Sikh prosody

From SikhiWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

ਜਲਦ ਨਿਰਸ ਫੀਕੋ, ਕੰਜ ਬਿਨ ਤਾਲ ਫੀਕੋ,
    ਮਧੁਪ ਕੇ ਲੇਖੇ ਫੂਲ ਫੀਕੋ ਮਕਰੰਦ ਬਿਨ,

ਮਿਤ੍ਰ ਬਿਨ ਪ੍ਰੇਮ ਫੀਕੋ, ਨੇਮ ਭਾਵ ਹੀਨ ਫੀਕੋ,
    ਗ੍ਰਹਿ ਅਤਿ ਫੀਕੋ ਬਿਨ ਹੇਮ ਅਰੁ ਨੰਦ ਬਿਨ,

ਦਾਨ ਬਿਨ ਮਾਨ ਫੀਕੋ, ਗਾਨ ਬਿਨ ਤਾਨ ਫੀਕੋ,
    ਵ੍ਯਾਖ੍ਯਾ ਬਿਨ ਅਮਲ ਔ ਰੈਨ ਸੈਨ ਚੰਨ ਬਿਨ,

ਨ੍ਯਾਯ ਬਿਨ ਰਾਜ, ਕਵਿ ਬਿਨ ਹੈ ਸਮਾਜ ਫੀਕੋ,
    ਤ੍ਯੇਂ ਹਰਿ ਵ੍ਰਿਜੇਸ਼ ਪਾਠ ਫੀਕੋ ਗ੍ਯਾਨ ਛੰਦ ਬਿਨ.

English translation of last two lines : nation without justice, society without poetry is dull, similarly without proper knowledge of prosody a perfect lesson can be dull.

These lines tell how important knowledge of prosody is to write a prose. So, prosody(ਪਿੰਗਲ) is the grammar of poetry. Pingal(ਪਿੰਗਲ) was a great Sanskrit Scholar. He was author of chand shastra(ਛੰਦ-ਸ਼ਾਸਤਰ) which is the earliest treatise on Sanskrit prosody. Sometimes Pingal(ਪਿੰਗਲ) is used to denote prosody(ਛੰਦ-ਸ਼ਾਸਤਰ).

Poetry

ਵ੍ਯਾਕਰਣ ਅਰੁ ਪਿੰਗਲ ਸ਼ਾਸਤ੍ਰ ਦੇ ਨਿਯਮਾਨੁਸਾਰ ਜੋ ਅਲੰਕਾਰ ਸਹਿਤ ਰਸਭਰੀ ਵਰਣ-ਰਚਨਾ ਹੋਵੇ, ਉਸ ਦੀ ਕਾਵਯ ਸੰਗ੍ਯਾ ਹੈ ਜਿਸ ਦੇ ਦੋ ਭੇਦ ਹੈਨ, ਗਦ੍ਯ ਅਤੇ ਪਦ੍ਯ, ਅਰਥਾਤ ਵਾਰਤੀਕ ਅਤੇ ਛੰਦ.

Poetry is a literary art which is created according to rules of Grammar and Pingal Shastra(ਛੰਦ-ਸ਼ਾਸਤਰ) along with figure of speech(ਅਲੰਕਾਰ) in words to evoke emotions, it has two parts prose and metre.

Elements

Varan

In poetry, Words are made from units called syllables which are made of consonant(ਅਖਰ) and vowel(ਲਗਾਂ) combination. Syllables(ਅਖਰ) are called varan(ਵਰਣ). In writing consonants produce only their sound. In punjabi their are 10 vowels(ਲਗਾਂ) that are used with consonants, they produce different sounds accordingly. Some of them take less time to produce and some to more. The shorter once are called laghu(ਲਘੂ) and the longer once are called guru(ਗੁਰੂ). For example 'ਡਰ', 'ਜਿਸ', 'ਉਸ' syllable are laghu(ਲਘੂ) where as 'ਵਡਾ', 'ਵੀਰਾ', 'ਗੋਰਾ', 'ਮੂਲੀ' words have guru(ਗੁਰੂ) syllable.

Matra

Matra(ਮਾਤਰਾ) is denoted as the time time taken to pronounce a syllabe. Laghu(ਲਘੂ) syllable is given one unit, where as guru(ਗੁਰੂ) syllable is given two unit.
Mukta(ਮੁਕਤਾ), Sehari(ੀ), Aunkad(ੁ), Conjuncts(which comes in foot of consonant) are laghu (ਲਘੂ ਲਗਾਂ), where as Kana(ਾ), Bihari(ੀ), Dolainkad(ੂ), Lanawa(ੇ), Dolanwa(ੈ), Hoda(ੋ), Kanoda (ੌ), Tipi( ੰ), Adak( ੱ) are guru(ਗੁਰੂ ਲਗਾਂ).
'|' and 'S' symbols are used for laghu and guru respectively.

