Sikh History October

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October 1

  • 1778 The mosque that was constructed on site of Bangla Sahib Gurdwara was removed by the Sikhs under the leadership of Sardar Baghel Singh.
  • 1873 Inaugural meeting of Sri Guru Singh Sabha was held at Manji Sahib, Amritsar. -Ref. "The Sikhs in History" by Sangat Singh, 1995
  • 1961 Master Tara Singh broke his fast that started on Aug. 15, 1961 to protest against the discriminatory attitude of the government of India in not forming a Punjabi Speaking State demanded by the Sikhs. Prime Ministers offer to appoint a commission of inquiry to look into the matter, prevailed upon Master Tara Singh to break his fast. Soon thereafter, Government of India issued a notification which read: "Various charges have been made about discrimination against the Sikhs in Punjab. This has culminated in Master Tara Singh, a veteran Akali leader, taking the extreme step of fast unto death. The Government is strongly of the opinion that in a democratic set up, such an extreme step is neither called for nor justified and therefore, the fast should be terminated immediately, however, in the present context of doubt and suspicion the Government has given thought to this matter and considered it advisable in accordance with the announcement made by the Prime Minister in the Parliament to appoint a Commission. This Commission may go into the general question of discrimination, and examine any charges of differential treatment or grievances of the Sikhs. The appointment of the Commission would naturally take some time, but propose to do so as early as possible." This official notification clearly recognizes Sikhs as a district political group. -Source. "History of Sikh Struggles, Vol. 1, By Gurmit Singh, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1989. Page 51

October 2

1926 The first meeting of General Members of SGPC held under guidance of Gurdwara Act of 1925, was held to elect their office bearers. It was at this meeting the name Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC) was approved through a resolution and adopted unanimously. Baba Kharak Singh elected President and Master Tara Singh became Vice President.

1986 Karmjit Singh Sunam was arrested for attacking Rajiv Gandhi at Raj Ghat in presence of the full diplomatic core.

October 3

No events available.


October 4

1708 Guru Gobind Singh appointed Baba Gurbaksh Singh (Banda Bahadur) as the Jathedar of the Panth and attached to him five leading Sikhs Bawa Binod Singh, Kahan Singh, Bhagwant Singh, Koer Singh, and Baz Singh These Sikhs were to provide the corporate leadership to the Khalsa. The Guru handed him a seal, five arrows from his quiver and the Nishan sahib, flag pole. Baba Gurbaksh Singh accompanied by about 25 Sikhs left for the Punjab on this day, to punish the Subedar of Sirhind, and uproot the oppressive Mughal rule.

1708 Guru Gobind Singh stabbed by Jamshed Khan, a hired assassin. Evening of the day when Baba Gurbaksh Singh left for Punjab, Guru Gobind Singh was visited by two Pathans. One of them was commissioned by Wazir Khan, Subedar of Sirhind. to assassinate Guru Gobind Singh. Wazir Khan was afraid of the ongoing talks between the Guru and Emporer Bahadhur Shah who had ordered Wazir Kahn to pay Guru Gobind Singh a sum of Rupees 300/day. One of the Pathans, Bashal Beg kept a vigil outside the Guru's tent while Jamshed Khan, the hired assassin stabbed the Guru twice. He was killed in one stroke by the Guru himself, while the guards outside killed the other. The wound was sewn up the following day, by an English Surgeon, named Cole.

1930 Bhai Sahib Randhir Singh released from imprisonment. He was arrested on May 9, 1915 for participating in an unsuccessful attempt to attack Ferozepur Fort on November 27, 1914. "Babbar Akali Movement, A Historical Survey," by Gurcharan Singh, Aman Publications, 1993.


October 5

1708 SPIRITUAL guruship passed to Sri Guru Adi Granth while CORPORATE guruship transferred to Guru Khalsa Panth. Mata Sahib Devan was given the title of being the "MOTHER OF KHALSA”. -Ref. "The Sikhs in History," by Sangat Singh, 1995

1983 6 Hindu passengers murdered near Dhilwa. As a result the Punjab government was suspended and President's direct rule imposed over the State.


October 6

1506 Janam Utsav(Birthday), Baba Buddha Ji.born at Kathunangal, Amritsar.

1840 Davender Singh, son of Jasvant Singh became the King of Nabha.

1920 The control of Babe Ki Baer at Sialkot passed over to SGPC. This was the first Gurudwara to be liberated after Khalsa Sewak Jatha of local Sikhs, despite hurdles, started performing daily services at the Gurudwara and restarted Guru Ka Langar. C.M. King, the commissioner of Lahore Division, approved the Committee of 13 persons under Baba Kharak Singh to control and manage the Gurdwara.

1922 Babbars appealed, through their "Babbar Akali Doaba" newspaper, to Sikhs in British forces to join the Babbar ranks.

