Nirmala(s) or Nirmal Akhada is a ascetic order, sect of celibates associated to the time of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, the tenth Guru of the Sikhs, that commanded particular strength in the 19th century. Nirmalas are the old order of Sikhs intellectuals. The Nirmalasa, like the Udasis, commanded considerable influence under the Sikh rulers of the Punjab, but unlike them they have been able to preserve at least a measure of that earlier respect.
By tradition the Nirmala order was founded by Guru Gobind Singh, who dispatched five Sikhs to learn Sanskrit. Their origins lie with the five Sikhs, Ganda Singh, Karam Singh, Sena Singh(or Saina Singh or Sobha Singh), Vir Singh and Ram Singh whom Guru Gobind Singh sent from Paunta Sahib to Benaras to learn Sanskrit in 1688.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji asked his court Pandit Ragunath to teach his Sikhs Sanskrit, but the pandit refused saying that Sanskrit was the sacred Hindu language that by tradition was only taught to the higher castes. People of the lowest caste, especially the so called untouchables were forbidden from ever reading the Vedas, in fact they were not allowed to enter Hindu temples, as they might hear the holy language of the Devtas. The Sikh Gurus however, saw all men as being equal. Since there were many Sikhs who had been born into the low castes, Pandit Ragunath refused to teach them.
So Guru Gobind Singh sent 5 Sikhs in the guise of Sadhus to Banares. There, they learned all manner of ancient Indian Sanskrit knowledge. Guru Gobind Singh gave them a duty to educate the illiterate Indian populace and promote the philosophy of oneness of Nirankar God and all mankind, amongst Hindu scholars regardless of caste or creed. These Sikhs are said to have worked diligently for several years and returned to Anandpur Sahib as accomplished scholars of classical Indian theology and philosophy. In view of their piety and their sophisticated manner, it is believed that they and their students came to be known as 'Nirmalas' the masters of Sanskrit who were the first intellectuals and scholars of Sikhism.
However this is thought to be highly improbable since there is scarcely any mention of them in the Sikh literature before the 19th century.
After the evacuation of Anandpur Sahib in 1705, it is believed that the Sikh preachers went to different places outside the Panjab, particularly to Haridvĝr, Allĝhĝbĝd and Vĝrĝṅasī where they established centres of learning that exist to this day—Kankhal, near Haridvĝr, Pakkī Saṅgat at Allĝhĝbĝd, and Chetan Maṭh and Chhoṭī Saṅgat at Vĝrĝṇasī. These Sikhs, who became known as "Nirmalas", became influenced by the Brĝhmanical (Hindu) teachings and worship as a consequence of them spending a lot of time and company amongst the Hindu Brĝhmans at Hindu educational centres across India. When, during the second half of the 18th century, the Sikhs established their sway over the Panjab, some of the Nirmala saints came back here and founded at different places centres which were liberally endowed by Sikh chiefs.
It was customary for Nirmala scholars to attend, along with their disciples, religious fairs at prominent pilgrimage centres such as Haridvĝr, Allĝhĝbĝd and Gayĝ, where they, like other sĝdhūs, took out shĝhīs or processions and held philosophical debates with scholars of other religious denominations as a part of their preaching activity. Sometimes these scholastic exercises led to bitter rivalry and even physical confrontation. During the Haridvĝr Kumbh in 1855, a general meeting of the Nirmalas held in their principal ḝerĝ at Kankhal took the first concrete step towards setting up a central body by electing Mehtab Singh of Rishīkesh, reputed scholar of the sect, as their Srī Mahant or principal priest. Mehtab Singh attracted attention of the rulers of Paṭiĝlĝ, Nabhĝ and Jīnd with whose help a pañchĝitī akhĝṛĝ named Dharam Dhujĝ was established at Paṭiĝlĝ in 1861. Its formal inauguration took place on 7 August 1862. The headquarters of the sect, however, remained at Kankhal. The sect comprises several sampradĝyas or sub-sects each with its own ḝerĝ and its own following.
