Battle of Nadaun

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Gurdwara Nadaun Sahib
Battle of Nadaun

Date: 20 March 1691
Location : Nadaun, Himanchal Pardesh
Reason : Resist to pay Revenue to Mughals

Commanders
Raja Bhim Chand, under assistance of Guru Gobind Singh Alif Khan, Raja Kirpal Chand, Raja Dyal

Results
Bhim Chand won, Alif khan and other rulers ran away

The Battle Of Nadaun was fought on 20 March 1691 between an imperial expeditionary force aided by Raja Kirpal Chand of Kangra and Raja Dyal of Bijharval in the Sivalik hills on the one hand and several other neighbouring chieftains who enjoyed the support of Guru Gobind Singh on the other. The battle is also mentioned in the autobiography of Guru Gobind Singh called the Bachittar Natak. This was the second battle of Guru Gobind Singh after the Battle of Bhangani.

Reason for the Conflict

Demand of Revenue
The hill Rajas, taking advantage of Emperor Aurangzeb's preoccupation with the endless Maratha insurgency in the South, had neglected to pay their annual tributes into the imperial treasury for three years. Early in 1691 orders were issued to Hifzullah Khan alias Mian Khan, Governor of Jammu, to collect the revenue. Mian Khan despatched a punitive force under Alif Khan. Two of the chieftains, Raja Kirpal Chand and Raja Dyal, submitted without opposition and in fact became Alif Khan's allies.

Bhim Chand turned down
Raja Bhim Chand of Kahlur (Bilaspur), the most powerful of the Chieftains rallied the rest of the rulers to resist the Mughal demands. Guru Gobind Singh, who did not cotton to the idea of anyone paying tribute to Aurangzeb and his religious wars, was asked for help and joined in the combined effort to route Alif Khan and his punitive force.

Demand for Assistance

ਜ੝ੱਧ ਕਾਜ ਨ੝ਰਿਪ ਹਮੈ ਬ੝ਲਾਯੋ ॥ ਆਪਿ ਤਵਨ ਕੀ ਓਰ ਸਿਧਾਯੋ ॥

Bhim Chand asked me for assistance and himself went to face (the enemy)

Bachittar Natak


The Guru came to his assistance with a force of his best Sikhs. The opposing armies met at Nadaun on the left bank of the River Beas, 32 km southeast of Kangra and 12 km from the town of Javalamukhi with its Durga temple with the eternal flame. The very Mandir to which Guru Angad had once guided his band of devotees yearly.

A list of those present

Bhim Chand, Raj Singh, Ram Singh, Sukhdev Gaji of Jasrot, Prithi Chand of Dadhwar, where as in opposition there were Kirpal Chand of Kanra, Dyal Chand of Bijharwal, Rajputs of Nangal and panglua, soldiers of Jaswar and Guler and Alif Khan. Guru Sahi bfought with Katochs.

Guru Gobind Singh described in his autobiographical poem, Bachitra Natak the action that took place. As the enemy, he says, advanced with Dyal and Kirpal in the vanguard, a fierce battle commenced. It however did not take long to decide the issue. From Guru Gobind Singh's poem.

"The Almighty God hastened the end of the fight and the opposing host was pushed back into the river… Alif Khan fled in utter disarray leaving his camp to take care of itself…"

Result

Alif Khan fled his camp, leaving his belongings, along with all his warriors. Bhim Chand won the battle.

Aftermath

Guru Gobind Singh Ji stayed in Himanchal, remaining on the bank of the river for eight more days while he visited the palaces of all the chiefs. Guru Ji took leave and came home, the local rulers met at his camp to settle the terms of peace. Both sides made and agreement, therefore the story ends. Guru ji then returned to Anandpur.

Bachitar Natak On Battle Of Nadaun

ਅਥ ਨਦਉਣ ਕਾ ਜ੝ੱਧ ਬਰਨਨੰ ॥
Here begins the Description of the Battle of Nadaun:

ਚੌਪਈ ॥
CHAUPAI

ਬਹ੝ਤ ਕਾਲ ਇਹ ਭਾਂਤਿ ਬਿਤਾਯੋ ॥ ਮੀਆਂ ਖਾਨ ਜੰਮੂ ਕਹ ਆਯੋ ॥
Much time passed in this way, Mian Khan came (from Delhi) to Jammu (for collection of revenue).

