Sikh History August

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August 1

1863 Maharani Jind Kaur, mother of Maharaja Dalip Singh, passed away in Kaesington, England and was cremated in Nasik Nagar on the outskirts of Bombay, India. She was arrested by the British government in 1847 and imprisoned at the Shaekhpura fort. After numerous efforts, she managed to join Maharaja Dalip Singh in England. She according to Lord Dalhousie " was the only woman in the Punjab with manly understandings."

1944 The Working Committee of the All Parties Sikh Conference met at Amritsar. It held that the C. Rajagopalachari's formula "was mainfestly unfair and detrimental to the best interests of the country and the Sikh Community." It regarded Gandhi's approval of the same as "breach of faith" on the part of the Congress leaders and violative of assurances given to the Sikhs at its Lahore session in 1929. ==> CR FORMULA: enunciated by C. Rajagopalachari, on July 10, 1944, with which Gandhi was in agreement envisioned, "Muslim contiguous districts in the north-west and east of India, wherein the Muslim population is in absolute majority" holding a plebiscite after termination of war on the basis of adult suffrage to decide the formation of a sovereign state separate from Hindustan, in return for Muslim League's cooperation for the formation of a provisional interim government for the transitional period. It envisioned transfer of population on a voluntary basis. -Ref. "The Sikhs in History," by Sangat Singh, 1995.

1980 Khalistan Flag Hoisted for the first time. The Sikh Youth Organisation, Dal Khalsa, hoisted the flag of Khalistan at the very spot where 13 GurSikhs fell martyr while defending the Guru Khalsa Panth against the Nirankaris, on April 13, 1978.

1981 Through Aug. 2, the All Canada Sikh Convention was held in Calgary that gave the Canadian Sikhs a national body, "Federation of Sikh Societies of Canada". Specific resolutions at the conference took the shape of projects for the first time.

August 2

1741 Sukha Singh of Mari Kambo and Mehtab Singh of Mirankot entered Harimandir Sahib, Amritsar. They were disguised as Muslims. While Sukha Singh kept guard, Mehtab Singh beheaded Massa Raangadh and escaped together.

1764 Baba Budha Singh Ji relinquished control and bestowed the control of Sirhind to Baba Ala Singh Patiala

August 3

1977 Kartar Singh Khalsa Bhindrawalia was seriously injured in a car accident.

August 4

1982 Gurbakash Singh tried to hijack Indian Airline plane to Lahore.

1982 Dharam Yudh morcha to seek Sikh demands was launched by Akali Dal. Additionally, the morcha initiated by Jarnail Singh Bhindrawalae, for release of Amrik Singh was also included in this.

1987 A convention was held in Amritsar. Despite risk to their lives at the hands of Indian police gangs, some Sikh leaders attanded the convention. The generals of the army of Khalistan, in this convention, confirmed their goal of total freedom from India. -Ref. THE SIKHS' STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, An Historical Perspective by Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer and Dr. Awatar Singh Sekhon. Edited By: A.T. Kerr Page 127.

August 5

1992 Bhagat Puran Singh Ji, a panthic sewak who devoted his entire live in service of mankind, passed away.

August 6

1923 Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC) resolved to launch Nabha Agitation at Jaito.

1925 The Nabha agitation at Jaito was successfully concluded after performing 101 akhand path as a sort of penance for disruption of one akhand path two years earlier.

1947 Sikhs meet with British government regarding Vatican status for Nankana Sahib and other Gurudwaras.

1978 Dal Khalsa came into being at Gurdwara Akal-garh, Sector 35, Chandigarh. A large number of Sikh Youth Organisations participated in this meeting and discussed the affairs of the Panth. They decided to form an organisation in the name of "Dal Khalsa." Among the founders of the Dal Khalsa were :- Kapur Singh, Harsimran Singh, Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, Jaswant Singh, Manmohan Singh, Satnam Singh, Satnam Singh Chandigarh, Gurprit Singh, Rupinder Singh Nagari, Harinder Singh Mohali and Mohinder Singh of Delhi. According to this organization, the Sikhs in India are half-free and half-slaves and their salvation lies in getting an Indepdendent Sikh State. The Dal Khalsa proposed to contest the SGPC Elections to be held in March, 1979. It declaredly adopted the slogan of "Khalistan" and proclaimed that the Dal Khalsa stood for a sovereign Sikh State, not within the Union of India. The Indian Government tried to defame the Dal Khalsa by calling it an associate of Zail. In fact, the only person who had acquaintance with any Congress leader was Gajinder Singh, who later hijacked Indian Airliner to Lahore in 1981. He was not a founder Mukh Panchs (Member of Presidium).

