Akal Takhat , Background

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The Akal Takhat in the morning as the sun rises

The Akal Takht which stands facing the the marble paved square in front of the Darshani­ Deori the Gateway to the Golden Temple, is regarded as the supreme seat of Sikh religious authority. It was constructed by the sixth Guru Sri Hargobind in 1609. Also called the Akal Bunga, the house of the Lord, the place is the repository of the various weapons used by Sikh Gurus and heroes. These weapons are ceremoniously displayed every evening to an ever changing congregation of devotees. The Akal Takht being the holiest of holy seats of the Sikhs, was used for a special purpose which considerably changed the character and organization of Sikhi. The sixth Guru himself sat here and held a court of justice for the many Sikhs who gathered here for the redressal of their grievances. Offerings were made to the Guru.

At the place where Akal Takht is now situated was a playground, and the Guru used to play here during his childhood. Here he was ceremoniously installed as the Guru in 1606 after the death of his father Guru Arjun Dev. Here Guru Hargobind watched the Sikhs perform exercises in the art of warfare, preparing them for the coming struggle against Mughal authoritarianism.

The Akal Takht is a massive five story building standing on a marble paved platform. The ground floor, finished in 1774 was used by Guru Hargobind. Four additional stories were added later by Maharaja Ran] it Singh. The Golden dome was constructed by the famous Sikh General Hari Singh Nalwa.

Hukamnamas issued by the Jathedar of the Akal Takht is binding on all Sikhs. Even Maharaja Ranjit Singh had to bow before the orders of the Jathedar of the Akal Takht. During the Misal period after the death of Guru Gobind Singh and before the rise of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, Gurmata used to be passed by Sarbat Khalsa at Akal Takht for the protection of the country from any invaders. During the British period, volunteers took vows of non-violence at Akal Takht before participating in the morchas launched by the Sikhs for the improvement of management of their holy shrines. A Saropa (robe of honor) conferred at Akal Takht is a distinction of a high order. It is given for extraordinary service rendered to the Sikh community.

Guru Hargobind, the only son of Guru Arjun Dev, was born in 1595. His path was beset with difficulties and hazards from the very outset. At the age of eleven his father was martyred after being arrested by the Emperor Jahangir and tortured almost to death in some of the most inhumane ways one could imagine. Guru Arjun had not done or said anything either against the Government or against Islam. In continuation of the development projects of Sikhism by his predecessors, Guru Arjun had chalked out wide programmes for the progress of Guru Nanak's religion and the Sikh community. But the steps taken were not at all with a view to humbling any other religion or community. The excavations of the tanks of Amritsar and Santokhsar were completed to provide the much-wanted places of pilgrimage for the Sikhs.

By founding Tarn Taran in the heart of the Majha and Kartarpur in the Doaba, the Guru only wanted to provide the people with some rallying centres for religious purposes in their respective areas. The Masand system was organised and placed on a strong footing to finance the various projects undertaken by the Guru. Guru Arjun encouraged the Sikhs to foster trade and industry and adopt lucrative professions to be economically well-off. The compilation of the Adi Granth was undertaken to meet the long-standing need of the Sikh community for Holy Scriptures. All these measures gave advanced the Sikh movement in the Punjab. Those of the other two religions whose livelihoods were based on the continuation of the status quo, were not casting a kindly eye towards the Sikhs who were definitely rocking their boat.

The opposition of the detractors of the Guru ultimately led to Guru Arjun's martyrdom in 1606. In the words of Mohammad Latif: "The death of Guru Arjun was a great turning point in the history of the Sikh nation, for it inflamed the religious passions of the Sikhs and it was at this time that those seeds of hatred of the Musalman power were sown which took such deep root in the minds of all the faithful followers of Nanak." With this execution the whole Sikh community was stunned. It aroused very serious resentment in the minds of the Sikhs but they were yet not in a position to register their protest by raising arms against the Government.