ਅਲਿਫ ਖਾਨ ਨਾਦੌਣ ਪਠਾਵਾ ॥ ਭੀਮਚੰਦ ਤਨ ਬੈਰ ਬਢਾਵਾ ॥੧॥
He sent Alif Khan to Nadaun, who developed enmity towards Bhim Chand (the Chief of Kahlur).1.

ਜ੝ੱਧ ਕਾਜ ਨ੝ਰਿਪ ਹਮੈ ਬ੝ਲਾਯੋ ॥ ਆਪਿ ਤਵਨ ਕੀ ਓਰ ਸਿਧਾਯੋ ॥
Bhim Chnad asked me for assistance and himself went to face (the enemy).

ਤਿਨ ਕਠ ਗੜ ਨਵਰਸ ਪਰ ਬਾਂਧਯੋ ॥ ਤੀਰ ਤ੝ਫੰਗ ਨਰੇਸਨ ਸਾਧਯੋ ॥੨॥
Alif Khan prepared a wooden fort of the hill of Navras. The hill-chief also prepared their arrows and guns.2.

ਭ੝ਜੰਗ ਪ੝ਰਯਾਤ ਛੰਦ ॥
BHUJANG STANZA

ਤਹਾ ਰਾਜ ਸਿੰਘੰ ਬਲੀ ਭੀਮਚੰਦੰ ॥ ਚੜਿਓ ਰਾਮ ਸਿੰਘੰ ਮਹਾ ਤੇਜ ਵੰਦੰ ॥
With brave Bhim Chand, there were Raj Singh, illustrious Ram Singh,

ਸ੝ਖੰ ਦੇਵ ਗਾਜੀ ਜਸਾਰੋਟ ਰਾਜੰ ॥ ਚੜ੝ਹੇ ਕ੝ਰ੝ਧ ਕੀਨੇ ਕਰੇ ਸਰਬ ਕਾਜੰ ॥੩॥
And Sukhdev Gaji of Jasrot, were full of fury and managed their affairs with enthusiasm.3.

ਪ੝ਰਿਥੀਚੰਦ ਚਢਿਓ ਡਢੇ ਡਢਵਾਰੰ ॥ ਚਲੇ ਸਿਧ ਹ੝ਝ ਕਾਜ ਰਾਜੰ ਸ੝ਧਾਰੰ ॥
There came also the brave Prithi Chand of Dadhwar after having made arrangements regarding the affairs of his state.

ਕਰੀ ਢੂਕ ਢੋਅੰ ਕਿਰਪਾਲਚੰਦੰ ॥ ਹਟਾਝ ਸਬੈ ਮਾਰਿ ਕੈ ਬੀਰ ਬ੝ਰਿੰਦੰ ॥੪॥
Kirpal Chand (of Kanara) arrived with ammunition and drove back and killed many of the warriors (of Bhim Chand).4.

ਦ੝ਤੀਯ ਢੋਅ ਢੂਕੈ ਵਹੈ ਮਾਰਿ ਉਤਾਰੀ ॥ ਖਰੇ ਦਾਂਤ ਪੀਸੈ ਛ੝ਭੈ ਛਤ੝ਰਧਾਰੀ ॥
When for the second time, the forces of Bhim Chand advanced, they were beaten back down the hill to the great sorrow of (the allies of Bhim Chand),

ਉਤੈ ਵੈ ਥਰੇ ਬੀਰ ਬੰਬੈ ਬਜਾਵੈਂ ॥ ਤਰੇ ਭੂਪ ਠਾਂਢੇ ਬਡੋ ਸੋਕ੝ ਪਾਵੈਂ ॥੫॥
The warriors on the hill sounded trumpets, while the chiefs below were filled with remorse.5.

ਤਬੈ ਭੀਮਚੰਦੰ ਕੀਯੋ ਕੋਪ ਆਪੰ ॥ ਹਨੂਮਾਨ ਕੇ ਮੰਤ੝ਰ ਕੋ ਮ੝ਖਿ ਜਾਪੰ ॥
Then Bhim Chand was filled with great ire and began to recite the incantations of Hanuman.

ਸਬੈ ਬੀਰ ਬੋਲੈ ਹਮੈ ਭੀ ਬ੝ਲਾਯੰ ॥ ਤਬੈ ਢੋਅ ਕੈ ਕੈ ਸ੝ ਨੀਕੇ ਸਿਧਾਯੰ ॥੬॥
He called all his warriors and also called me. Then all assembled and advanced for attack.6.

