Sikhism and Circumcision
Circumcision means cutting some or all of the foreskin (prepuce) from the penis. Circumcision both for the male and female is strictly not permitted within Sikhism. Also, as a further extension of this same principle, other violations of the body – tattooing, body piercing, body mutilation, etc for the same reason are considered anti-Sikhi. For many peoples of various cultures and religions it was common practice to be subjected to this ritual during the time of the Sikh Gurus from 1469 to 1708AD. However, the Sikh scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib is clear on this subject.
This was and is a common practice among Muslims who believe that by performing circumcision, the person becomes a "true" Muslim. The Sikh Gurus have questioned this and highlighted the gender inequality in this practise.
This is what the holy text of the Sikhs say about this practice:
|ਸਕਤਿ ਸਨੇਹੁ ਕਰਿ ਸੁੰਨਤਿ ਕਰੀਐ ਮੈ ਨ ਬਦਉਗਾ ਭਾਈ ॥ ਜਉ ਰੇ ਖੁਦਾਇ ਮੋਹਿ ਤੁਰਕੁ ਕਰੈਗਾ ਆਪਨ ਹੀ ਕਟਿ ਜਾਈ ॥੨॥|
|Sakaṯ sanehu kar sunaṯ karī▫ai mai na baḏ▫ugā bẖā▫ī. Ja▫o re kẖuḏā▫e mohi ṯurak karaigā āpan hī kat jā▫ī. ॥2॥|
|Because of the love of woman, circumcision is done; I don't believe in it, O Siblings of Destiny.|
If God wished me to be a Muslim, it would be cut off by itself. ॥2॥
The Shabad continues:
|ਸੁੰਨਤਿ ਕੀਏ ਤੁਰਕੁ ਜੇ ਹੋਇਗਾ ਅਉਰਤ ਕਾ ਕਿਆ ਕਰੀਐ ॥ ਅਰਧ ਸਰੀਰੀ ਨਾਰਿ ਨ ਛੋਡੈ ਤਾ ਤੇ ਹਿੰਦੂ ਹੀ ਰਹੀਐ ॥੩॥|
|Sunaṯ kī▫e ṯurak je ho▫igā a▫uraṯ kā ki▫ā karī▫ai. Araḏẖ sarīrī nār na cẖẖodai ṯā ṯe hinḏū hī rahī▫ai.॥3॥|
|If circumcision makes one a Muslim, then what about a woman? |
She is the other half of a man's body, and she does not leave him, so she remains a Hindu.॥3॥
Further, the holy text continues to highlight how one requires to make changes in their behaviour to attain any spiritual benefit. Rituals like circumcision or fasting do not have any value in the Lord's Court; one must become modest and improve one's conduct if one wants to be closer to God. The SGGS explains:
|ਸਰਮ ਸੁੰਨਤਿ ਸੀਲੁ ਰੋਜਾ ਹੋਹੁ ਮੁਸਲਮਾਣੁ ॥॥|
|Saram sunaṯ sīl rojā hohu musalmāṇ.|
|Make modesty your circumcision, and good conduct your fast. In this way, you shall be a true Muslim.|
It is clear from the above quotes, that the Sikh Gurus and Bhagats were not in favor of this practice practice and considered it unnecessary for Muslims and therefore forbidden for Sikhs. It is regarded as a "blind and empty ritual".
In Dasam Granth, Guru Gobind Singh has writrten that by mere circumcision one can not realize almighty. In first chapter of Bachitar Natak following are quotes regarding the same:
ਸਾਚੁ ਕਹੋਂ ਸੁਨ ਲੈ ਚਿਤ ਦੈ ਬਿਨੁ ਦੀਨ ਦਿਆਲ ਕੀ ਸਾਮ ਸਿਧਾਏ ॥
साचु कहों सुन लै चित दै बिनु दीन दिआल की साम सिधाए ॥
Listen attentively, I speak Turth, Thou shalt not achieve the target without going under the Refuge of the LORD, Who is ever Merciful to the lowly.
ਪ੍ਰੀਤਿ ਕਰੇ ਪ੍ਰਭੁ ਪਾਯਤ ਹੈ ਕ੍ਰਿਪਾਲ ਨ ਭੀਜਤ ਲਾਂਡ ਕਟਾਏ ॥੧੦੦॥
प्रीति करे प्रभु पायत है क्रिपाल न भीजत लांड कटाए ॥१००॥
God can only be realized with LOVE, He is not pleased by circumcision.100.
- The Royal Dutch Medical Association View
- A Short History of Circumcision in North America: In the Physicians' Own Words
- Short Summary of the History of Circumcision
- Canadian History of Circumcision
- Whole Network
- Dr. Momma
- Saving Sons
- Circumcision Information Resource Page
- Circumcision Information Australia
- discussion tab for dialogue on this article.
- Brian D. Earp (Research Associate for Oxford Uehiro Centre for Practical Ethics) examines circumcision.On Aidsandimmorality
- The Surgical Procedure being done.
- Intact vs Circumcised care
- Anatomy of the Penis and Foreskin Neurology
- Cutting through the myths of circumcision
- Circumcision: Know the facts part 1
- Circumcision: Know the facts part 2
- Child Circumcision: An Elephant in the hospital by Dr. Ryan McAllister PhD
- Why Circumcision is unnecessary by Dr. John Travis MD
- Circumcision: The Whole Story. By Canadian Dr. Christopher Guest
- See all the occurrences of the word "circumcision" within the Sikh holy text of Sri Guru Granth Sahib: Search at Srigranth.org