Sikhism was a socio-religious movement aiming at peaceful emancipation of the people from invidious distinctions and prejudices. It wanted to divert them to the path of godliness, honest living and goodwill towards all. The Sikhs did not interfere with the current politics of the country. They were law-abiding citizens without any means to protect themselves against the mighty Mughal empire. The only alternative now left to the new Guru and his followers, if the work of Guru Nanak was to be kept alive, was to reshape their outlook so as to give due attention to the development of their physical strength along with their spiritual attainments. Thus Guru Hargobind planned to transform his people into Sikhs who were capable of defending themselves against aggression, without becoming aggressive themselves. The followers of this Guru would not accept things lying down. The Guru was far from being a militarist, he was primarily a man of God, a Guru, a teacher and a missionary of the Sikh faith.

On one occasion Guru Hargobind was on his way to Nanakmata when saint Ram Das met him at Srinagar in Garhwal as he was on a pilgrimagw towards Badri Narayan. Ram Das was surprised to see Guru Hargobind armed and riding a horse accompanied by a large number of followers who were armed as well. The older Sadhu could not reconcile the two seemingly opposite aspects now part of Guru Hargobind's life. To his way of thinking Guru, Sants and Bhagats had nothing to do with weapons, but here was the son of Guru Arjan a great man of peace who had died a tortuous death, without mounting any defense against the charges leveled against him - let alone using weapons to save his life. Yet here was his son now the Guru in his father's place, bad enough that he was on a horse (an animal only used by warriors and conquerors) and carrying weapons as well! A saint who was also a soldier, this his mind just could not grasp.

He asked the Guru, "I had heard that you occupy the Gaddi of Guru Nanak who was a tyagi Sadhu-a saint who had renounced the world. Yet you are wearing arms and going about with an army mounted on horseback. You allow yourself to be called Sacha Padshah-a True King. What sort of a Sadhu are you?"

Guru Hargobind replied: "(I am) internally a hermit and externally a prince. Arms allow the poor and helpless protection and bring destruction to tyrants".

Miri Piri a Collective Decision?

Guru Hargobind's followers spoke clearly of the actions they would propose in the event of any repetition of the events that had resulted in the martyrdom of Guru Arjan.

According to Macauliffe, a little before his death, Guru Arjan sent a message to his son through his followers, saying "Let him sit fully armed on his throne and maintain an army to the best of his ability." But this this message seems to be a later concoction as such a stance does not agree with the tenor of Guru Arjun's life. He is known to history and tradition as an apostle of peace and a staunch and unstinted follower of non-violence. Under no circumstances could he have changed his faith in the peaceful demeanour. It is also doubtful that Guru Arjun would recommend such a hazardous course to his young son of eleven.

There can be no doubt about the fact that the decision to arm the community was taken by Guru Hargobind and his followers collectively after Guru Arjun Dev had been martyred. This decision sowed the seeds of a revolution which transformed the character of the Sikhs from mere lambs to soldiers who were capable of defending themselves. Guru Hargobind gave a martial trend to his followers who besides keeping a mala, now buckled on a sword in order to defend their faith and their fellow Sikhs. It was likely that the Jats of Majha who formed the bulk of the Guru's followers and already had a long history of resisting aggression played a large part in the decision.

Guru Hargobind told Bhai Budha that the Seli, a woollen cord worn as a necklace or twisted round the head by the former Gurus, would be used for his installation, rather a sword-belt, and not one but two swords Miri and Piri would be girded round his waist, one to symbolise temporal power and the other - spiritual power. Chosing to dispense with the seli he would now don a Turban, such as was worn by an Emperor with a Kalgi, long an emblem of royalty. The young Guru took the seat of his father in the dual role of a Mir (an army leader) and a Pir (a Holy Sant). The combining of Miri and Piri in his person introduced a new development in the Sikh movement by Guru Hargobind which held great possibilities for the future.

