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The Qur'ĝn, literally "the recitation"; also called Quran, Koran, and Al-Quran), is the central religious text of Islam. Muslims believe the Qur'an, in its original Arabic, to be the literal word of Islamic God that was revealed to Prophet Muhammad over a period of twenty-three years until his death, and Muslim's believe it to be God's final revelation to humanity.

The Qur'anic verses were originally memorised by Muhammad's companions as Muhammad spoke them, with some being written down by one or more companions on whatever was at hand, from stones to pieces of bark. Compilations of the Qur'an began under the Caliph Umar, but it was Uthman who decided upon a definitive copy and destroyed all other versions that had resulted from the differences of pronunciation of the words.