1983 Amrik Singh and Baba Thara Singh were released. They were arrested on July 18, 1982. Jarnail Singh Bhindrawalae had organized a morcha for their release.

August 7

1765 Baba Ala Singh passed away.

1925 Gurudwara Act published in Gurdwara Gazette.

1942 Independent Punjab movement initiated.

1965 Fateh Singh, then President of Shiromani Akali Dal, met with the then Prime Minister of India, Sri Lal Bahadhur Shashtri. This meeting is considered a significant in resolving Sikh demands.

August 8

1881 Lord Ripon's statement exposed the Britishers true desires that they never wanted Sikhs to be the masters of their Gurudwaras. He wrote, " I think it would be politically dangerous to allow the management of the Sikh templaes to fall into the hands of a committee emancipated from government control." As such the mahants under the government thumb failed to become the honest interpreters of the wishes of the Panth. For example, they issued a Hukamnama from Sri Akal Takhat in 1915 condemming the Komagata Maru Sikhs. -Ref. "Babbar Akali Movement, A Historical Survey," by Dr. Gurcharan Singh, Aman Publications, 1993. Subsequently, they instituted the election system among Gurudwaras, the most evil system that has ensured friction and continued disunity among the Sikh community to date. There is no religious or spiritual group in the world where leaders are not appointed based on merit but rather elected based popular vote.

1898 Raja Bikram Singh of Fridkot, who published the "Fridkoti Teeka" passed away. ==> FARIDKOTI TEEKA: Teekas (commentaries) on Guru Granth Sahib have been written in one form or other ever since the compilation of Guru Granth Sahib. However, the first formal Teeka in line with the traditional interpretation of Sikh scriptures was written by Sant Giani Badan Singh Ji of Dera Sekhwan at the request and encouragement of Maharaja Bikram Singh of Faridkot. It took him six and a half years to complete it. It was completed in 1883. This Teeka was reviewed by a committee appointed by Mahant Shamer Singh of Patna. After incorporating the comments of this committee, the first edition of this Teeka was published [funded] by the Maharaja Balvir Singh of Faridkot in 1906 which was printed by the Wazir Hind Press (started by Bhai Vir Singh) at Amritsar. The second edition of this Teeka was published by Maharaja Harinder Singh of Faridkot in 1928. This Teeka is known as the "Faridkoti Teeka." It is still available in the market. Pandit Tara Singh Narotam, the contemporary of the author of Faridkoti Teeka, also started the Teeka, but he died when he finished it up to Basant Rag. Then some people borrowed it from his heir just to review the draft, but never returned it. Only the Teeka of Sri Rag is available from his draft which is in the possesion of very few researchers and scholars at this time. It is not generally available. - Ref. Gurmat Sahit Vivechan (Punjabi, published by Punjab Languages Department). This is an extremely useful book on the history of Gurmat literature. It contains 25 essays by top-notch scholars.

1922 Guru Ka Bagh morcha was launched.

1923 Third proclamation announcing rewards for the arrest of the Babbars was issued.

August 9

1922 Akalis arrested at Guru Ka Bagh.

1922 Babbar Akali movement launched.

1942 60,0000 Sikhs courted arrest under the "Britishers Leave India" movement.

August 10

1938 Kartar Singh Kirti and Gurdit Singh of Mandhali were sent to the scaffold for the murder of Anup Singh.

1992 Harjinder Singh "Jinda" and Sukhdev Singh 'Sukha' were hanged to death. They gunned down General Vaidya after his retirement from Indian Army. General Vaidya was the Chief of the Indian Army who ordered the attack on the holiest of the holy shrines at Amritsar and other places of religious importance in Punjab during 1984 operations.

