Gurmukhi Pronunciation

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Pronunciation of Gurmukhi Letters:

The list below explains the way the various Gurmukhi letters are pronounced.

ੳ ਅ ੲ ਸ ਹ ਕ ਖ ਗ ਘ ਙ ਚ ਛ ਜ ਝ ਞ ਟ ਠ ਡ ਢ ਣ ਤ ਥ ਦ ਧ ਨ ਪ ਫ ਬ ਭ ਮ ਯ ਰ ਲ ਵ ੜ

Letter Pronunciation
is pronounced like the s in snake
is pronounced like h as in hot
is said like k as in kite
does not have an English equivalent, but is pronounced like kh as in khaki.
is pronounced as g as in goat.
is the same as gh in ghost.
is pronounced like the middle of Penguin or the end in wing.
is pronounced as ch as in the word cheat.
is pronounced like sh as in shower, robustly aspirated
is pronounced like j as in Jungle, the tongue being positioned next to the lower teeth
is pronounced as jh robustly aspirated
is a sound not found in the western languages, and is uttered with a palatal sound
is pronounced like t as in the middle of the word constrain, with less discharge of breath and the tongue placed further back
sounds like the end of wheat, with the last letter robustly aspirated
is pronounced as d as in dumb, the d rounded heavily, however less expiration of breath and the tongue much further back
is pronounced as dh is in drummer robustly aspirated
is a retroflex nasal sound as in ' nah' if the 'a' was deleted
is softly unaspirated, being similar to a softly said 'Tim'
is pronounced as th as in the word third, but robustly aspirated
is pronounced as d as in then, with less expiration of breath
is pronounced dh as is like 'then', powerfully aspirated
is pronounced as n as in night, with the tongue firmly placed next to the teeth
is pronounced as p as in aspirin with less expiration of air
is pronounced as f as in fight, being the aspirated version of p
is pronounced as b as in bin and bat
is pronounced as bh as in bard, if the word was pronounced as a halfway between a p and bh
is pronounced as m as in marriage or mother
is pronounced as y as in yard
is pronounced as r as in matador or in razor , without dropping the r
is pronounced as l as in like or lion
pronounced as v and is a cross between a V in vexed and W in wart, without rounding the lips and without the upper teeth being grazed by the lower lip
the closest example to this is the English name ' Barrat', but said as if a h is placed in between the two R's
ਸ਼ is as in Shimmer
ਖ਼ As in the Scottish Loch
ਗ਼ as in gosh pronounced as if a h follows g
ਜ਼ as in Zebra
ਫ਼ As in Frankenstein

This section completed with help from

See also

Banis in Gurmukhi

Setting up Gurmukhi facility on your Computer

External Links

Learning Tools

Unicode Gurmukhi

Conversion tool

  • Punjabi Font Converter This is an online utility which will allow the conversion of ASCII based Gurmukhi characters to Unicode. So for example the phrase : siqgur pRswid will be converted to ਸਤਿਗ੝ਰ ਪ੝ਰਸਾਦਿ

Dictionary & Translation tools


More resources

History of Script


Translation tools


  • 1. Singh , G.B., Gurmukh] Lipi da Janarn te Vikds. Chandigarh, 1972
  • 2. Teja Singh, Sahit Darshan. Paliala, 1951
  • 3. Bedi, Tarlochan Singh , Punjabi Vaiiak da Alochnatmak Adhyan. Delhi, n.d.
  • 4. Arun, V.B., Panjabi Bhasha da ftihds. Ludhiana, 1956
  • 5. Bedi, Kala Singh, Panjabi Bhashn da Vikds. Delhi, 1971
  • 6. Chatterji, Suniti Kumar, ed., The Cultural IIni/nge of India. Calculla, 1978
  • 7. Grierson, G.A., Linguistic Sumey of India. Calcutta, 1916
  • 8. Linguistic Survey of India,Vol IX, Part I, Delhi, 1968. &
  • 9. Singh, G.B., Gurmukhi Lippi da Janam te Vikas, Chandigarh, 1972.