This is an Indian musical raga (composition) that appears in the Sikh tradition from northern India and is part of the Sikh holy scripture called Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short. Every raga has a strict set of rules which govern the number of notes that can be used; which notes can be used; and their interplay that has to be adhered to for the composition of a tune.
In the SGGS, the Sikh holy Granth (book), there are a total of 31 raga/Chapters compositions and this raga is the twenty-second 22nd raga/Chapter to appear in the series. The composition in this raga appears on a total of 11 pages from page numbers 1107 to 1118.
- The Bara Maha Composition from Guru Nanak Dev Ji is registered in this Chapter or Raaga Tukhari.
- The Shabad on Ang 1117, Ghol Ghumaa-ee Laalna Gur Man Deena
Tukhari was probably based on a folk tune and was very likely developed by Guru Nanak Dev Ji into a raga for the singing of certain shabads. No raga of this name appears in the classifications of the period when shabads were being composed and the Holy Book was being compiled. A raga called Mukhari may be found in the classifications of Karnataka (South Indian) ragas during the period from the 15th to the 18th centuries. Tukhari was used by Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Ram Das Ji, and Guru Arjan Dev Ji.
No melodic material for Tukhari is available(See "Puratan Form of Raag Tukhari" below).
Puratan Form of Raag Tukhari (Raag Tukhari is NOT Raag Madhuvanti)
The 11th generation exponent of the Puratan Gurbani Sangeet Parampara - Bhai Avtar Singh ragi and Bhai Gurcharan Singh ragi - have mentioned the puratan form of raag Tukhari that was sung in the olden times in their book "Gurbani Sangeet Pracheen Reet Ratnavali" published by Punjabi University Patiala. Hence, the common belief that raag Tukhari has gone extinct is plain wrong.
CAUTION : Raag Tukhari is NOT raag madhuvanti or a modified version of raag madhuvanti with a komal nishad/komal Ni. This viewpoint has been completely rejected by Bhai Avtar Singh and Bhai Gurcharan Singh in their book and they clearly state that Tukhari is different from Madhuvanti. This viewpoint is also rejected by the 13th generation exponent of Gurbani Sangeet Parampara - Bhai Baldeep Singh. Also, it goes without saying that Raag Tukhari is not related to raag Mukhari.
Two forms of Raag Tukhari are mentioned in Bhai Avtar and Bhai Gurcharan Singh's book :
- First form uses these notes - Sa, Re, Komal Ga, Shudhha Ga, Ma, Teevra Ma, Pa, Dha, Komal Ni, Shudhha Ni
- Second form uses these notes - Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Teevra Ma, Pa, Dha, Komal Ni, Shudhha Ni
The first form has a madhuvanti "ang" (in layman terms it has a touch or a slight flavour of raag Madhuvanti). A touch of Madhuvanti can be seen in the avaroha of the second form. HOWEVER, it still holds that Tukhari is neither Madhuvanti nor a modified form of Madhuvanti.
The following information about Raag Tukhari has also been taken from their book.
Khamaaj Ang | Vaadi Swar - Pa | Samvadi Swar - Sa | Sampooran Raag | Time of Singing - Fourth peher of day
|Section||Notes in Punjabi|
|Aaroha||ਨ਼ਸ ਗਰਸ, ਗਮਪਮ'ਪਮ'ਪ, ਪਧਨਧਪਮਪ, ਸਂਨਸਂ|
|Avaroh||ਸਂਨਸਂਨਸਂ, ਨਧਪ, ਪਮ'ਪਮ'ਪ, ਮ' ਗ ਰ ਸ, ਰ ਨ਼ ਸ|
|Aalap||ਸਸ, ਮ ਪ, ਪਧਨਨਧਮਪ, ਗਗਮਪਮ', ਗ ਰ ਸ ਨ਼ ਸ ਪਮਪਧਨਨਧਮਪ, ਸਂਨਸਂਨਸਂ, ਪਮ'ਪਮ'ਪਮ'--ਗ ਗ ਰ ਸ, ਸਸ ਮਮ ਪ, ਪਮਪ, ਨਨ ਸਂਸਂਸਂ, ਰਂਨਸਂ, ਸਂ ਰਂ ਗਂ ਗਂ ਗਂ ਰਂਰਂ ਸਂਸਂ, ਰਂਨਸਂਸਂ, ਨਨ ਧਧ ਪਪ, ਪਮ'ਪਮ'ਪ, ਸਂਨਸਂਨਸਂ, ਨਧਪ, ਪਮ'ਪਪ ਪ ਮ'--ਗ ਰਰਸ, ਰਨ਼ਸ|
Notation : ਨ਼ (ਨ with a dot on the bottom) means ਨ of the lower octave/saptak. ਮ' means teevra ਮ. ਮ'-- ਗ means a meend from ਮ' to ਗ.
Three puratan shabad-reets of Raag Tukhari have been mentioned in the book. The audio recordings of the same have been sung by Bhai Avtar Singh and Bhai Gurcharan Singh, with tabla/jori accompaniment by Bhai Swaran Singh.
- Ghol Ghumaee Laalna Gur Man Deena (SGGS Ang 1117 ; Mahalla 5)
- Nirgun Raakh Liya Santan ka Sadka (SGGS Ang 1117 ; Mahalla 5)
- Saajan Des Videsiyare Sanehare Dedi (SGGS Ang 1111 ; Mahalla 1)
- Gurmat Gian Group
- Gurmat Sangeet Project
- Gurmat Sangeet
- Gurmat Sangeet Darbar
- Raj Academy of Asian Music
- Sikhnet: Shabad for Printing
- "Gurbani Sangeet Pracheen Reet Ratnavli" - Bhai Avtar Singh and Bhai Gurcharan Singh - Published by Punjabi University Patiala
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