August 11

1635 Sain Mia Mir passed away at Lahore.

1664 GUR GADHI, Patshahi Ninth, Guru Tegh Bahadhur Ji (ACTUAL DATE). Ninth Patshah, Guru Tegh Bahadhur Ji, ascended to Guru Gadhi.

1976 The SGPC unanimously endorsed the Constitution of the Sikh Dharma Brotherhood, including the Articles of Organization, in its Resolution No. 697

1984 Government of India conducted a false "Sarbat Khalsa". In response, instead, Singh Sahiban called for a "World Sikh Conference" on September 2, 1996.

August 12

1922 Marked the begining of arrests and ruthless torture of GurSikhs in Guru Ka bagh Gurdwara.

1988 Through Aug. 12, a symposium entitled "Sikh Canadians: The Promise of the Challenge", was held in Tornto. The objective of the symposium, apart from promotion of the Sikh image among Canadians and loggying various levels of government, was to approve the Constitution of the Institute by the Sikhs gathered at the Symposium. A Cabinet Minister participated at the reception which was very well organized. Subjects discussed at the workshops were: Being Visible; Networking; Media Relations; and New Directions in Sikh Studies.

August 13

1986 Sardar Kapur Singh, National professor of Sikhism, passed away.

August 14

1634 Battle of Amritsar took place between Mughals and Sikhs, led by Guru Hargobind Ji.

1772 Sikh forces had crossed Indus and plundered Peshawar city. On this day Ahmad Shah died.

1892 Khalsa College Council eastablished at Amritsar.

1923 Babbars appeal to the people to swell their ranks. This appeal was distributed through "Babbar Akali Doaba" newspaper.

1930 Civil disobedience movement initiated in the Punjab.

1949 Sardar Kapur Singh I.C.S was suspended by government of Gopi Chand Bhargav on frivolous charges. His real crime was being a committed Sikh.

1984 Surinder Singh Sodhi, a right-hand man of Jarnail Singh Bhindranwalae, was killed by hired men of the Indian Government. -Ref. THE SIKHS' STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, An Historical Perspective By Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer and Dr. Awatar Singh Sekhon. Edited By: A.T. Kerr Page 110-119

August 15

1469 PRAKASH UTSAV, Patshahi First, Guru Nanak Dev Ji. Guru Nanak Dev Ji Patshah came to this planet in Talwandi, also known as Nankana Sahib, situated about 48 miles westward from Lahore, Pakistan. He was born in the house of Kalu Chand Bedi and Mata Tripta. Today is the actual date of birth, though Guru Khalsa Panth observes it in Nov. NOTE:- this date is in contention. Some suggest an alternate date as Oct. 21, 1469.

1501 Guru Nanak started preaching the new religion, Sikhism.

1563 PRAKASH UTSAV(Birthday), Patshahi Fifth, Guru Arjun Dev Ji. (NOTE:- this date is in contention.)

1579 Guru Arjan Dev Ji married Mata Ganga, daughter of Bhai Kishen Chand of village Meo, district Jallandhar. The only child from this marriage was Guru Hargobind born in 1595 (Please NOTE that the exact date of this event is in question).

1634 Bhai Ballu Ji accepted Shahadat while fighting the Turks in Amritsar.

1790 Ranjit Singh became head of Sukharchakiya Misl.

1940 Master Tara Singh declares his opposition to the establishment of Sikh rule. Presiding over U.P. Conference at Lucknow, said "While opposing the Pakistan Scheme some Sikhs have lost their heads and they are preaching the establishment of Sikh rule. This will be adding to the confusion created by the Muslim League. Swaraj is the only solution of our country's misfortunes." -Ref. "The Sikhs in History," by Sangat Singh, 1995.

1980 The only Sikh Bank, Punjab and Sind Bank Ltd. was nationalised by Indira Gandhi simply because it had on its staff a large number of Sikhs. -Ref. THE SIKHS' STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, An Historical Perspective By Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer and Dr. Awatar Singh Sekhon. Edited By: A.T. Kerr Page 110-119.