Nirmala teachings incorporated Sikh teachings and doctrines within a largely Hindu/Vedantic framework. Nirmala Study any kind of spiritual knowledge book like Vedas, Puranas, katebs. Like the Udasis they were celibates, and did not believe in holding private funds. The Nirmalas, with the Udasis, form part of the Sanatan Sikh world-view and share many of its beliefs; along with belief in yogic/meditative and scriptural recitation and study. In addition to the Adi Granth, they rely on the Vedas, Shastras, Puranas and Epic literature. It is not surprising therefore that their Sanatan position does pitch them against the so-called Tat Khalsa which some sikhs classify as fanatic version of Sikhism.
The Nirmalas believe in the Ten Sikh Gurus and Guru Granth Sahib Ji. However, due to being influenced by Brahmanical ideology and teaching over years of mixing with Brahmans, the majority of present-day "Nirmalas" do not consider it compulsory nor common among them to receive Amrit i.e. Khaṇḝe dī Pĝhul. Any individual that does not believe in the importance of taking Amrit or in wearing the 5 K's cannot be considered as a Sikh in accordance to the Sikh Rehat Maryada.
Nirmala Scholars easily integrated with the scholars of other religions and philosophies. Nirmalas see themselves as true Sanatan 'Sam Vadi' (egalitarians) as opposed to 'Katar Vadi' (religious fanatics).
At first Nirmalas wore only white garments but later adopted the ochre robes worn by Hindu ascetics, which is now a distinguishing mark of the sect, and shared some other practices, such as birth and death rites, with Hindus. They generally practise celibacy and are devoted to scriptural and philosophical study, but by tradition they are inclined towards classical Hindu Vedic philosophy.
They wore saffron robes (symbolising saintliness and renunciation), and all were Keshdharis (Uncut hair). They established sacred shrines in northern India to preach their version of Gurbani. In the early days of their development, they did not generally settle at one place and continued to move from place to place preaching their philosophy.
The number of establishments expanded rapidly from the late 18th century to the mid 19th century. In the 1891 census 2,828 Hindus and 1,952 Sikhs returned themselves as 'Nirmalas'.(Census of India, 1891, Vol.XX, The Punjab and its Feudatories, by E.D. Maclagan, Part II and III, Calcutta, 1892, pp.826-9 and pp.572-3.) However, there are no official, contemporary numbers, (see also the note at the end of the Explanatory Introduction).
The Nirmalas have been particularly focused in the Malwa region in the 19th century. This was due to state patronage of the Sikh Rulers of Patiala, Jind and Nabha. However their principle centre, other than Patiala, is at Hardwar, though they do have sizeable centres at Amritsar, Prayag, Ujjain, Triambak and Kurukshetra.
More About Nirmalas
Their historic contribution towards the preaching of Sikh doctrine and production of philosophical literature in Sanskrit, Braj, Hindi and Punjabi is considerable. Some of the important works that contributed to Sikh learning in general and the elucidation and regeneration of Sikh principles in particular are as follows: Saṇgam Sĝr Chandrikĝ by Paṇḝit Saddĝ Siṅgh of Chetan Maṭh, Vĝrĝṇasī, is commentary on a Sanskrit work on Advait philosophy, Advait Siddhi; Paṇḝit Tĝrĝ Siṅgh Narotam (1822-91) wrote several books of which Gurmat Nirṇaya Sĝgar (1877) and Guru Girĝrath Kosh in two volumes (1889) deal with philosophy of Sikh religion. His Srī Guru Tīrath Saṅgrahi is a pioneer work on historical Sikh shrines in and outside India. Another famous Nirmalĝ scholar Paṇḝit Sĝdhū Siṅgh wrote Shrī Mukh Vĝkya Sidhĝnt Jyotī and Gurū Sikhyĝ Prabhĝkar (1893). Giĝnī Giĝn Siṅgh (1822-1921) is known for his contribution to Sikh history. His Panth Prakĝsh in verse appeared in 1880 and Twĝrīkh Gurū Khĝlsĝ in prose in 1891. However, the Nirmalĝs also contributed to heavy Brĝhmanical influenced interpretations of Sikh scriptures and Sikh history. They also introduced Brĝhman rituals into the Sikh Gurdwĝrĝs during the time the Khĝlsĝ were considered fugitives by the state and lived in the jungles up until the Singh Sabhĝ movement.
