July 11, 1675
The Pandits of Kashmir visit Guru Tegh Bahadhur
On July 11, 1675 Guru Tegh Bahadur left Kahlur (now Anadpur Sahib) headed to Delhi in an effort to end the plans of Moghul Emperor Aurangzeb to rid India of Sanatana Dharma (Hinduism), in his attempt to have India become the greatest Muslim Empire.
The Kashmiri Pandits, led by Kirpa Das of Mattan (Martand), had appealed to Guru Tegh Bahadhur for his help. After Guruji's martyrdom, Pandit Kirpa Das became a Sikh, changing his name to Kirpa Singh, he died fighting at Chamkaur along with the two Sahibjadas of Guru Gobind Singh Ji.
Guru Tegh Bahadhur had challenged the Moghul Emperor daring him to try to have Guruji abandon Sikhi and become a Muslim, in an effort to show the ruler the un-Godliness of his ways.
The Guru, along with some of his companions was arrested and taken in chains to Delhi where he was asked to convert to Islam or else face the penalty of death. The Master said that he would rather sacrifice his life, than give up his faith and his freedom of belief. Thus, under Aurangzeb's orders, he was beheaded at the place now called Sis Ganj in Delhi. His martyrdom was yet another challenge to the Sikh conscience. It was realized then that there could be no understanding between an insensate power imbrued with blood and a proud people wedded to a life of peace with honour. The sacrifice roused the devitalized Hindus from their supine somnolence and gave them a hint of the power that comes from self-respect and sacrifice. Guru Tegh Bahadur thus earned the enduring sobriquet title of Hind-di-Chadar or the Shield of India.
His son Guru Gobind Singh later said of his father's actions, "The Lord had protected the sacred thread and the frontal mark of the Hindus; he (his father) had performed a great deed in the age of Kalyug."
While their are many monuments in Delhi built by the Sikhs in memory of this event, the Government of India has never built a monument recognizing Guru Tegh Bahadhur ji's brave effort. Today the present generation has started doubting the veracity of the event.
- That man who in the midst of grief is free from grieving,
- And free from fear, and free from the snare of delight,
- Nor is covetous of gold that he knows to be dust,
- Who is neither a backbiter nor a flatterer,
- Nor has greed in his heart, nor vanity, nor any worldly attachment,
- Who remains at his centre unmoved by good and ill fortune,
- Who indifferent to the world's praise and blame
- And discards every wishful fantasy
- Accepting his lot in the disinterested fashion,
- Not worked upon by lust or by wrath,
- In such a man God dwelleth.
- The man on whom the Grace of the Guru alights
- Understands the way of conduct:
- His soul, O Nanak, is mingled with the Lord
- As water mingles with water!
- Guru Tegh Bahadur
In the galaxy of immortal martyrs who have laid down their lives to keep ablaze the flame of faith and freedom, the name of the Ninth Sikh Master, Guru Tegh Bahadur stands out radiantly prominent. Doubtless, numbers of prophets have sacrificed themselves defending their own religion, but the uniqueness of the Ninth Master's martyrdom lies in the fact that he courted death in defense of the religion of the persecuted Hindus who had sought his shelter when they were forced to choose between death or Islam.
The Second Martyr of the Sikhs
Guru Tegh Bahadur, was born at Amritsar in 1621, the youngest son of Guru Hargobind Sahib, the Sixth Master (1595-1645). However his brothers Guru Har Rai, the Seventh Master (1630-61), and Guru Har Krishan, the Eight Master (1656-1964) preceded him as Guru. He adorned the sacred throne of Guru Nanak from 1664 to 1675. His installation as Guru enraged Dhir Mal and the masands, who were also laying claim to the Guruship. Shortly after he had been proclaimed the Guru he had traveled to Amritsar to pay obiesence to the Darbar Sahib, but the factions who had control of the Holy site, turned him aside. Outside the Western Deori of the Harmandar Sahib, next to the Alal Takht at the spot were the Guru paused after his trip, stands the Gurdwara Thara Sahib which commemorates the last visit by one of the 10 Gurus of the Sikhs. His son Guru Gobind Singh never visited Amritsar.
Guru Tegh Bahadur toured the Punjab, particularly the Malwa region, and Eastern India, to preach Sikhism. He also went to Assam with Raja Ram Singh and stayed there sharing Sikhism for nearly two years. The Guru's family had accompanied him on this trip, but given the hardships of the trip to Assam, Guruji felt that it would be safer for his wife, who was expecting a child, if his family members stayed at Patna. It was at Patna that his only son Gobind Rai was born in 1666. On the return trip from Assam, Guru Tegh Bahadur stayed at Patna for a short time before leaving for the Punjab. Attending a funeral for the Raja of Kahloor, the Guru purchased a considerable amount of land in the foothills of the Shivaliks from the Rani of Kahlur, the widow of the Raja. She had hoped that the Guru would stay and become a neighbor, as she had long admired Sikhi and its Gurus. So the Guru and his Devotees began to build a new city at Makhowal (now Anandpur Sahib). From here he set out on extensive missionary tours and attracted amongst others, several Muslims to his faith.