August 16

1604 SRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB first installed in Sri Harmindar Sahib (ACTUAL DAY) The Holy Sri Guru GRANTH SAHIB was ceremonially installed in Sri Harmindir Sahib, Amritsar. Guru Arjan, shortly after Akbar's visit, early in 1599, began the project of the compilation of Adi Granth. Bhai Gurdas was appointed amanuensis (the fanciest word for secretary / one who takes transcription). Guru Arjan took five years to complete the project. Adi Granth was ready in 1604 when it was installed in Sri Harimandir Sahib. Baba Buddha Ji was appointed the first priest. Today is the actual date of the event, however, it is observed on a different date by Guru Khalsa Panth.

1932 "Communal Award" announced. Following the failure of the second Round Table Conference (RTC), the British Prime Minister, Ramsay MacDonald issues the "Communal Award" which came a rude shock to the Sikhs. The Sikh disaffection arose out of the statutory majority of over 51% given to Muslims in the Punjab, whereas the Sikh representation was around 19%. -Ref. "The Sikhs in History," by Sangat Singh, 1995

1940 Gandhi wrote a nasty letter to Master Tara Singh. It contained some of his preconceived notions about Sikhs and the Akali movement. It was also influenced by the Punjab Congress's solid support of Subash Chandra Bose for the Presidentship of the Congress vis a vis Pattabhi Sitaramayya, Ghandhi's nominee. Gandhi wrote, "As I told you, in my opinion, you have nothing in common with the Congress nor the Congress with you. You believe in the rule of the sword, the Congress does not ... Your civil disobedience is purely a branch of violence. I am quite clear in my mind that being in the Congress, you weaken your community, and weaken the Congress. You have to be either fully nationalist or frankly communal and therefore dependent upon the British or other foreign power." Although this letter created a storm in the Sikh press and basically ignore the threat posed by Gandhi and Congress to the Sikhs. -Ref. "The Sikhs in History," by Sangat Singh, 1995.

1965 Fateh Singh announced another fast unto death for Punjabi Suba.

1977 Kartar Singh Khalsa Bhindrawalae passed away.

August 17

1923 The Babbars are produced in court.

1924 12th Shahidhi Jatha of 500 valiant Akali Satyagrahies, under the leadership of Jathaedar Sardar Sucha Singh from Moga, left Amritsar for Jiato. ==> WHERE IS JAITO? A village under Nabha, which falls on the Bathinda-Ferozpur railway line. It is 96 miles from Lahore and 17 miles from Bathinda. Ref. Mahan Kosh "The Sikhs in History," by Sangat Singh, 1995

1931 The foundation stone was laid for Sri Guru Ram Das Sarai.

1947 Radcliffe Award decided the boundary between Pakistan and the Sikh Homeland.

1994 Principal Satbir Singh, a renowed scholar of GurSikhism passed away in Patiala.

August 18

1887 Sardar Thakur Singh Sandhwalia, the chief of Sri Guru Singh Sabha movement, and a chief proponent of Khalsa Raj, passed away.

1922 Karam Singh of Jhingar, Master Dalip Singh of Gossal and Kishan Singh Gargaj visit Montgomery jail to meet Master Mota Singh.

August 19

1847 Maharani Jind Kaur placed arrested in Saekhupura Jail.

==> Maharani JIND KAUR: was daughter of Sardar Manna Singh Auhlakh, a resident of village Chandh, district Sialkot, Tehsil Jafarwall. She was wife of Maharaja Ranjit Singh and mother of Maharaja Dalip Singh. Once the British government gained control of the Khalsa Raj's affairs, she was initially kept under house arrest at Saekhupura and subsequently jailed at Chunar fort (U.P. district Mizapur). However, she escaped in a beggar's attire and reached Nepal, where she lived with dignity. In 1861, Maharani Jind Kaur reached England to visit her son Maharaja Dalip Singh, where she died on Aug. 1, 1863 at the age of 46. Her body was brought back and cremated in Nasik Nagar, on the outskirts of Bombay. On March 27, 1924, Maharaja Dalip Singh's daughter, Bamba Dalip Singh, brought the ashes of Maharani Jind Kaur from Nasik Nagar and buried it next to Maharaja Ranjit Singh's samadh. Sardar Harbans Singh Rais of Atari performed the last rights (antim Ardas) on this occasion. -Ref. Mahan Kosh (pp. 523)

