Ragmala

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Raagmala literally means a beaded string of musical melodies. "Mala" means "a beaded string" and "Raga" is a "musical composition". It is the name given to the last composition in the Guru Granth Sahib appearing after Mundavani (riddle) and a Salok by Guru Arjan Dev. Like Japji Sahib, which appears at the beginning of the Guru Granth Sahib this composition has no heading to show the name of the author.

A few self proclaimed Sikh scholars differ in their opinion about the inclusion of Raagmala in the Granth. It must be noted that the only body which disputes the Ragmala are the Babu Teja Singh and Bhai Sahib Bhai Randhir Singh's Akhand Kirtani Jatha (AKJ).

The traditional position among all Sikhs and the official position of all Sikh Gurdwara management committees worldwide including the SGPC in Punjab is that Ragamala is a part of the Guru Granth Sahib and it must be included in all printed copies of this sacred scripture. That is the stand that is taken here (SlkhiWiki), as well.

Please do not add any disputed points to this page - Use the Discussion Page to voice your views if they differ from the above.

Raagmala & Raags in SGGS

The Adi Granth contains the following thirty-one ragas (in the serial order):
Sri raga, Manjh, Gauri, Asa, Gujri, Devagandhari, Bihagara, Wadahans, Sorath, Dhanasri, Jaitsri, Todi, Bairari, Tilang, Suhi, Bilaval, Gond (Gaund), Ramkali, Nut-Narayan, Mali-Gaura, Maru, Tukhar, Kedara, Bhairav (Bhairo), Basant, Sarang, Malar, Kanra, Kalyan, Prabhati and Jaijawanti.

But of the above thirty-one ragas, technically only fourteen are ragas and the rest are raginis. It may be noted that no distinction has been made in the scripture between a raga and a ragini.

It should be noted the following raags are mentioned in the section before Sri raga (pages 9 to 13).

  • Raga Gujri (page 10)
  • Raga Gauri dipaki and Asa (page 12) "dipaki" means "of light"
  • Raga Dhanasri and Gauri purbi (page 13) "Purbi" means "eastern"


Ragmala given at the end of the SGGS gives the following eighty-four melodies.

Raag Mala

Six are male (parent) ragas; the thirty raginis are their wives and the remaining forty-eight are their sons. The list is as follows:

  • (1) Bhairao raga

Wives: Bhairavi, Bilawali, Punyaki, Bangli, Aslekhi.
Sons: Pancham, Harakh, Disakh, Bangalam, Maadh, Madhava, Lalat, Bilaval.

  • (2) Malkaus raga

Wives: Gaundkari, Devagandhari, Gandhari, Seehute, Dhanasri.
Sons: Maru, Mewara, Parbal, Chand, Kausak, Ubara, Khokhat, Bhuranad.

  • (3) Hindol raga

Wives: Telangi, Devkari, Basanti, Sindhoori, Aheeri.
Sons: Surmanand, Bhasker, Chandra-Bimb, Mangalan, Saras-baan, Binoda, Basant, Kamoda.

  • (4) Deepak raga

Wives: Kachheli, Patmanjari, Todi, Kamodi, Gujri.
Sons: Kaalanka, Kuntal, Rama, Kamal-Kusum, Champak, Gaura, Kanra, Kalyana.

  • (5) Sri raga

Wives: Bairare, Karnati, Gavri, Asavari, Sindhve.
Sons: Salu, Sarag, Sagra, Gond, Gambhir, Gund, Kumbah, Hamir.

  • (6) Megh raga

Wives: Sorath, Gond, Malari, Asa, Soohou.
Sons: Bayra-dhar, Gaj-dhar, Kedara, Jabli-dhar, Nut, Jal-dhara, Sankar, Syama.