Today they form a well respected and highly disciplined organisation with many establishments. As a legitimate part of Sikh History they are accepted as a part of the Sikh Panth, more so than the Udasis. However, any individual or group that does not believe in Khaṇḝe di Pahul, maintaining Kesh, wearing the 5 Kakkaars blessed by Guru Gobind Singh Ji, and believe in the superiority of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.
It is claimed by some historians that non-Khalsa Sikhs were given the role in propagating the Guru’s religion and in the management of Gurdwaras during that period. Furthermore, it is claimed that Guru Gobind Singh Ji sent some Sikhs (who became known as 'Nirmalas') to the Hindu holy city of Kashi to learn Sanskrit and to establish a Sikh University in Punjab for the purpose of training scholars on Gurmat. This group of Sikhs in turn trained many scholars of Sikh theology, who are well recognized in the Sikh history. It is claimed that among those were included some great Amritdhari Sikhs such as Gyani Gian Singh and Bhai Santokh Singh.
How did Guru Gobind Singh Ji’s predecessors manage to preach Gurmat without finding the need to educate Sikhs educated in Sanskrit at Kashi? It is amazing how Sikh scholars who on the one hand proclaim loudly that our Gurus enlightened the people with their liberating philosophy in the language of the masses, and on the other insist that Sanskrit education is needed to understand this philosophy. Claims by such historians flies in the face of evidence that Sikh Gurus rejected the moral authority of Hindu scriptures and the essentials of Hinduism. The writings of Giani Gian Singh and Bhai Santokh Singh contain many stories and interpretations that contradict the fundamental teachings of Guru Granth Sahib Ji.
Besides, it is a myth that Guru Gobind Singh Ji sent some Sikhs in disguise to Kashi to learn Sanskrit from the Brahmans. Nirmalas (holy man) claim that Sikhs, who were sent in disguise by Guru Gobind Singh Ji to Kashi to learn Sanskrit from Brahmans, founded their organization. It is more likely that Brahmins, who had (have) no moral revulsion about ascribing immoral acts to their own gods and goddesses, made up this story.
Furthermore, it seems reasonable to believe that Brahmins started this organization in Sikh disguise. The story of Nirmalas is full of holes. There is no evidence that Guru Gobind Singh’s predecessors sent Sikhs anywhere to learn Sanskrit. What was the need for learning Sanskrit during the time of Guru Gobind Singh Ji?
If for the sake of argument, we believe that Guru Gobind Singh Ji wanted Sikhs to learn Sanskrit to study ancient Indian literature, where did Guru Gobind Singh Ji, Guru Nanak Ji or Guru Arjan Ji go to learn Sanskrit? Did they go to Kashi? It is quite possible that some medium for learning Sanskrit was available in Punjab so the need for Sikhs to go to Kashi to study Sanskrit does not arise.
Guru Gobind Singh Ji had many scholars and poets with him at Anandpur Sahib; couldn’t he hire few Sanskrit teachers? Were the scholars, who translated Sanskrit texts into Braj Bhasa, not competent enough to teach Sanskrit? Let us suppose further that Guru did send some Sikhs to Kashi. What were their names and where did they come from? Is there any biographical information available about them? What did those Sikhs do with their knowledge of Sanskrit? Did they teach Sanskrit to Sikhs or translated Gurbani into Sanskrit? Moreover, Nirmala / Mahant organization (Akhara) was started under the patronage of feudal lords, the Rajas of Patiala, Nabha and Jind in 1918. There is no surprise in it! Throughout history rulers have used clergy to keep their subjects ignorant so that they could exploit them without any resistance and public outcry. Brahmins used to elevate their rulers to the status of god, for example, Sri Ram Chander Ji and Sri Krishan Ji were rulers.
Brahmins even regarded Mulim rulers as God incarnate. Christian clergy used to confer divine rights on their kings and the Muslim clergy did the same for their rulers. The Sikh feudal lords used the Nirmalas to keep their people ignorant for easy exploitation. No wonder the Sikhs under the British rule were more educated and better off than under the rule of Sikh Rajas. Nirmalas / Mahants used to frighten people not only with their curses but also had the legal power to impose fine on Sikhs for refusing to comply with the request of the mahant (clause 17 of the charter).
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