1928 All Parties Sikh Conference rejected Nehru report.

August 20

1922 Babbar Akali Akhbar is brought out by Karam Singh.

1922 Babbars call to plunder treasuries through the "Babbar Akali Doaba" newpaper. ==> BABBAR AKALI DOABA - newspaper was the organ of the Babbar Akalis and it effectively spread their message in the Doaba. In all 15 issues were released from Aug. 20, 1922 to May 21, 1923. Karam Singh of Daulatpur brought out its two issues, while the rest, except three, were the work of Jathedhar Kishan Singh Gargaj. Despite best efforts, no copies of this newspapers could be located. However, all available extracts can be traced to contemporary newspapers and the court records. -Ref. "Babbar Akali Movement, A Historical Survey," by Gurcharan Singh, Aman Publications, 1993.

1942 Protection of Sikh interests again came up in British mind. British, while preparing to leave Indian subcontinent were conscious of the fact that the Sikhs have a rightful claim to a Sikh State but did not want to create one. Mr. Amery, Secretary of State, in his letter to Viceroy linked the Sikh concern "for a degree of autonomy sufficient to protect them from Muslim domination" in the context of Pakistan scheme and sought to explore "the various possibilities they suggest in advance of any further constitutional discussions." He came to the conclusion that "a separate Sikhdom is really unworkable without extensive transfer of population", and wanted the reform department to work out contigency plans in complete secrecy. -Ref. "The Sikhs in History," by Sangat Singh, 1995. "History of Sikh Struggles, Vol. 1," By Gurmit Singh, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1989. pp. 48-49

1944 All Party Sikh Conference passed resolution for the creation of an independent Sikh state.

1947 PEPSU established through a combination of eight regions.

1980 Harchand Singh Longowal was elected President of the Shiromani Akali Dal. gently spoken and mild-mannered, he was assisted by a well-informed and sharp-witted writer and political commentator, of exactly his own age, Rajinder Singh, Editor of Kuami Ekta. Harchand Singh Longowal had chosen him to be his team-mate as oen of the general secretaries of the party. -Ref. "1984" by Prof. Harbans Singh, The Sikh Review, v.42:6, No. 486, June 1994.

1982 Sardar Manjit Singh alias "Musibat Singh" was killed at Rajasansi airport, Amritsar. He was shot at a point blank range by D.S.P. Bachan Singh when Manjeet Singh surrendered and came out of the plane. Subsequently, D.S.P. Bachan Singh with all the members of his family was killed except his daughter.

1982 Gurmit Singh's nails pulled out and hands burnt by Indian Police. Gurmit Singh of the village Dhulkot (Ludhiana) was arrested on by the police. He was taken to Rahon (Jullundur) police station where the nails of his hands and feet were pulled out by the' police and both hands burned over candles. When police failed to get any information from him, he was killed in a fake encounter. Serving Sikh Sepoy Killed: Sital Singh of the 2nd Battalion Sikh Light Infantry of the village Malwa (Amritsar), who was suspected of stealing a sten gun to give to some extremists, was beaten up by Hindu army of- ficials on the orders from the Hindu Commanding Officer, Lt. Col. S.P. Chada. One pound of chilli powder was pushed into his rectum and was also put into his eyes. This was confirmed by the postmortem report. Later, the military authorities declared that he had been killed in a brawl by one of his colleagues. Another sepoy of the same Battalion, Bir Singh, was also tortured, but he survived the torture. -Ref. THE SIKHS' STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, An Historical Perspective By Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer and Dr. Awatar Singh Sekhon. Edited By: A.T. Kerr Page 110-119

1985 Harchand Singh Longowal assasinated.

August 21

1664 Guru Tegh Bahadhur Ji visits Kiratpur.

1982 Sardar Gurmit Singh of Dhudkot was martyred in a false police enocunter.

1982 Gurmit Singh Rahon killed in fake encounter after a bomb attack on Darbara Singh, the terrorist Chief Minister of Punjab.