1963 Baba Khadak Singh, leading Panth luminary, passed away.


October 7

1506 Janam Utsav(Birthday), Baba Buddha Ji.born at Kathunangal, Amritsar.

1661 JYOTI JOT, Patshahi Seventh, Guru Har Rai Ji.

1661 GUR GADDI, Patshahi eighth, Guru Har Krishan Ji.

1840 Davender Singh, son of Jasvant Singh became the King of Nabha.

1920 The control of Babe Ki Baer at Sialkot passed over to SGPC. This was the first Gurudwara to be liberated after Khalsa Sewak Jatha of local Sikhs, despite hurdles, started performing daily services at the Gurudwara and restarted Guru Ka Langar. C.M. King, the commissioner of Lahore Division, approved the Committee of 13 persons under Baba Kharak Singh to control and manage the Gurdwara.

1922 Babbars appealed, through their "Babbar Akali Doaba" newspaper, to Sikhs in British forces to join the Babbar ranks.

1963 Baba Khadak Singh, leading Panth luminary, passed away.


October 8

1745 Bhai Taru Singh's scalp was removed by orders of Nawab Zakaria Khan.

1839 Maharaja Khadak Singh was dethroned by Dogras and Maharaja's chief advisor, Sardar Chaet Singh Bajwa was murdered. This event took place barely three months after the demise of Ranjit Singh and marked the beginning of a long drawn tragedy of intrigues and murders of royal princes and high officials.

1968 Master and Sant Akali Dal merged into Shiromani Akali Dal and redefined the political goals of the Sikhs in the context of present day India. Their reaffirmation of Guru Gobind Singh's litenay "Raj Karega Khalsa," published in the official organ of SGPC reads as: "The political objective of the Panth, well grounded in the commandments of Guru Gobind Singh and concretely shaped by the Sikh History, is world-famous and well known.Explaining this S. Kapur Singh, Ex. ICS who had drafted the document, said: "In this statement, a new interpretation has been given to the divinely fixed goal of the Khalsa Panth and that interpretation has been accepted by the Shiromani Akali Dal, the essence of which is that the Sikhs are sui generis, a free and sovereign people and this right is inalienable of this status of the Sikh people is possible withinthe sovereign and territorial integrity of India, India being the matrix of clan which vivifies the political aspirations of the Sikh people." Mr. Kapur Singh went on to propound that in such countries as the USSR and the USA there were many nations brought together in one free, sovereign counrty and in the Constitution of India it should be possible to reconcile teh sui generis status of the Sikhs within a seovereign, united India. It cannot be beyond the ingenuity of the political thinkers and constitutional experts to devise a framework in which this sui generis right of the Sikh people as well as the integrity of the country and the indivisibility of the nation is reconciled. -Source. "History of Sikh Struggles, Vol. 1," By Gurmit Singh, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1989. Page 53-54.



October 9

1664 Sikh masses rediscovered their Ninth Guru with the help of Makhan Shah.

1839 Barely three months after Ranjit Singh's death, the conspirators forced their entry into the Lahore fort, after killing the guards and whoever chose to come their way. Dogra Dhian Singh plunged his dagger twice into the heart of Chet Singh Bajwa disregarding his pathetic appeals and that of Kharak Singh who was taken into custody and confined to his palace. That was the first step in the ascendancy of Dogra Dhian Singh who virtually emerged as the King-maker, and firmed up his grip over the Darbar.

1955 The Hindu members of the States Organization Comission, rejected the demand of Punjabi speaking state. The Third member, a non-Hindu favored it.

1960 Sikh prisoners, who refused to sign apology papers, were fired upon in Bathinda jail. 4 Sikhs were killed and several others were injured.

1992 Sukhdev Singh "Sukha" and Harjinder Singh "Jinda" were hanged until death in Puna Jail. On Aug. 10th, 1985, they gunned down General Vadiaya after his retirement from the Indian army. General Vadiya was the Chief of the Indian Army who ordered the attack on the holiest of the holy shrines at Amritsar and elsewhere in Punjab during 1984 operations.