Raags in Guru Granth Sahib

If we compare the above scheme with the ragas of the Guru Granth Sahib, we find that only two major ragas - Sri raga and Bhairav have been included in the Scripture. The remaining male parent ragas, namely Malkaus, Hindol, Deepak and Megh have been excluded. Sri raga is the first raga in the Scripture instead of Bhairav raga of the Ragmala. Asawari used in the Scripture as a part of Asa raga is according to ragmala the wife of Sri raga. The following eleven wives (raginis) and eight sons of the parent-ragas are included in the Scripture:

23 raags that are utilised in the SGGS are mentioned in the Raagmala.

There are 8 raags that are utilised in the SGGS that have not been mentioned in the Raagmala. These are: Bihagara, Wadahans, Manjh, Jaitsri, Ramkali, Tukhari, Prabhati and Jaijawanti.

Note:

  • Mali-Gaura is not included in Ragmala but Gaura is. "Mali" means gardener.

RaagMala

ੴ ਸਤਿਗ੝ਰ ਪ੝ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥

One Universal Creator God. By The Grace Of The True Guru:

ਰਾਗ ਮਾਲਾ ॥

Raag Maalaa:

ਰਾਗ ਝਕ ਸੰਗਿ ਪੰਚ ਬਰੰਗਨ ॥

Each Raga has five wives,

ਸੰਗਿ ਅਲਾਪਹਿ ਆਠਉ ਨੰਦਨ ॥

and eight sons, who emit distinctive notes.

ਪ੝ਰਥਮ ਰਾਗ ਭੈਰਉ ਵੈ ਕਰਹੀ ॥

In the first place is Raag Bhairao.

ਪੰਚ ਰਾਗਨੀ ਸੰਗਿ ਉਚਰਹੀ ॥

It is accompanied by the voices of its five Raaginis:

ਪ੝ਰਥਮ ਭੈਰਵੀ ਬਿਲਾਵਲੀ ॥

First come Bhairavee, and Bilaavalee;

ਪ੝ੰਨਿਆਕੀ ਗਾਵਹਿ ਬੰਗਲੀ ॥

then the songs of Punni-aakee and Bangalee;

ਪ੝ਨਿ ਅਸਲੇਖੀ ਕੀ ਭਈ ਬਾਰੀ ॥

and then Asalaykhee.

ਝ ਭੈਰਉ ਕੀ ਪਾਚਉ ਨਾਰੀ ॥

These are the five consorts of Bhairao.

ਪੰਚਮ ਹਰਖ ਦਿਸਾਖ ਸ੝ਨਾਵਹਿ ॥

The sounds of Pancham, Harakh and Disaakh;

ਬੰਗਾਲਮ ਮਧ੝ ਮਾਧਵ ਗਾਵਹਿ ॥੧॥

the songs of Bangaalam, Madh and Maadhav. (1)

ਲਲਤ ਬਿਲਾਵਲ ਗਾਵਹੀ ਅਪ੝ਨੀ ਅਪ੝ਨੀ ਭਾਂਤਿ ॥

Lalat and Bilaaval - each gives out its own melody.

ਅਸਟ ਪ੝ਤ੝ਰ ਭੈਰਵ ਕੇ ਗਾਵਹਿ ਗਾਇਨ ਪਾਤ੝ਰ ॥੧॥

when these eight sons of Bhairao are sung by accomplished musicians. (1)

ਦ੝ਤੀਆ ਮਾਲਕਉਸਕ ਆਲਾਪਹਿ ॥

In the second family is Maalakausak,

ਸੰਗਿ ਰਾਗਨੀ ਪਾਚਉ ਥਾਪਹਿ ॥

who brings his five Raaginis:

ਗੋਂਡਕਰੀ ਅਰ੝ ਦੇਵਗੰਧਾਰੀ ॥

Gondakaree and Dayv Gandhaaree,

ਗੰਧਾਰੀ ਸੀਹ੝ਤੀ ਉਚਾਰੀ ॥

the voices of Gandhaaree and Seehutee,

ਧਨਾਸਰੀ ਝ ਪਾਚਉ ਗਾਈ ॥

and the fifth song of Dhanaasaree.

