilitating crossing of flooded rivulest Sirsa by Guru Gobind Singh and others.
In the process, however, Bhai Uday Singh laid down his life as a martyr in the service of Guru Ji. He laid down his life fighting against a cruel and treacherous regime for emancipation and freedom of the opressed. Thus, yet another renowned Sikh martyr enriched the Sikh heritage, enlightening the path of future Sikh generations.
Bhai Kanhaiya Singh
Bhai Kanhaiya ji was founder of Sevapanthi or Addanshahi sect of the Sikhs. He was born in a Dhamman Khatri family of Sodhara near Wazirabad in Sialkot District (Now in Pakistan). His father was a wealthy trader, but he himself being of a religious bent of mind left home when still very young and roamed about With sadhus and ascetics in search of spiritual peace. His quest ended as he met Guru Tegh Bahadur 1621-75) and accepted initiation at his hands. Kanhaiya established a dharamsal at Kavha village in the present Attock district of Pakistan. Which he turned into a preaching centre. His special mission was selfless service of humanity with no distinction of nationality, caste or creed. In 1705, he was on a visit to Anandpur when Anandpur was invested by a combination of hill troops and the Mughal imperial army. During the frequent sallies and skirmishes, Bhai Kanhaiya used to roam around serving water to the wounded and the dying without distinction of friend and foe. Some Sikhs complained to Guru Gobind Singh that Kanhaiya had been resuscitating the fallen enemy soldiers. As Guru Gobind Singh summoned Bhat Kanhaiya and told him What the Sikhs had said, he spoke, "Yes, my Lord, what they said is true in a sense, but I saw no Mughals or Sikhs in the battlefield. I only saw the Guru's face in everyone. " The Guru, pleased with the reply, blessed him and told his Sikhs that Kanhaiya had understood his teaching correctly. Guru also give him medicine to be put on the wounds of fallen soldiers(Sikhs and Enemies). After evacuation of Anandpur, Bhai Kanhaiya retired to Sodhara where he died in 1718.
For information of what occurred next visit the following pages:
|Battles by Guru Gobind Singh|