The Guru expressed the desire that in place of the usual gifts that Sikhs had brought as offerings, that now they should bring arms, ammunition and horses as part of their offerings. This was readily done and some of them personally joined the Guru's retinue. According to Dabistan: "The Guru had seven hundred horses in his stables, three hundred Risaldari (mounted soldiers/cavalry) and sixty artillery men were always in his service." This was an account of only the first corps of Sikh volunteers raised by the Guru at Amritsar. The first five hundred enlisted by the Guru were divided into five troops of one hundred each. These troops were under the command of Bidhi Chand, Pirana, Jetha, Piara and Langaha. The establishment of the Guru increased gradually and the number of volunteers rose to 2,500 Sikhs who were ever ready to lay down their lives for their Guru. The Guru raised a regiment of Pathans under the command of Painde Khan. Many in the Guru's Pathan regiment had served in the Mughal army from which some had desserted as their salary was often in arrears or the Mughals no longer had any need for their services, having down sized a regiment as we say today.

Indubhusan Banerjee and Gokal Chand Narang wrongly believe that the prospects of booty and plunder had attracted the roughs of society to join Guru Hargobind's forces, excepting Bidhi Chand (a well known former thief, with a Robin Hood like reputation) no Sikh is known to history with a questionable background. Bidhi Chand, famous for retrieving two horses stolen while on their way to the Guru had come into the fold of Sikhism during the period of Guru Arjun. He had completely renounced his old practices and under the teachings of the Gurus had become a very responsible citizen who ended his days as a devout and saintly follower of the Guru.

Further sections under review// little mention of the Akal Takht , more or the Guru's changes to Sikhi.

Further Protection

Guru Hargobind is said to have constructed a wall around the city of Amritsar and a fort , Lohgarh (Fortress of Iron) was built in the town as an extra measure of security in the event of an attacks.

All these measures of Guru Hargobind . For adopting new practices the Guru gave a very convincing explanation to the Maratha saint Guru Nanak had not renounced the world but had renounced maya, the self and ego." Samrath Ram Das was pleased to hear this and said : "This appeals to my mind."5 It is said that Saint Ram Das told Guru Hargobind in his parting words that the Guru already had got the right type of instruction and advice from the great master Nanak and that he needed none from him. In fact Saint Ram Das himself seems to have been inspired by what he saw in the Sikh camp of Guru Hargobind and this was helpful in initiating the great Maratha leader Shiva Ji into a life of national upliftment. On his departure Ram Das presented to the Guru a piece of ochre-coloured cloth and a rosary as parting gifts.

The earlier practice of charan-pahul (touching the baptismal water with the toe of the Guru's foot) continued up to Guru Arjun's time. The Masands had also been authorised to prepare charan-pahul and administer the same to the Sikhs. Thus the Masands continued enjoying the privilege of baptising the new Sikhs. Through this privilege the Masands established their authority and superiority over other Sikhs. Guru Hargobirid made an improvement on this practice by authorising a body of five Sikhs to preparepahul (baptism) by touching the water with their right hand thumbs and sanctifiing the same by recitation of the scriptures. This new practice continued up to AD. 1699 when the baptism of the double-edged sword was prepared by Guru Gobind Singh and administered to the Sikhs.6 This improvement introduced by Guru Hargobind weakened, to a certain extent, the Masand's authority which they were liable to misuse.

According to Maubid (Mohsin Fani) the Sikhs called the Guru Sacha Padshah, the True King, as against the temporal king who ruled only by the force of arms and concerned himself with the worldly actions of the people. The use of the term Sacha Padshah for the Guru was exploited by the detractors of the Guru. They conveyed to the Emperor that the title of Padshah was the exclusive privilege of the Mughal King and by allowing the Sikhs to use the same for him Guru Hargobind had assumed the royal title. But actually the Guru was not undertaking any imperial authority or royal powers and was not at all interfering with the state affairs. The Guru never asked the Sikhs to withdraw their allegiance from the state or to show disregard to the authority and the law of the Mughal Government.