ਮਾਲ ਰਾਗ ਕਉਸਕ ਸੰਗਿ ਲਾਈ ॥

This chain of Maalakausak brings along:

ਮਾਰੂ ਮਸਤਅੰਗ ਮੇਵਾਰਾ ॥

Maaroo, and the intoxicating Mayvaaraa,

ਪ੝ਰਬਲ ਚੰਡ ਕਉਸਕ ਉਭਾਰਾ ॥

Prabal, Chanda, Kausak, Ubara

ਖਉਖਟ ਅਉ ਭਉਰਾਨਦ ਗਾਝ ॥

Khaukhat and Bauraanad singing.

ਅਸਟ ਮਾਲਕਉਸਕ ਸੰਗਿ ਲਾਝ ॥੧॥

These are the eight sons of Maalakausak. (1)

ਪ੝ਨਿ ਆਇਅਉ ਹਿੰਡੋਲ੝ ਪੰਚ ਨਾਰਿ ਸੰਗਿ ਅਸਟ ਸ੝ਤ ॥

Then comes Hindol with his five wives and eight sons;

ਉਠਹਿ ਤਾਨ ਕਲੋਲ ਗਾਇਨ ਤਾਰ ਮਿਲਾਵਹੀ ॥੧॥

it rises in waves when the sweet-voiced chorus sings. (1)

ਤੇਲੰਗੀ ਦੇਵਕਰੀ ਆਈ ॥

There come Taylangee and Darvakaree;

ਬਸੰਤੀ ਸੰਦੂਰ ਸ੝ਹਾਈ ॥

Basantee and Sandoor follow;

ਸਰਸ ਅਹੀਰੀ ਲੈ ਭਾਰਜਾ ॥

then Aheeree, the finest of women.

ਸੰਗਿ ਲਾਈ ਪਾਂਚਉ ਆਰਜਾ ॥

These five wives come together.

ਸ੝ਰਮਾਨੰਦ ਭਾਸਕਰ ਆਝ ॥

The sons: Surmaanand and Bhaaskar come,

ਚੰਦ੝ਰਬਿੰਬ ਮੰਗਲਨ ਸ੝ਹਾਝ ॥

Chandrabinb and Mangalan follow.

ਸਰਸਬਾਨ ਅਉ ਆਹਿ ਬਿਨੋਦਾ ॥

Sarasbaan and Binodaa then come,

ਗਾਵਹਿ ਸਰਸ ਬਸੰਤ ਕਮੋਦਾ ॥

and the thrilling songs of Basant and Kamodaa.

ਅਸਟ ਪ੝ਤ੝ਰ ਮੈ ਕਹੇ ਸਵਾਰੀ ॥

These are the eight sons I have listed.

ਪ੝ਨਿ ਆਈ ਦੀਪਕ ਕੀ ਬਾਰੀ ॥੧॥

Then comes the turn of Deepak. (1)

ਕਛੇਲੀ ਪਟਮੰਜਰੀ ਟੋਡੀ ਕਹੀ ਅਲਾਪਿ ॥

Kachhaylee, Patamanjaree and Todee are sung;

ਕਾਮੋਦੀ ਅਉ ਗੂਜਰੀ ਸੰਗਿ ਦੀਪਕ ਕੇ ਥਾਪਿ ॥੧॥

Kaamodee and Goojaree accompany Deepak. (1)

ਕਾਲੰਕਾ ਕ੝ੰਤਲ ਅਉ ਰਾਮਾ ॥

Kaalankaa, Kuntal and Raamaa,

ਕਮਲਕ੝ਸਮ ਚੰਪਕ ਕੇ ਨਾਮਾ ॥

Kamalakusam and Champak are their names;

ਗਉਰਾ ਅਉ ਕਾਨਰਾ ਕਲ੝ਯ੝ਯਾਨਾ ॥

Gauraa, Kaanaraa and Kaylaanaa;

