Tankhaiya means Punishment/chastisement/guilty of religious misconduct given by Supreme Body of religion.
Article XXV - Method of Imposing Chastisement
a. Any Sikh who has committed any default in the observance of the Sikh discipline should approach the nearby Sikh congregation and make a confession of his lapse standing before the congregation.
b. The congregation should then, in the holy presence of Guru Granth Sahib, elect from among themselves five beloved ones who should ponder over the suppliant’s fault and propose the chastisement (punishment) for it.
c. The congregation should not take an obdurate stand in granting pardon. Nor should the defaulter argue about the chastisement. The punishment that is imposed should be some kind of service, especially some service that can be performed with hands.
d. And finally an Ardas for correction should be performed.
Article XXIV - Ceremony of Baptism or Initiation
e. Anyone seeking to be re-baptized, having committed an aberration should be singled out and the five beloved ones should award chastisement to him/her in the presence of the congregation.
In the event of the commission of any of these transgressions, the transgressor must get rebaptised. If a transgression is committed unintentionally and unknowingly, the transgressor shall not be liable to punishment. You must not associate with a Sikh who had uncut hair earlier and has cut it or a Sikh who smokes. You must ever be ready for the service of the Panth and of the gurduwaras (Sikh places of worship). You must tender one tenth of your earnings to the Guru. In short, you must act the Guru’s way in all spheres of activity.
You must remain fully aligned to the Khalsa brotherhood in accordance with the principles of the Khalsa faith. If you commit transgressionof the Khalsa discipline, you must present yourself before the congregation and beg pardon, accepting whatever punishment is awarded. You must also resolve to remain watchful against defaults in the future.
q. The following individuals shall be liable to chastisement involving automatic boycott:
- Anyone maintaining relations or communion with elements antagonistic to the Panth including the
minas (reprobates), the masands (agents once accredited to local Sikh communities as Guru’s representatives, sine discredited for their faults and aberrations), followers of Dhirmal or Ram Rai, etc. users of tobacco or killers of female infants.
- One who eats/drinks leftovers of the unbaptised or the fallen Sikhs
- One who dyes his beard
- One who gives off son or daughter in matrimony for a price or reward
- Users of intoxicant (hemp, opium, liquor, narcotics, cocaine, etc.)
- One holding, or being a party to, ceremonies or practices contrary to the Guru’s way
- One who defaults in the maintenance of Sikh discipline
Article V - Joining the Congregation for understanding of and reflecting on Gurbani
q. Only an Amritdhari (baptized) Sikh man or woman, who faithfully observes the discipline ordained for the baptized Sikhs, can enter the hallowed enclosures of the takhts. (Ardas for and on behalf of any Sikh or non-Sikh, except a fallen or punished (tankhahia) Sikh, can be offered at the takhts.
Notable who got Tankhiya
- Maharaja Ranjit Singh - was declared tankhya when he married a muslim, and was punished in Akaal Takht for this mistake.
- Gurmukh Singh
- Teja Singh Bhassaur - For challenging bhagat bani.
- Professors Pashaura Singh
- Piar Singh
- Buta Singh
- Surjeet Singh Barnala,
- Giani Zail Singh
- Gurbaksh Singh Kala Afghana - For challenging dasam banis, amrit pratha etc.
- Prof. Darshan Singh - For avoiding summons and to speak Wrong meanings of a Charitar of Dasam Granth.