Gan

Gan(ਗਣ) is a term used for group of varan(ਵਰਣ) or matra(ਮਾਤਰਾ). Pingal used these gan's(ਗਣ) to describe meters.

For example:
ਨਮੋ ਜੋਗ ਜੋਗੇ ॥
ਨਮੋ ਭੋਗ ਭੋਗੇ ॥

Here in this pada of chand in each tuk in their is pattern of laghu and guru tat is called gan

ਨਮੋ ਜੋਗ ਜੋਗੇ ॥

|S S| SS

ਨਮੋ ਭੋਗ ਭੋਗੇ ॥
|S S| SS

These group can range from doublets of syllables to trideca in case of matarik gan(ਮਾਤ੍ਰਿਕ ਗਣ)

Varanic Gan

according to Pingal, varnic gan(ਵਰਣਿਕ ਗਣ)it is group of three syllables. In this only pattern of short and long syllables are employed.
These are:

Serial no. Name Pattern Example
1 ਮਗਣ GGG ਬਾਬਾ ਜੀ
2 ਨਗਣ LLL ਅਮਰ
3 ਯਗਣ LGG ਅਨਾਦੀ
4 ਤਗਣ GGL ਆਨੰਦ
5 ਰਗਣ GLG ਸਾਦਨਾ
6 ਜਗਣ LGL ਅਨੰਤ
7 ਭਗਣ GLL ਨਾਨਕ
8 ਸਗਣ LLG ਗੁਰੁ ਜੀ

Where L and G denotes laghu and guru respectively.
To remember this table a mnemonic is used which is

ਯਮਾਤਾ ਰਾਜ ਭਾਨ ਸਗਲਾ

The line tells both name and pattern in gan for eg: first letter is ਯ by adding ਗਣ we get ਯਗਣ and next two letters tell the i.e GGG

Matarik Gan

In matarik gan(ਮਾਤ੍ਰਿਕ ਗਣ), stress and timing of group of syllables is concerned.The number of units given to syllables vary from 2 to 6.
These are:

UNITS 2 3 4 5 6
TYPES ਟਗਣ ਠਗਣ ਡਗਣ ਢਗਣ ਣਗਣ
1 GGG GGL LLLL GL G
2 LLGG LLGL GG LG LL
3 LGLG LGG GLL LLL
4 GLLG GLG LLG
5 LLLLG LLLG
6 LGGL LGLL
7 GLGL LLLLL
8 LLLGL GLLL
9 GGLL
10 LLGLL
11 GLLLL
12 LLLLLL
13 GGG

Where L and G are laghu and guru.

Some Jargons

These are:

  1. Tuk(ਤੁਕ) or Charan(ਚਰਨ): One line of Chand.
  2. Gat(ਗਤਿ): It's flow of poetry.
  3. Yat(ਯਤਿ): It is the pauses in the poetry.
  4. Tukang(ਤੁਕਾਂਗ): It is part of the Tuk(ਤੁਕ).
  5. Tukant(ਤੁਕਾਂਤ): It is end word of poetry line which has rhythm.

Meter

The poetry which has morae(ਮਾਤਰਾ),syllable(ਗਣ),pause(ਵਿਸ਼ਰਾਮ)and alliteration(ਅਨੁਪ੍ਰਾਸ) etc ruled accordingly , is meter(ਛੰਦ).
It is similar to raag's(ਰਾਗ) which evolve with time.It's main part are syllable(ਗਣ) and morae(ਮਾਤਰਾ).

Types

  1. Quantitative verse(ਮਾਤਰਿਕ ਛੰਦ): In this verse, meter depends upon the duration which is measured by morae (ਮਾਤਰਾ). For eg. Doha, Chaupai etc.
  2. Syllabic verse(ਵਰਣ ਛੰਦ): In this verse, only no. of syllables are to be considered as part of criterion. eg. Kabit, Karora etc.
  3. Syllabic-quantitative verse(ਗਣ ਛੰਦ): In this verse, meter depends upon pattern of short and long syllables. eg. Bujang Paryat etc.
  4. Combined verse(ਮਿਸ਼੍ਰਿਤ ਛੰਦ): It is the mixed form all above verses. eg. Ugatha, Shoban etc.

External Link

  • [1] Learn more about Prosody.
  • [2] For more on dasam granth Chand.

References

  • Gurchand Divakar, Bhai Kahan Singh Nabha.