ਸਬੈ ਕੋਪ ਕੈ ਕੈ ਮਹਾ ਬੀਰ ਢ੝ਕੇਕੇ ॥ ਚਲੇ ਬਾਰਿਬੇ ਬਾਰ ਕੋ ਜਿਉ ਭਭੂਕੇ ॥
All the great warriors marched forward with great ire like a flame over a fence of dry weeds.

ਤਹਾ ਬਿਝ੝ੜਿਆਲੰ ਹਠਿਓ ਬੀਰ ਦਿਆਲੰ ॥ ਉਠਿਓ ਸੈਨ ਲੈ ਸੰਗਿ ਸਾਰੀ ਕ੝ਰਿਪਾਲੰ ॥੭॥
Then on the other side, the valiant Raja Dayal of Bijharwal advanced with Raja Kirpal, alongwith all his his army.7.

ਮਧ੝ਭਾਰ ਛੰਦ ॥
MADHUBHAAR STANZA

ਕ੝ਪਿਓ ਕ੝ਰਿਪਾਲ ॥ ਨ ਮਰਾਲ ॥
Kirpal Chnad was in great fury. The horses danced.

ਬਜੇ ਬਜੰਤ ॥ ਕ੝ਰੂਰੰ ਅਨੰਤ ॥੮॥ And the pipes were played which presented a dreadful scene.8.

ਜ੝ੱਝੰਤ ਜ੝ਆਣ ॥ ਬਾਹੈ ਕ੝ਰਿਪਾਣ ॥
The warriors fought, striking each other's swords.

ਜੀਅ ਧਾਰ ਕ੝ਰੋਧ ॥ ਛੱਡੇ ਸਰੋਘ ॥੯॥
With rage, they showered volleys of arrows.9.

ਲ੝ਝੈ ਨਿਦਾਨ ॥ ਤਜੰਤ ਪ੝ਰਾਣ ॥
The warring soldiers fell in the field and breathed their last.

ਗਿਰ ਪਰਤ ਭੂਮਿ ॥ ਜਣ੝ ਮੇਘ ਝੂਮ ॥੧੦॥
They fell. Like thundering clouds on the earth.10.

ਰਸਾਵਲ ਛੰਦ ॥
RASAVAL STANZA

ਕਿਰਪਾਲ ਕੋਪਿਯੰ ॥ ਹਠੀ ਪਾਵ ਰੋਪਿਯੰ ॥
Kirpal Chand, in great anger, stood firmly in the field.

ਸਰੋਘੰ ਚਲਾਝ ॥ ਬਡੇ ਬੀਰ ਘਾਝ ॥੧੧॥
With his volley of arrows, he killed great warriors.11.

ਹਣੇ ਛੱਤ੝ਰਧਾਰੀ ॥ ਲਿਟੇ ਭੂਪ ਭਾਰੀ ॥
He killed the chief, who lay dead on the ground.

ਮਹਾਂ ਨਾਦ ਬਾਜੇ ॥ ਭਲੇ ਸੂਰ ਗਾਜੇ ॥੧੨॥
The trumpets sounded and the warriors thundered.12.

ਕ੝ਰਿਪਾਲੰ ਕ੝ਰ੝ਧੰ ॥ ਕੀਯੋ ਜ੝ੱਧ ਸ੝ੱਧੰ ॥
Kirpal Chand, in great fury, made a great fight.

ਮਹਾਂ ਬੀਰ ਗੱਜੇ ॥ ਮਹਾਂ ਸਾਰ ਬੱਜੇ ॥੧੩॥
Great heroes thundered, while using dreadful weapons.13.

ਕਰਿਯੋ ਜ੝ੱਧ ਚੰਡੰ ॥ ਸ੝ਣਿਯੋ ਨਾਵ ਖੰਡੰ ॥
Such a heroic battle was fought that all the people of the world living in nine quarters, knew it.

ਚਲਿਯੋ ਸਸਤ੝ਰ ਬਾਹੀ ॥ ਰਜੌਤੀ ਨਿਬਾਹੀ ॥੧੪॥
His weapons (Kirpal Chand) wrought havoc and he exhibited himself as a true Rajput.14.

ਦੋਹਰਾ ॥
DOHRA

ਕੋਪ ਭਰੇ ਰਾਜਾ ਸਬੈ ਕੀਨੋ ਜ੝ੱਧ ਉਪਾਇ ॥
All the chiefs of the allies, in great anger, entered the fray.