ਅਸਟ ਪ੝ਤ੝ਰ ਦੀਪਕ ਕੇ ਜਾਨਾ ॥੧॥

these are the eight sons of Deepak. (1)

ਸਭ ਮਿਲਿ ਸਿਰੀਰਾਗ ਵੈ ਗਾਵਹਿ ॥

All join together and sing Siree Raag,

ਪਾਂਚਉ ਸੰਗਿ ਬਰੰਗਨ ਲਾਵਹਿ ॥

which is accompanied by its five wives.:

ਬੈਰਾਰੀ ਕਰਨਾਟੀ ਧਰੀ ॥

Bairaaree and Karnaatee,

ਗਵਰੀ ਗਾਵਹਿ ਆਸਾਵਰੀ ॥

the songs of Gawree and Aasaavaree;

ਤਿਹ ਪਾਛੈ ਸਿੰਧਵੀ ਅਲਾਪੀ ॥

then follows Sindhavee.

ਸਿਰੀਰਾਗ ਸਿਉ ਪਾਂਚਉ ਥਾਪੀ ॥੧॥

These are the five wives of Siree Raag. (1)

ਸਾਲੂ ਸਾਰਗ ਸਾਗਰਾ ਅਉਰ ਗੋਂਡ ਗੰਭੀਰ ॥

Saaloo, Saarang, Saagaraa, Gond and Gambheer -

ਅਸਟ ਪ੝ਤ੝ਰ ਸ੝ਰੀਰਾਗ ਕੇ ਗ੝ੰਡ ਕ੝ੰਭ ਹਮੀਰ ॥੧॥

the eight sons of Siree Raag include Gund, Kumb and Hameer. (1)

ਖਸਟਮ ਮੇਘ ਰਾਗ ਵੈ ਗਾਵਹਿ ॥

In the sixth place, Maygh Raag is sung,

ਪਾਂਚਉ ਸੰਗਿ ਬਰੰਗਨ ਲਾਵਹਿ ॥

with its five wives in accompaniment:

ਸੋਰਠਿ ਗੋਂਡ ਮਲਾਰੀ ਧ੝ਨੀ ॥

Sorat'h, Gond, and the melody of Malaaree;

ਪ੝ਨਿ ਗਾਵਹਿ ਆਸਾ ਗ੝ਨ ਗ੝ਨੀ ॥

then the harmonies of Aasaa are sung.

ਊਚੈ ਸ੝ਰਿ ਸੂਹਉ ਪ੝ਨਿ ਕੀਨੀ ॥

And finally comes the high tone Soohau.

ਮੇਘ ਰਾਗ ਸਿਉ ਪਾਂਚਉ ਚੀਨੀ ॥੧॥

These are the five with Maygh Raag. (1)

ਬੈਰਾਧਰ ਗਜਧਰ ਕੇਦਾਰਾ ॥

Bairaadhar, Gajadhar, Kaydaaraa,

ਜਬਲੀਧਰ ਨਟ ਅਉ ਜਲਧਾਰਾ ॥

Jabaleedhar, Nat and Jaladhaaraa.

ਪ੝ਨਿ ਗਾਵਹਿ ਸੰਕਰ ਅਉ ਸਿਆਮਾ ॥

Then come the songs of Shankar and Shi-aamaa.

ਮੇਘ ਰਾਗ ਪ੝ਤ੝ਰਨ ਕੇ ਨਾਮਾ ॥੧॥

These are the names of the sons of Maygh Raag. (1)

ਖਸਟ ਰਾਗ ਉਨਿ ਗਾਝ ਸੰਗਿ ਰਾਗਨੀ ਤੀਸ ॥

So all together, they sing the six Raagas and the thirty Raaginis,

ਸਭੈ ਪ੝ਤ੝ਰ ਰਾਗੰਨ ਕੇ ਅਠਾਰਹ ਦਸ ਬੀਸ ॥੧॥੧॥

and all the forty-eight sons of the Raagas. (1)(1)


See Also