August 22

1710 Baba Gurbakhash Singh (Banda Bahadur), escaped Bahadhur Shah's forces.

1718 Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was born.

1893 Maharaja Dalip Singh, the last prince of Maharaja Ranjit Singh passed away in exile.

1909 The Anand Marriage Act was passed.

1983 Classes for Khalsa College started as a middle school in a house near Hall gate in the city of Amritsar.

1981 Akali leaders met Narsimha Rao, representing the Prime Minister.

1987 Sarbat Khalsa stopped by the Indian Government.

August 23

1507 Nanak visits the house of God from river Bein. In the morning, Guru Nanak went to the river Bein to take a bath but didn't return. Everyone thought he had drawned. But apparently, he visited the house of God where he spent three days before returning to our world. While there he was offered a cup of nectar and was ordered to drink it. Guru nanak was terrified. All he could see was the blinding light and all he could hear was God's commanding voice. God ordered Guru Nanak Dev to return back to the world and spread the message of love and peace. God said he had appointed Guru Nanak Dev as His messanger. He returned at the same place he had disappeared from three days earlier. The people were horrified by the miracle of his disappearing in the river and reappearing from the same place three days later. -Ref. "The Sikh Religion and The Sikh People," by Dr. S.S. Kapoor, Hemkunt Press, New Delhi, 1992.

1922 Babbars appeal for Panthic unity through "Babbar Akali Doaba" newspaper. ==> BABBAR AKALI DOABA - newspaper was the organ of the Babbar Akalis and it effectively spread their message in the Doaba. In all 15 issues were released from Aug. 20, 1922 to May 21, 1923. Karam Singh of Daulatpur brought out its two issues, while the rest, except three, were the work of Jathedhar Kishan Singh Gargaj. Despite best efforts, no copies of this newspapers could be located. However, all available extracts can be traced to contemporary newspapers and the court records. -Ref. "Babbar Akali Movement, A Historical Survey," by Gurcharan Singh, Aman Publications, 1993.

1940 Congress betrays Sikhs in Punjab in return for an overall settlement.

1978 Baba Nischal Singh Ji, a devoted member of Panthic Saewaks, passed away.

August 24

1581 Gur Gadhi, Fifth Patshah, Guru Arjan Dev Ji. ==> GURU ARJAN DEV (1563-1606) Guru Arjan, the 'Prince of Martyrs' and the 'Prophet of Peace', proffered his precious life to nurture the glory that was to be the Sikh Panth. The Fifth Master's life was marked by divine bliss and sublime sacrifices, born of a sweet acceptance of God's Will. Gifted with a quintessential poetic afflatus, and immeasurable imaginative sympathies, the Guru gave the movement of Sikhism a definite direction, perspective and program. He made the new faith coeval or coextensive with the whole gamut of existence and raised its exquisite edifice on values for which there is neither death nor change. Guru Arjan Dev adorned the sacred throne of Guru Nanak from Sept. 1, 1581 to May 30, 1606. Born at Goindwal on April 15, 1563, he was the youngest and noblest son of Guru Ram Das and Mata Bibi Bhani. On 23 Hadh sunmat 1636, he married Ganga Devi, daughter of Krishan Chand of Mau village. He had an innate poetic sensibility which was exquisitely displayed in the epistles that he sent to his father from Lahore. They are deeply expressive of the pangs of separation and the exuberance of Love. The Fourth Master's decision to make Guru Arjan his spiritual heir was bitterly opposed by Prithvi Chand who contended that being the eldest son, he alone was entitled to the Guruship. Thus, he could never reconcile himself to his younger brother's installation as Guru.

1820 Sardar Hari Singh Nalwa reaches Kashmir and was appointed Nazim (Governor). He remained in this position for less than two years. During his reign, he freed agricultural labour from Begar and encouraged the shawl and wood carving industries by giving loans in cash and kind. He encouraged cultivating of saffron. The land revenue was reduced from Rs. 61 lakhs to Rs. 13 lakhs. It was enhanced later when agriculture production improved. Kashmiri shawls and wookwork were exported to Europe.