October 10

  • 1946 Ishar Singh Mahjaiol moved a resolution, in the Indian house, for the creation of a Sikh State. The resolution was seconded by Sardar Swaran Singh.
  • 1947 The newly formed Indian Government declared Sikhs as criminals. The Governor of Punjab, Chandu Lal Trivedi, issued a circular which was sent to all district magistrates in the State. The circular reads: "Sikhs as a community are a lawless people and are a menace to the law abiding Hindus in the province. Deputy Commissioners should take special measures against them." Interesting the circular recognises Sikhs as a distinct group. -Source. "History of Sikh Struggles, Vol. 1," By Gurmit Singh, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1989. Page 51.
  • 1982 A National Protest was conducted by the UK Sikhs. The procession headed by Sant Baba Puran Singh Ji started from Hyde Park and ended at 10, Downing Street where a petition signed by more than 75000 people protesting against the ruling of Lord Denning was presented to the British Prime Minster. In July 1982, British Appeal Court headed by Lord Denning gave the ruling that "Sikhs are not protected by the Race Relations Act as Sikhs are not a racial group but a distict religious community." The case concerned Park Grove, a private boy's school in Edgbaston. Mr. Mandla, a devout Sikh and a Birmingham solicitor, applied to send his son there but wanted him to wear the Sikh turban as well as the school uniform. The school declared that it had nothing against Sikhs as such but would not allow them to wear turbans or leave their hair uncut. Mr. Mandla took his son elsewhere, but Commission for Racial Equality brought an action against the school and its headmaster. Birmingham Country Court judge on Dec. 10, 1980 held that the Park Grove Private School, Bristol Road, Birmingham was not guilty of racial discrimination under the Race Relations Act 1976. The appellate court dismissed with costs the appeal against that order. Lord Denning in his judgement observed "under the Act, it is perfectly lawful to discriminate against groups of people so long as it is not on racial grounds. You can discriminate against the Moonies or Skinheads or any other person to whom you take objection, no matter whether your objection is reasonable or unreasonable." The judgemenmt caused acute resentment amongst the Sikhs who felt their comparison with Moonies and Skinheads are both insensitive and insulting. -Source. "History of Sikh Struggles, Vol. 1," By Gurmit Singh, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1989. Page 69-70.

October 11

1710 Khalsa army fought a pitched battle and captured Rahon. Shamas Khan, the sub-Governor of the Jullandhar-Doab zone declared jehad against the Sikhs to check their rapid advances. As a result a pitched battle was founght. Under the cover of darkness the Sikhs retreated. Shamas Khan claimed it as a victory and left the battlefield. After his departure, the Sikhs captured Rahon.

1711 Keso Singh and six other Bhat's were buried alive, under orders of Emperor Bahadhur Shah. The other six were: Desaa Singh* (brother) Hari Singh* (brother) Narbadh Singh* (son) Tara Singh Sevaa Singh Deva Singh Keso Singh Bhatt was son of Boh-th, grandson of Keeratt, and great-grandson of Bhikkha Bhat who converted to Sikhism and his bani is present in the holy Guru Granth Sahib . They were three brothers, namely Keso Singh, Desaa Singh, and Hari Singh.

1770 The combined forces of Sikh Misls crossed the Jamuna and attacked Gangetic Doab to punish the muslim Nawabs for atrocities against their own people.

1988 Chaman Lal, the Inspector General of BSF (Border Security Force), resigned to protest the collusion of the State with Jasbir Singh Rode.


October 12

1920 So called Low Caste Sikhs were denied entry into Harimander Sahib. The newly baptised "low caste Sikhs", at the annual session of Khalsa Bradari, were taken to the Golden Temple accompanied by reformers. This was a direct challenge to the Mahants. The priets of Sri Harimander Sahib refused to accept Karah prasad from them or offer prayers for them. However, the reformers insisted on the right of every Sikh to do that. After theological discussions, Sri Guru Garnth Sahib was consulted. The Granthi amongst the objectors, read out third Guru's hymn, "Brother, He showers grace even on those who have no merit and takes from them true Guru's service. By touch of Philosopher's stone, i.e., base metal has become gold ... Our light has blended with His light, and we have become one with Him." The priets, visibly affected offered prayers and accepted prasad from the hands of the newly converted Sikhs. When the whole party went to Sri Akal Takhat, the priests there fled leaving the Guru Granth Sahib unattended. Bhai Kartar Singh Jhabbar and Teja Singh of Bhucher appointed a committee of 25 Sikhs for the management of Sri Akal Takhat. Thus the pujaris ousted themsleves. They did not return even when called by Sunder Singh Ramgarhia, the new Sarbrah. They were accused of sacrilege. The following day, the Deputy Commissioner constituted a provisional committee of nine, all reformers, including Prof. Teja Singh, Bawa Harkrishan Singh, Teja Singh Bhuchar, Kartar Singh Jhabbar and others with Sunder Singh Ramgarhia, as its head to manage the two shrines. Teja Singh Bhuchar was appointed the Jathedar of Sri Akal Takhat. There was no plan for the struggle that so miraculously developed into the Gurudwara Reform Movement.

1920 Sri Akal Takhat came under Panthic control of Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee. Bhai Teja Singh of Bhuchar made a suddden swoop on the Akal Takhat and took possesion of the shrine.