The main theme of Guru Tegh Bahadur's sacred hymns is Naam Simran (concentration on the Divine Name) and Guru Bhakti (adoration of the Guru). One hundred and fifteen hymns of Guru Tegh Bahadur are incorporated in the Adi Granth.
He has clearly set forth his own definition of a 'Giani' (an enlightened one). In these compositions he has laid special stress on vairag or detachment for the realization of the lofty ideals that distinguish the life of a BrahmGiani.
-Ref. "Guru Granth Ratnavali," (pp. 70) by Dr. D.S. Mani, Sardar Bakhshish Singh, and Dr. Gurdit Singh.
July 11, 1710
Baba Banda Singh Bahadhur eliminated the rulers of Nanotae
Lashman Dev was born on KatakSudhi 13 sunmat 1727 to a Rajput father named Ramdev who was a resident of the Rajori village in Jammu. Since childhood, he exhibited extreme fondness for the study of sanskrit literature and a love of hunting. However, he plunged into deep remorse after killing a pregnant deer. As a result he discarded all his weapons for hunting tools and became a disciple of Vaesnav JankiPrasad. He shed all his material wealth, started onto the seekers path for enlightenment, and adopted the pentimant name of, Madho Dass.
Wandering in search of enlightenment he traveled towards south India and reached the banks of the Godawari. He fell in love with the beautiful coumtryside and at the river's edge he established an Ashram, becomimg well known for his power. In sunmat 1765, when Guru Gobind Singh Ji reached Nandaedh, he came to Madhu's ashram and finding the mendicant absent he ordered his followers to kill some of the goats that the Hindu Sadhu kept for milk, to prepare their evening meal. Now Madhu , with the sad event of the pregnant deer killed in his childhood, had been a lifelong vegetarian with a tender spot for all living creatures.
Returning to his camp and seeing strangers feasting on his beloved animals he flew into a rage and attempted to punish Guru Gobind Singh, clearly the leader of the group, by a match of wits. He was not accustomed to losing such a match. In the end he offered himself as "Satguru Da Banda" (Satguru's slave). Guru Gobind Singh Ji and four of his devotees initiated him into the Khalsa changing his name to Gurbakash Singh. However, he remains known in the Panth as "Banda".
To eradicate the prevalent injustices of the people of Panjab, Guru Gobind Singh sent Banda accompanied by the following five GurSikhs to Punjab:
- Baba Binod Singh
- Baba Kanh Singh
- Baba Bajh Singh
- Baba Bijae Singh
- Baba Ram Singh
Banda went to Punjab in sunmat 1765 accompanied with a Hukamnama from Guru Gobind Singh addressed to all GurSikhs. In this Hukamnama, Guru Gobind Singh asked GurSikhs to help Banda in his efforts. Before departure, Banda received three arrows from Guru Gobind Singh and the following instructions:
- Remain celibate ("Jatt rakhana")
- Live, operate, and act under the dictates of Khalsa ("Khalsae dae Anusari hokae rahna")
- Never consider yourself to be Guru ("Aap nu Guru na manenna")
- Eat only after serving others ("Vartakae Shakana")
- Help the orphans, the poor, the unprotected, the helpless, the destitute and the disolate.
- ("Anatha di sahiata karni")
Upon reaching Punjab, Gurbakash Singh strictly followed Guru Sahib's instructions and successfully punish all who had previously mistreated the Khalsa Panth. On the 1st Hadh sunmat 1767, after conquering Sirhind, Wajir Khan was punished and eventually killed for the mistreatment of the Sahibzadas.
However, Gurbakash Singh became popular among the Khalsa Panth, his self-godliness started awakening. As a result he started adopting and engaging in practices that were against Gurmat. In sunmat 1771, Banda Bahdhur expressed desires to establish his own Gadhi in Sri Harmindar Sahib and sought his self-worhsip. He started a new slogan of "Sachae Sahib ki Fateh" in contrast to the traditional "Vaaheguru Jee Kee Fateh". This resulted in a severe split among Khalsa Panth. Those following the principles as laid by Guru Gobind Singh came to known as "TattKhalsa" while the followers of Gurbakash Singh were known as "BandaiKhalsa". Today there are very few Bandai Sikhs. They do not believe in any other holy scriptures other than Sri Guru Granth Sahib. All their practice are according to Gurmat principles.
Eventually, Banda Bahadhur was cornered by the pursuing enemy forces at "Gurdaspur de Gadhi". It is also popularly known as Bhai Duni Chand di Hawaeli. After months of sustained attacks from Abdal Samad Khan and others with a force of over 20,000, Banda Bahadhur was arrested along with his companions and taken to Delhi. He accepted Shahadat on Chaet Sudhi 1st sunmat 1773.
Ref. Mahan Kosh
July 11, 1984
The Indian regime released a "White Paper" on the Sikh situation, stating its version of events leading to and during 'Operation Bluestar'. Later an Investigation Team comprised of Amiya Rao, Aurobindo Ghosh, Sunil Bhattacharya, T.S. Ahuja, and N.D. Pancholi exposed the blatant mis-information of this so-called "White-paper."