1932 Sikhs rejected the Communal Award.

August 25

1581 Jotti Jot, Fourth Patshah, Guru Ram Das Ji. ==> GURU RAM DAS (1534-1581). the Fourth Master, ascended the holy gaddi (throne) of Guru Nanak in 1574 and continued to adorn the exalted office till 1581. Though he was the son-in-law of Guru Amar Das, being married to his daughter Bibi Bhani, yet he revered the Third Master as a Guru with an unwavering fervor. Inebriated with the nectar of the divine Nam, he spurned delights, and spent all his time in an ecstatic communion with the Lord through moments of deep meditation. Originally called Jetha Ji, Guru Ram Das was born in a Sodhi family at Lahore in 1534. His parents died when he was just a child. He was, therefore, brought up by his maternal grandparents. He had an opportunity to visit Goindwal, the seat of the Third Master, at a time when the bavali was being dug through voluntary labor. He immersed himself in this labor of love with such a rare verve and dedication that he won the Guru's appreciation and recognition. The Third Master was so highly pleased with the disciple that he gave his daughter Bibi Bhani to him in marriage. Nevertheless, he served Guru Amar Das with as much love and devotion as ever before. It was in 1574 that he was invested with Guruship and named Guru Ram Das.

1637 Bhai Gurdas Ji passed away. ==> BHAI GURDAS: was a true GurSikh, who was a close brother of Bibi Bhani Ji. He adopted the Sikh faith from Fourth Patshah, Sri Guru Ram Das Ji, in 1636 and learned the essence of GurSikhism from the Fifth Patshah, Sri Guru Arjun Dev Ji. Bhai Gurdas eventually became a full-fledged GurSikh preacher and effectively propagated the GurSikhism tenants. He preached concentrated in Lahore, Agra, Kanshi and surrounding region. The very first copy of Sri Guru Granth Sahib commissioned by Guru Arjun Dev Patshah was hand scribed by Bhai Gurdas. Bhai Sahib's own writings, 40 Vara and 556 Kabit, represents a wealth of knowledge about and a detailed exposition of GurSikhism principles. Bhai Sahib's writings represent the most detailed "Rehatmana" on GurSikhism. In Guru Arjun Patshah's own word, "study of Bhai Sahib's writings is a source of Sikhi". Bhai Sahib's writings are widely acknowledged as the "THE KEY" to unlocking the treasures and understanding the message of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Therefore detailed study of Bhai Sahib's writings is considered a mandatory pre-requisite for any study of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Further, Bhai Gurdas Ji's writings are blessed with the unique honor of mandatory recitation during every diwan. This honor was bestowed by Sri Guru Arjun Dev Patshah. According to the "Sikh Rehat Maryada", Bhai Sahib's writing are among the Banis accepted for recitation outside of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Others with similar honor include the Bani of Dassam Granth and the writings of Bhai Nand Lal Ji. Bhai Gurdas Ji passed away on Bhado Sudhi 8, sunmat 1694 at Goindwal Sahib, during Sixth Patshah, Sri Guru Har Gobind's period. Guru Sahib personally conducted the last rights and the cremation of Bhai Gurudas Ji's body. -Ref. Mahan Kosh (pp. 416)

1977 Jarnail Singh Bhindrawalae assumed responsibility of Chief sewadar of Damdami Taksal.

August 26

1507 Guru Nanak returned from the house of God and issued first commandment at Sultanpur. Guru Nanak returned from the house of God. Three days earlier he went to river Bein to take a bath but didn't return. As such he was persumed drawned. However, he returned from the same spot that he had disappeared three days earlier and stated the first commandment that God was one, the parent of us all. People need not quarrel over religion, for God is neither Hindu nor Muslim. He is one God of the whole universe and no one should forget Him even for a moment. He said that God was beyond time, beyond births and deaths, that God was without fear and enmity. He was the creator of all the worlds in this Universe. "Ek Onkar Satnaam Karta Purakh Nirbhau Nirvaer Akal Murat Ajuni Sae Bhang Gur Parsaad"

1679 Janam Din Bhai Daya Singh, one of the first five Sikh initiated members of the Khalsa order. Bhai Daya Singh Ji was born in Lahore to father Sudo Khatri and mother Dayali. On the 1699 Baisakhi day, Bhai Daya Singh was the very first to answer Guru Gonbind Singh Ji's call for "Sis Baeta". He was one of the first five selected GurSikhs to be initiated into the Khalsa order established by Guru Gobind Singh on the Vaisakhi of 1699. He was 30 years of age at this time. He passed away in 1708 besides the banks of Godawari in Nanded. Bhai Daya Singh was the recognized leader among the Panj Payaras.