According to Cunningham Sacha Padshah or True King is the spiritual king or the Guru "who rules the eternal soul or guides it to salvation, while a temporal monarch controls our finite faculties only or puts restraints upon the play of our passions and the enjoyment of our senses. The Muhammadans have the same idea and a corresponding term viz. Malik Hakiki."8

Guru Hargobind introduced congregational prayers which added fervour in the minds of the Sikhs and strengthened feelings of unity and cooperation among them. "Under him was also established the custom, which still continues, of choirs moving nightly round the Golden Temple and, with the blare of trumpets and flare of torches, singing hymns in stirring tunes. All these programmes put a new life into the drooping hearts of the Sikhs."9

The Sikh Sangats took upon themselves the financial and defence requirements of the Guru. Undoubtedly the Guru had no political objectives to achieve and the militant character added to the Sikh movements was purely a measure of self-defence.

Evidently the Mughal Emperor was a little alarmed at these measures of the Guru and summoned him to his ppesence. The Guru went and he was made a state prisoner ai~d sent to Gwalior. For the detention of the Guru different re~asons have been advanced by the writers. According to Dab istan, after Guru Hargobind sat on the Gurugaddi in place of his father, he was confronted with many hardships, '4One of them is this that he adopted the form of a soldier, against the practice of his father, kept servants and took to hunting. The late Emperor (Jahangir) sent Hargobind to the fort of Gwalior on account of the balance of the dues of the fine that he had imposed on Arjun Mal. He remained for twelve years in that place, where they did not allow that he might eat salty food. During this time the Masands and the Sikhs used to go and bow down before the walls of the fort. At last the Emperor, by way of kindness, gave freedom to the Guru."° No doubt the author of Dabistan was contemporaneous with Guru Hargobind and he also claims to have been in correspondence with the Guru, but he has committed many mistakes in this small paragraph, may be unintentionally and due to the inconect~ and inadequate source of information on which he based his writing. The Guru is said to have been detained in Gwalior because he failed to pay the fine imposed on his father. It is not acceptable on the ground that no such fine was ever imposed on Guru Arjun. Even if we accept that Guru Arjun suffered death because he could not pay the fine, there can be no legal justification for transferring to the son the father's punishment that the latter had already undergone and had cost him his life.

The period of the Guru's stay at Gwalior in the prison is stated by Dabistan to be twelve years which is impossible on the very face of it as during these years several children of the Guru were born. The Guru could not have been in jail for more than two years. It is said that on the intercession of a renowned Muslim Saint, Mian Mir and a prominent courtier, Wazir Khan the Guru was released from the jail with 52 other detenues as the Guru refused to come along out of the jail until they were also released. For this, the Guru is remembered as Bandichhor or Deliverer. The very fact that the Guru was released from thejail shows that the Mughal Emperor and his government were convinced that the Guru had no territorial ambitions or aggressive designs against the Mughal Government. The Guru might have been in detention from 1610 to 1612. So Jahangir, who died in 1627, had nothing to complain against Guru Hargobind between 1612 and 1627 and the Guru and the Emperor remained on very cordial terms during this period. It is absurd to say that the Guru accepted an office under Jahangir.

The Guru then busied himself in the work of preaching. He went as far as Kashmir in the north and Nanakmata near Pilibhit, in the east. He converted many people to his faith from among Hindus as well as Muslims. The Guru met Shah Daula at Gujrat, who asked the Guru, "How can a Hindu be a faqir? How can you be a religious man, when you have a wife and children and possess worldly wealth?" The Guru replied, "A wife is her man's conscience, his children continue his memoi5' and wealth gives him his sustenance. As for a faqir, he is neither a Hindu nor a Mussalman."4

After Jahangir's death in 1627, Shah Jehan succeeded him. The new Emperor of Delhi changed his policy towards the non-Muslims and under his orders many temples were pulled down. He also prohibited conversions. The Baoli at Lahore got dug up by Guru Arjun was filled up. The relations between the Sikhs and the government got strained and only a slight cause could spark off a clash.

