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Francis, a French adventurer known only as Francis, who arrived at Lahore in 1833 and joined Maharaja Ranjit Singl's army.

But he had no military training, and was discharged from the service soon afterwards.


The name Francis, cognate with French and frank and Frankish are related to the word widely used in India for foreigners—ferigi, ferangi and various spellings. It is best heard voiced in the tone of contempt which many Indians had for the English (their attitudes towards the Indians being the source of the contempt) in the film Lagaan, Once upon a time in India when Rajesh Vivek as Guran, the fortune teller utters, rather growls the word as some British Soldiers marched by.

Strangely enough the word arrived in India with Arab traders who had since the crusades used the word for all Europeans, not to their faces of course, as the crusaders had been made up largely by Franks or people from France.

The current writer, or me, less formally had the unusual experience of shopping in an Indian clothing store, with my wife, who was looking for some bangles, north of Atlanta when an elderly woman was heard to say several times what are those ferangies doing here and keep an eye on the ferangis. She had of course no Idea that we knew what she was saying and was unaware that she was now the farengi.

Of course in the USA TV series Star Trek: The Next Generation, the characters of the usually profit seaking ferengies who were always out to swindle anyone they traded with and whose topi (top of their heads have the same cleft as Indian elephants are based on the Arabic/Indian word.


1. Grey, C., European Adventurers of Northern India. Lahore, 1929