ਸੈਨ ਕਟੋਚਨ ਕੀ ਤਬੈ ਘੇਰ ਲਈ ਅਰਰਾਇ ॥੧੫॥
And besieged the army of Katoch. 15.

ਭ੝ਜੰਗ ਛੰਦ ॥
BHUJANG STANZA

ਚਲੇ ਨਾਂਗਲੂ ਪਾਂਗਲੂ ਵੇਦੜੋਲੰ ॥ ਜਸਵਾਰੇ ਗ੝ਲੇਰੇ ਚਲੇ ਬਾਂਧ ਟੋਲੰ ॥
The Rajputs of the tribes of Nanglua and Panglu advanced in groups alongwith the soldiers of Jaswar and Guler.

ਤਹਾਂ ਝਕ ਬਾਜਿਓ ਮਹਾਂ ਬੀਰ ਦਿਆਲੰ॥ਰਖੀ ਲਾਜ ਜੌਨੇ ਸਭੈ ਬਿਝੜਵਾਲੰ ॥੧੬॥
The greater warrior Dayal also joined and saved the honour of the people of Bijharwal. 16.

ਤਵੰ ਕੀਟ ਤੌ ਲੌ ਤ੝ਫੰਗੰ ਸੰਭਾਰੋ ॥ ਹ੝ਰਿਦੈ ਝਕ ਰਾਵੰਤ ਕੇ ਤਕਿ ਮਾਰੋ ॥
Then this lowly person (the Guru speaking of himself) took up his gun and aimed unerringly at one of the chiefs.

ਗਿਰਿਓ ਝੂਮਿ ਭੂਮੈ ਕਰਿਯੋ ਜ੝ਧ ਸ੝ੱਧੰ ॥ ਤਊ ਮਾਰ੝ ਬੋਲਿਯੋ ਮਹਾ ਮਾਨਿ ਕੋ੝ਰਧੰ॥੧੭॥
He reeled and fell down on the ground in the battlefield, but even then he thundered in anger.17.

ਤਜਿਯੋ ਤ੝ਪਕੰ ਬਾਨ ਪਾਨੰ ਸੰਭਾਰੇ ॥ ਚਤ੝ਰ ਬਾਨਯੰ ਲੈ ਸ੝ ਸਬਿਯੰ ਪ੝ਰਹਾਰੇ ॥
I then threw away the gun and took the arrows in my hand, I shot four of them.

ਤ੝ਰਿਯੋ ਬਾਨ ਲੈ ਬਾਮ ਪਾਨੰ ਚਲਾਝ ॥ ਲਗੇ ਯਾ ਲਗੇ ਨਾ ਕਛੂ ਜਾਨਿ ਪਾਝ ॥੧੮॥
Another three I discharged with my left hand, whether they struck anybody, I do not know. 18.

ਸੋ ਤਉ ਲਉ ਦਈਵ ਜ੝ਧ ਕੀਨੋ ਉਝਾਰੰ ॥ ਤਿਨੈ ਖੇਦ ਕੈ ਬਾਰਿ ਕੇ ਬੀਚ ਡਾਰੰ ॥
Then the Lord brought the end of the fight and the enemy was driven out into the river.

ਪਰੀ ਮਾਰ ਬ੝ੰਗੰ ਛ੝ਟੀ ਬਾਣ ਗੋਲੀ ॥ ਮਨੋ ਸੂਰ ਬੈਠੇ ਭਲੀ ਖੇਲ ਹੋਲੀ ॥੧੯॥
Form the hill the bullets and arrows were showered. It seemed that the sun set down after playing a good holi.19.

ਗਿਰੇ ਬੀਰ ਭੂਮੰ ਸਰੰ ਸਾਂਗ ਪੇਲੰ ॥ ਰੰਗੇ ਸ੝ਰੌਣ ਬਸਤ੝ਰੰ ਮਨੋ ਫਾਗ ਖੇਲੰ ॥
Pierced by arrows and spears, the warriors fell in the battlefield. Their clothes were dyed with blood, it seemed that they played holi.

ਲੀਯੋ ਜੀਤਿ ਬੈਰੀ ਕੀਆ ਆਨਿ ਡੇਰੰ ॥ ਤੇਊ ਜਾਇ ਪਾਰੰ ਰਹੇ ਬਾਰਿ ਕੇਰੰ ॥੨੦॥
After conquering the enemy, they came for rest at their place of encampment, on the other side of the river. 20.