In 1628 just over a hawk a clash took place between the Sikhs and the royal contingent. Some believe that the hawk affair was a mere pretext. The point of self-respect and the new surging spirit were involved in it. Then a detachment of troops under Mukhlis Khan came from Lahore to take action against the Guru. Mukhlis Khan was killed and his troops were beaten back by the Sikhs. The Guru thought it proper to leave Amritsar and he came to Lahira in the Malwa region. A battle was fought at Lahira in 1631 between the Government forces and the Guru's followers because of a couple of horses. The Guru's men emerged victorious. Another skirmish was fought between the rival parties at Kartarpur in 1634. The imperial contingent was led against the Guru by Painde Khan, an old protege of the Guru. Painde Khan was killed at the hands of the Guru and his followers went back to Lahore without achieving anything against the Guru. According to Teja Singh and Gand~ Singh Guru Hargobind had won four battles, but as his purpose had always been only defensive, he did not acquire even an inch of territory as a result of these. There was something for greater involved in this warfare than a mere dispute over hawk or a horse. "A new heroism was rising in the land, of which the object, then dimly seen, was to create the will to resist the mighty power of the foreign aggressors called the 'Toorks')'

To keep fighting against the Mughal government was not of the Guru's liking. Shortly after the battle of Kartarpur he retired to Kiratpur. He spent the last ten years of his life in peace there and completely devoted himself to the work of his religious ministry.

Besides Gurdwaras and temples, Guru Hargobind also built a mosque for the Muslims at Kiratpur. Many Muslims were very close to the Guru. They included Mian Mir, a Muslim Fir and Wazir Khan, a Muslim noble. Wazir Khan was a strong advocate of the Guru's cause. According to Macauliffe, Emperor Shah Jehan was astonished and inquired why the Guru had constructed a mosque. Wazir Khan promptly answered, "Sire, Gurus and Pirs are all men's property. They feel neither love nor hate. The Guru sitteth on Guru Nanak's throne. His is the abode of miracles. He looketh on Hindu and Muhammadans with an equal eye."2

more mention of the Takht to incorporate above

Guru Hargobind's death on March 3, 1644 was considered to be a great national calamity. The love of his followers could be judged from the fact that many of them offered to burn themselves on his pyre. Two of them flung themselves on the flames and died at the Guru's feet. Others who were ready to follow the example were forbidden by Guru Har Rai.

Before Guru Hargobind's accession to the gaddi, the Harimandir at Amritsar was the place where the Guru used to sit and give spiritual guidance to the Sikhs. At Harimandir, the Sikhs sang hymns in praise of God and.the True Name was worshipped there. But with Guru Arjun's martyrdom and under the changed circumstances the dire need of such a place was felt where the Sikhs should assemble in the presence of the Guru and discuss their secular affairs. Since they were faced with an intolerant and oppressive government they required a place where they should be able to hold deliberations for their self-preservation. The Harimandir could not be used for that purpose. So, the Guru ordered, in AD. 1609, the construction of a place at a distance of about one hundred yards from the Harimandir. The place was named Akal Bunga (the House of the Lord). According to Gun Bilas Padshahi Chhevin the foundation laying~ceremony of Akal Takht was performed by Bhai Budha and Bhai Gurdas, two most revered Sikhs at the Guru's Durbar.

It seems that at the time of the excavation of Harimandir a big heap of earth had piled on one side. That earth was levelled from above and a pacca floor was laid. A big raised plateform of bricks was constructed to serve as a seat for the Guru. And later a big hall was constructed on that site.

In the 18th century, the Sikh Sardars gave it a better shape. And Ranjit Singh contributed largely to its present edifice.

There Guru Hargobind used to discuss the social and military problems of the Sikh community. Sitting on this 'throne', he would watch the wrestling bouts and military feats of his disciples performed in the open courtyard in front of the Akal Takht. It was here that the Guru also used to receive the presents and offerings of weapons and horses from his followers and particularly from Masands who brought the same from their respective Sangats for the Guru. It was also here that the Sikhs presented their personal disputes before the Guru and got them settled. Thus the Sifts were encouraged to have their disputes decided among themselves.

At Akal Takht the Guru held symposiums of martial music and the heroic deeds of historical personalities were narrated and the same were also sung to the people assembled there.