1931 SGPC resolved to launch a morcha for liberating Gurdwara Daska.

1980 With the protection of Baba Nihal Singh, Krishan Kaur Khalsa was the first woman to perform kirtan, in recent time, within the confines of Sri Harimandir Sahib. Vikram Singh Khalsa was performing kirtan on the Gurupurab for the birthday for Guru Ram Das Ji. This kirtan was for a Bhog on the roof of the Harimandir Sahib -- not in the main hall. When he finished, he motioned for Krishna Kaur Khalsa to play. As she began some SGPC sevadars moved to stop her but Baba Nihal Singh and some other Nihungs stood in their way and protected her right to perform kirtan within the confines of the Harimandir Sahib. Still no Sikh woman has performed kirtan in the main darbar. In 1979, Sikhs of American descent performed Kirtan in Darbar Sahib for the very first time while observing Guru Ram Das's Prakash Utsav. Sardar Vikram Singh Khalsa, Ajeet Singh Khalsa, and Guru Sangat Singh Khalsa performed kirtan in the main darbar.

August 27

1922 Piara Singh Langeri, ex-Ghadrite, participated in the General meeting of the Akali Dal. He influenced the Sikhs to take up arms and became an integral part of the Babbar Akali Jatha, under Jathedar Krishan Singh Gargaj. -Ref. "Babbar Akali Movement, A Historical Survey," by Gurcharan SIngh, Aman Publications, 1993.

1923 Main GurSikhs of Gurudwara Gangsar Jaito's Diwan were arrested by British government.

August 28

1921 SGPC, headed by S. Kharak Singh endorsed the policy of non-cooperation with the British government.

1923 "The Nation" newspaper was purchased by the Sikhs to project and protect Sikh interests.

1958 Akali Conference Baba Bakala demands the formation of Punjabi Suba.

1977 General House of the Akali Dal approved the famous 1973 Anandpur Sahib's resolution. ==> THE ANANDPUR SAHIB RESOLUTION (POLITICAL CLAUSE) Passed by the Working Committee of the Shiromani Akali Dal Ludhiana, Punjab, October 17, 1973. NOTE:- document that some say, started the 1984 ghalughaara of the Sikhs

1977 Sikh Dharma International Headquarters was established.

August 29

1923 Sacrilege of Guru Granth Sahib at jaito by the British.

1983 "Work stopage" movement launched by Shiromani Akli Dal.

August 30

1845 Murder of Kanwar Peshaura Singh.

August 31

1923 Famous encounter at Babeli village between Babbar Akalis and the Police that left 4 Babbars killed.

1930 Baba Kharak Singh was brought on a stretcher to the SGPC meeting. He threatened to resign unless the Shiromani Akali Dal refused to fight under the Congress flag which did not include the Sikh color. He did not want the Sikhs to be taken for granted. The Punjab Provincial Congress Committee (PPCC) recommended the incorporation of the Sikh color in the national flag. But Jawaharlal Nehru, then Congress President, was amused and termed the PPCC decision as hasty and untimely.

1981 Marked the ultimatum date for acceptance of Sikh demands. This ultimatum was issued by Shiromani Akali Dal at the World Sikh Convention.

1995 Beant Singh, then 73-year-old chief minister of Punjab, was killed in a powerful car bomb blast at the high-security State Secretariat in Chandigarh, India. A dozen security personnel were also killed and 30 others injured as the blast blew off the Chief Minister's car to smithereens and damaged other vehicles. Under Beant Singh's chief ministership, Sikh youth were specifically targeted for elimination while the Indian goverment credited him with putting down terrorism and restoring peace in the State. The assasination showed that the committed bands of Sikh militants, fighting for an independent, Khalistan, were still capable of striking at select and well protected targets.