ਭਈ ਰਾਤ੝ਰਿ ਗ੝ਬਾਰ ਕੇ ਅਰਧ ਜਾਮੰ ॥ ਤਬੈ ਛੋਰਿਗੇ ਬਾਰ ਦੇਵੈ ਦਮਾਮੰ ॥
Sometime after midnight they left, while beating their drums.

ਸਬੈ ਰਾਤ੝ਰਿ ਬੀਤੀ ਉਦਿਓ ਦਿਉਸ ਰਾਣੰ ॥ ਚਲੇ ਬੀਰ ਚਾਲਾਕ ਖਗੰ ਖਿਲਾਣੰ ॥੨੧॥
When the whole night ended and the sun arose, the warriors on out side marched hastily, brandishing their spears.21.

ਭਜਿਓ ਅਲਿਫ ਖਾਨੰ ਨ ਖਾਨਾ ਸੰਭਾਰਿਓ ॥ ਭਜੇ ਅਉਰ ਬੀਰੰ ਨ ਧੀਰੰ ਬਿਚਾਰਿਓ ॥
Alif Khan fled away, leaving behind his belongings. All the other warriors fled away and did not stay anywhere.

ਨਦੀ ਪੈ ਦਿਨੰ ਅਸਟ ਕੀਨੇ ਮ੝ਕਾਮੰ ॥ ਭਲੀ ਭਾਂਤਿ ਦੇਖੇ ਸਬੈ ਰਾਜ ਧਾਮੰ ॥੨੨॥
I remained there on the bank of the river for eight more days and visited the palaces of all the chiefs.22.

ਚੌਪਈ ॥
CHAUPA

ਇਤ ਹਮ ਹੋਇ ਬਿਦਾ ਘਰ ਆਝ ॥ ਸ੝ਲਹ ਨਮਿਤ ਵੈ ਉਤਹਿ ਸਿਧਾਝ ॥
Then I took leave and came home, they went there to settle the terms of peace.

ਸੰਧਿ ਇਨੈ ਉਨ ਕੈ ਸੰਗਿ ਕਈ ॥ ਹੇਤ ਕਥਾ ਪੂਰਨ ਇਤ ਭਈ ॥੨੩॥
Both the parties made and agreement, therefore the story ends here.23.

ਦੋਹਰਾ ॥
DOHRA

ਆਲਸੂਨ ਕਹ ਮਾਰਿ ਕੈ ਇਹ ਦਿਸਿ ਕੀਓ ਪਯਾਨ ॥
I came to this side after destroying alsun on my way;

ਭਾਤਿ ਅਨੇਕਨ ਕੇ ਕਰੇ ਪ੝ਰਿ ਅਨੰਦ ਸ੝ਖ ਆਨਿ ॥੨੪॥
And enjoyed in various ways after reaching Anandpur.24.

ਇਤਿ ਸ੝ਰੀ ਬਚਿਤ੝ਰ ਨਾਟਕ ਗ੝ਰੰਥੇ ਨਦੌਨ ਜ੝ੱਧ ਬਰਨਨੰ ਨਾਮ ਨੌਮੋ ਧਿਆਇ ਸਮਾਪਤਮ ਸਤ੝ ਸ੝ਭਮ ਸਤ੝ ॥੯॥੩੪੪॥
End of Ninth Chapter of BACHITTAR NATAK entitled `Description of the battle of Nadaun.9.344.

Memorial

Gurudwara Dasvin Patshahi (Nadaun) on the west bank of the River Beas commemorates the battle. The sanctum, a 6 metre square room with doors on four sides, has a dome with a brass pinnacle. The Guru Granth Sahib is seated on a raised platform. Maharaja Ranjit Singh had a Gurdwara built on the spot where the tenth Guru camped for several days after the battle. The present building was constructed by Rai Bahadur Baisakha Singh in 1929. The Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, which took over control of the shrine in 1935, now administers it through a local committee.

Battles by Guru Gobind Singh

Battle of Bhangani || Battle of Nadaun || Battle of Anandpur || Battle of Chamkaur || Battle of Muktsar


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Battles By Sikh Gurus

Battle of Amritsar || Battle Of Hargobindpur || Battle Of Gurusar || Battle Of Kartarpur || Battle Of Kiratpur || Battle of Bhangani || Battle of Nadaun || Battle of Anandpur || Battle of Chamkaur || Battle of Muktsar