Proofs in Sketch of Sikhs about Guru Gobind Singh's Compositions
- Page - 31 - famous by compiling the Adi-Grant'h *. The Adi-Grant'h, or first sacred volume of the Sikhs, contains ninety-two sections : it was partly composed by Nanac and his immediate successors, but received its pre- sent form and arrangement from Arjunmalf, " substance," he adds, " which none else could di- " gest, the property of the family remained in the « family." * Grant'h means book ; but, as a mark of its supe- riority to all others, is given to this work, as " The " Book." Adi Grant'h means, the first Grant'h, or book, and is generally given to this work to distin- guish it from the Dasama Padshah ka Grant'h, or the book of the tenth king, composed by Guru Govind. f Though the original Adi-Grant'h was compiled by Arjunmal, from the writings of Nanac, Angad, Amera •Das, and Ram Das, and enlarged and improved by his own additions and commentaries, some small portions have been subsequently added by thirteen different persons, whose numbers, however, are reduced, by the Sikh authors, to twelve and a half: the last contri- butor to this sacred volume being a woman, is only admitted to rank in the list as a fraction, by these ungallant writers.
- Page 51 - Govind inculcated his tenets upon his followers by his preaching, his actions, and his works ; among which is the Dasama Padshah ka Grant'h, or the book of the tenth king or ruler; Guru Govind being the tenth leader of the sect from Nanac. This volume, which is not limited to reli- gious subjects, but filled with accounts of his own. battles, and written with the view of stirring up a spirit of valour and emu- lation among his followers, is at least as 52 SKETCH OF THE SIKHS. much revered, among the Sikhs, as the Adi-Grant'h of Arjunmal.
- Page 188 - The Dasama Padshah ka Grant'h of Guru Govind appears, from the extracts which I have seen of it, to abound in fine passages. Its author has borrowed largely from the Sastras of the Brahmens, and the Koran. He praises Nanac as a holy saint, accepted of God ; and grounds his faith, like that of his predecessors, upon the adoration of one God; whose power and attributes he however describes by so many Sanscrit names, and with such constant allusions to the Hindu mythology, that it appears often difficult to separate his purer belief from their gross idolatry. He, how- ever, rejects all worship of images, on an opinion taken from one of the ancient Vedas, which declares, " that to worship ..............
- Page 186 - Agreeably to this author, Guru Govind was ini- tiated on Friday, the 8th of the month B'hadra, in the year 1753 of the sera of Vicramaditya; and on that day his great work, the Dasama Padshah ka Grant'h, or book of the tenth king, was completed.
Dasama Padshah Ka Gran’th, or book of the tenth King, which was written by Guru Govind, is considered in every respect, as holy as the Adi Granth of Nanac, and his immediate successors. ‘ (p 176) Guru Govind inculcated his tenets upon his followers by preaching his actions, and his works; among which is the Dasama Padshah ka Granth, or the book of the tenth king or ruler; Guru Govind being the tenth leader of the sect from Nanac. This volume,m which is not limited to religious subjects, but filled with accounts of his own battles, and written with the view of stirring up a spirit of valour and emulation among his followers, is at least as much revered among the Sikhs, as the Adi-Granth of Arjunmal. (p 51) The religious tenets and usage of the Sikhs continued, as they had been established by Nanac, till the time of Guru; who, though he did not alter the fundamental principles of the established faith, made so complete a change in the sacred usages and civil habits of his followers, that he gave them an entirely new character: and though the Sikhs retain all their veneration for Nanac, they deem Guru Govind to have been equally exalted, by the immediate favour and protection of the Divinity; and the Dasama Padshah ka Granth, or book of the tenth king, which was written by Guru Goving, is considered, in every respect, as holy as the Adi Granth of Nanac, and his immediate successors. I cannot better explain the pretensions which Guru Govind has made to the rank of a prophet, that by exhibiting his own account of his mission in a literal version from his Vichitra Natac. The above passages will convey an idea of that impression which Guru Govind gave his followers of his divine mission. I shall shortly enumerate those alterations he made in the usages of the Sikhs, whom it was his object to render, through the means of religions enthusiasm, a warlike race. (p172 – 179) Amrit ceremony: He is then presented with the five weapons: a sword, a firelock, a bow and arrow, and a pike. One of those who initiate him says, “The Guru is thy holy teacher, and thou art his Sikh or disciple.” Some sugar and water is put into a cup, and stirred round with a steel knife, or dagger and some of the first chapters of the Adi-Granth, and the first chapters of the Dasama Padshah ka Granth, are read; and those who perform the initiation ceremony exclaim, Wa! Guruji ka Khalsa! Wa! Guruji ki Fateh! After this exclamation has been repeated five times, they say, “This sherbet is nectar. It is the water of life; drink it”. The disciple obeys; and some sherbet, prepared in similar manner, is sprinkled over his head and beard……. …..He is instructed to believe, that it is the duty of all those who belong to the Khalsa, or commonwealth of the Sikhs, neither to lament the sacrifice of property, nor life, in support of each other, and he is directed to read the Adi Granth and Dasama Padshah ka Granth every morning and every evening. (p182-185) Maryada of declaring Gurmatta
When Gurmata or great national council, is called, (as it always is, or ought to be, when any imminent danger threatens the country, or any large expedition is to be undertaken) all the Sikh chiefs assemble at Amritsar. The assembly, which is called the Guru.mata, is convened by the Acalis; and when the chiefs meet upon this solemn occasion, it is concluded that all private animosities cease, and that every main sacrifices his personal feelings at the shrine of the general good; and, actuated by principles of pure patriotism, thinks of nothing but the interests of the religion, and commonwealth, to which he belongs. When the chiefs and principal leaders are seated, the Adi-Granth and Dasama Padshah ka Granth are placed before them. They all bend their heads before these scriptures, and exclaim, Wa! Guruji ka Khalsa! Wa! Guruji ki Fateh! A great quantity of cakes, made of wheat, butter, and sugar, are then placed before the volumes of their sacred writings, and covered with a cloth. These holy cakes, which are in commemoration of the injunction of Nanac, to eat and to give to others to eat, next receive the salutation of the assembly, who then rise, and the Acalis pray aloud, while the musicians play. The Acalis, then the prayers are finished, desire the council to be seated. They sit down, and the cakes being uncovered, are eaten of by all classes of Sikhs: those distinctions of original tribes, which are, on occasions, kept up, being on this occasion laid aside, in token of their general and complete union in one cause. The Acalis then exclaim: “Sirdars! (Chiefs) this is Guru-mata!” on which prayers are again said aloud. The chiefs, after this sit closer, and say to each other: “The sacred Granth is betwixt us, let us swear by our scripture to forget all internal disputes, and to be united.” This moment of religious fervor and ardent patriotism, is taken to reconcile all animosities. They then proceed to consider the danger with whcih they are threatened, to settle the best plans for averting it, and to choose the generals who are to lead their armies against the common enemy. The first Guru-mata was assembled by Guru Govinid; and the latest was called in 1805, when the British army pursued Holkar into the Penjab. (pages. 120-123)