According to Teja Singh and Ganda Singh, Jahangir paid a visit to Arnritsar and offered to complete the building of Akal Takht at his own expense. The Guru however, declined the offer, saying, "Let me and my Sifts raise this Throne of God with the labour of our own little resources. I wish to make it a symbol of my Sift's service and sacrifice and not a monument to a King's generosity."4

Some people believe that "there is great significance in Akal Takht being constructed a few paces away from Harimandir. Akal Takht symbolised Sikh politics while Harimandir signified religion. Each of the two is visible from the other end so that people sitting in Harimandir would remember their involvement in politics and vice versa. Religion and politics were thus blended into one by Guru Hargobind. They were considered limbs of the same body."5 It is also said that the Guru told his Sikhs that as long as he was in Harimandir, he should be treated as a saint, and when in the Akal Takht he should be looked upon as a temporal leader of the community.

The Muslim forces of the foreign invaders and of the Mughal Government ruined Akal Takht many a time as in the case of Harimandir Sahib. The first storey of the present building was constructed in A.D. 1774 during the period of the Sikh Misals. The three upper storeys were constructed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh and the domes covered with gilded plates were also built by Ranjit Singh.

During the 18th century, particularly during the difficult days of the Sikhs, Akal Takht continued to be the venue of the meetings of the Sarbat Khalsa. Ordinarily they proposed to meet at Akal Takht twice a year during the Baisakhi and Diwali festivals which were the opportune times for such meetings when the agriculturists were free to come to the Akal Takht. On the occasions of fairs and festivals at Harimandir and Akal Takht, there assembled big congregations that availed themselves of their pilgrimages to discuss the problems that confronted the community. On other occasions also, they would meet as and when some urgent matter of political importance had to be discussed or some imminent danger threatened the country or any larger expedition was to be undertaken. When Tara Singh Van was killed in 1726 along with his companions, the Sifts met at Akal Takht and decided to assert themselves to make the government machinery inactive and inoperative.

Generally the assemblage at Akal Takht was in proportion to the magnitude of the danger facing the Sikhs. The assembly sessions of the Sarbat Khalsa were convened by the leaders of the community to pass Gurmatas. According to John Malcolm, "When the chiefs meet upon this solemn occasion, it is concluded that all private animosities cease and that every man sacrifices his personal feelings at the shrine of general good and actuated by the principles of pure patriotism thinks of nothing but the interests of the religion and commonwealth to which he belongs."16

Thus sitting in front of the Guru Granth Sahib at Akal Takht, they proceeded to consider the danger with which they were threatened. They settled their plans and strategy for averting the danger and chose the generals who were to lead their armies against the enemy.

As the Sikh Sardars held Akal Takht in high esteem the decisions taken there had a moral and religious binding on them. The Sardars could not, therefore, afford to go against the decisions taken at Akal Takht, and run the risk of losing their popularity with the community. Though the Sardars, at times, quarrelled among themselves, all was peace and friendship when they met at Akal Takht.

At the time of their meeting, they assembled in the open space in front of Akal Takht. Each Sardar had his companions sitting behind him and he participated in the deliberations on behalf of his men. If the followers had any point to make, they did it through their Sardar or they could do it direct. It was not Sardars' assembly nor where the deliberations of the national problems the monopoly of the chiefs. But it was a gathering of the community. According to Fauja Singh, in the assembly at Akal Takht the basic ideas kept before them by its members were those of equality, unanimity and responsibility. The idea of equality entitled every member of the community, including women, to attend and participate in the discussions. The right of participation in discussions had to be exercised personally and directly and not through elected or nominated representatives. The principle of unanimity was based on the belief that the Khalsa was the embodiment of the Holy Guru and that all their assemblies were made Sanctimonious by the Guru's presence in them. Therefore, all collective deliberations were conducted in a detached manner. Different view-points could be expressed but as they were bound by a solemn pledge of being united in the presence of the Guru, the resolutions were passed unanimously.'7

The councils of the Sarbat Khalsa meeting at Akal Takht had a variety of problems for their deliberations. It was there that the Sarbat Khalsa elected the Jathedar or the chief leader of the Dal Khalsa. They also chose agents who were entrusted with powers to negotiate with others on behalf of the Sikh community. By the Gunmata the Sikh Sardars also decided the foreign policy to be pursued by them. It was in the meetings at Akal Takht that the Sikhs drew up plans of military operations against the enemies of the community. They also took up the private feuds of the Sift chiefs at Akal Takht. Sometimes cases of disputed successions were brought up before the Diet for its verdict as ajudicial body. They also took measures for the spread of the Sikh faith and the management of the Gurdwaras. Throughout the 18th century, Akal Takht was the hub of the Sikh politics and it gave direction to the activities of the community through of Gurmatas passed there.

The assembly of the Sikh chiefs at Akal Takht could not be called the Central Government of the Sikh Misals. This assembly had no political jurisdiction or military sanction over the individual chiefs, nor was it necessary. Their attendance as not compulsory but the chiefs considered it obligatory to attend specially with a view to promoting their own interests. Although there existed no means to enforce an obedience to the Gurmata passed at Akal Takht yet there was never an occasion known to history when such a decision was flouted. The decisions taken in the presence of Guru Granth Sahib had behind them religious sanction which was greater in force than that of a military dictator. The Sifts obeyed the decisions of Akal Takht even at the cost of their lives. They believed that the decisions taken there had the spiritual sanction of the Guru.'8 The simple practice and moral authority of the Akal Takht were sufficient to preserve the Khalsa in the troublous times in the 18th century.

When the situation on all fronts eased, the Sikh chiefs became a little indifferent to attend the meetings of the Sarbat Khalsa at Akal Takht. Now their meetings were attended only by a few chiefs. But the absentees never meant any opposition to such meetings or any resistance to decisions taken there. Being busy in their internal affairs, the Sardars, sometimes,just could not attend. There were absolutely no such thing as intentional breaking away of the Sardars from Akal Takht with a calculated design to weaken this seat of authority. The real fact was that with the rise of Ranjit Singh as a sovereign ruler, the Punjab came to be consolidated and the foreign invaders ceased to endanger the country and the community. So during Ranjit Singh's period the rule of Akal Takht fell into disuse so far as political affairs were concerned. No body could be above the decisions taken at this place, not even the great Maharaja. Was the authority of Akal Takht so strong as to dictate terms to the Maharaja and subdue him whenever they felt like doing so or he just accepted the verdict of Akal Takht out of grace and humility ? The predominant opinion about it is that Ranjit Singh paid his homage to Akal Takht not simply as a force which he dould not afford to ignore of control but as the ultimate source of strength and stability to the state he was engaged to build.

Almost all the Muslim and English historians have failed to note the distinction between the respective functions of Harimandir and Akal Takht. They have always taken Akal Takht as a part of Harimandir or its annexe. Khushwaqat Rai has noticed the difference while writing about Jaswant Rao Holkar's visit to Amritsar. According to him, Holkar made an offering of a sum of rupees five hundred each to Harimandir and Akal Takht. He was given a saropa (robe of honour) at Harimandir and a sword at Akal Takht. This clearly indicates the characters of the two places lying opposite to each other. Harmandir had been set up exclusively for spiritual matters and Akal Takht primarily for secular matters.

In one of the rooms of the Akal Takht are preserved some of the weapons of the Gurus and their prominent warriors. The arms include the Mini and Pin swords of Guru Hargobind, a sword of Guru Gobind Singh, daggers of Sahibzada Ajit Singh and Sahibzada Jhujhar Singh, Bachittar Singh's sword (weighing ten kilos), the double­edged swords of Baba Deep Singh and Gurbakhsh Singh and Guru Gobind Singh's two gold-tipped arrows. The holy relics of Guru Gobind Singh brought from England-two spears, one sword and one shield-are also kept at Akal Takht and displayed on a beautifully decorated mount.

As in the past; so even today, Akal Takht is used as a venue for political and secular deliberations of the Sikh community. The sacrosanct character of the decisions taken there has remained unchanged over the centuries ever since its establishment by Guru Hargobind.

And as Jahangir's funds were refused to build the site so were the repairs to the Takhat by the state taken down and redone with the Help and service of the Sikhs thenselves after the debacle of 1984..