1923 Babbar Dalipa of Dhamian arrested at Mian Channun, District Montgomery.

1923 Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee (SGPC) and Shiromani Akali Dal were declared unlawful bodies. The government took, with serious concern, the political demand for restoration of the Maharaja of Nabha who was forcibly deposed on July 8, 1923. On this demand, the government brooked no compromise. The goverment was concious that all, other issues behind jaito agitation were religious in nature and had stirred deep feelings among the community. As such, it has permitted the Jathas to move unhindered in the British teritory and wanted to deal with them in Nabha state territory. The Jathas, once in Nabha, were told to give an undertaking that they will not indulge in political activity; i,e., ask for the restoration of Maharaja etc etc. A policy of repression was institiated. Both organizations were declared unlawful and 50 members of the SGPC were arrested and charged with conspiracy to wage war against Government. -Source "The Sikhs in History," by Sangat Singh, 1995.

1982 A Sikh procession carrying the ashes of the 34 Sikhs, killed on September 11, 1982 was fired upon by the police near the Indian Parliament House. Four Sikhs were killed including a saint, Jang Singh. The police also fired inside the Gurdwara. An Indian daily newspaper "Indian Express" published the photograph of police aiming their rifles towards the Gurdwara Rakab Ganj and in the picture, Sikhs could be seen very, very far away from the scene. -Ref. THE SIKHS' STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, An Historical Perspective By Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer and Dr. Awatar Singh Sekhon. Edited By: A.T. Kerr Page 110-119.

1996 Sri Singh Sahib, Ranjit Singh, Jathedar Sri Akal Takhat, was released after 13 years of jail. He was accused of killing the Nirankari Chief in Delhi in 1980.


October 13

1973 Sardar Kapur Singh bestowed the honor, "National Professor of Sikhism" by Sri Akal Takhat.

1979 President of Pakistan confers certain rights on Sikhs as a distict entity, by signing a historical document on the occasion of official visit to Pakistan by an International Sikh Delegation. -Source. "History of Sikh Struggles, Vol. 1," By Gurmit Singh, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, 1989. Page 52.


October 14

1664 Guru Tegh Bahadur took formal possession of Guru's property.

1745 Sarbat Khalsa met at Sri Akal Takhat Sahib, Amritsar. Dal Khalsa was organized and distributed into 25 Jathas.

1981 Giani Zail Singh the President of India declares the innocence of Bhindrawale.

1983 Four Sikhs martyred in fake police encounters at Khadur Sahib.


October 15

1708 Bhog ceremony for Guru Gobind Singh.

1981 Jarnail Singh Bhindranwalae released unconditionally.


October 16

1670 Birth anniversary Baba Gurbaksh Singh (Banda Bahadur).

1814 Diwan Mohkam Chand, of Maharaja Ranjjit Singh's darbar passed away.

1955 All Party Convention at Amritsar demanded Punjabi Suba.

1981 Negotiations among Akali Dal and Indian Central Government were initiated.


October 17

1605 Mughal emporer, Akbar, died in Agra.

1762 Sikhs pray at Akal Takhat before attacking and successfully defeating Ahmad Shah.

1954 Gyani Amir Singh of Gurbani Exposition School, passed away.

1973 Akali Dal Executive passed the Anandpur Sahib resolution asking for autonomy for the Sikh nation.

1977 The reconstruction work for "Guru-Kae-Mehal," Amritsar was initiated.

October 18

1982 All Sikhs arrested for DharamYudh morcha were released for lack of Jail space.

1982 Amritsar taken over by communal Border Security Force.


October 19

1711 Baba Gurbaksh Singh (Banda Bahadur) won over the landlords of Bhallu.


October 20

1759 Sikh Misl leaders gathered to face the Ahmad Shah Durani's onslaught.

1783 Jassa Singh Ahluwalia passed away suddenly while enroute to Amritsar.

1920 Mahatma Gandhi remarked in his speech "India rose through Jallianwala Bagh" massacre.

1922 Leaflets are distributed by the Babbar Akalis in the "Parkarma" of the Golden Temple, rediculing non-violence. The SGPC as well as the Mahants are severly criticized by Babbars through the "Babbar Akali Doaba" newspaper.


October 21

1989 Puna court imposes the death sentence (by hanging) upon Harjinder Singh and Sukhdev Singh for killing general Vaidya.


October 22

1710 Baba Gurbaksh Singh (Banda Bahadur), escaped Bahadhur Shah's forces.

1718 Jassa Singh Ahluwalia was born.

1893 Maharaja Dalip Singh, the last prince of Maharaja Ranjit Singh passed away in exile.

1909 The Anand Marriage Act was passed.

1981 Akali leaders met Narsimha Rao,who was representing for the the Prime Minister.

1983 Classes for Khalsa College started as a middle school in a house near Hall gate in the city of Amritsar.

1987 Sarbat Khalsa stopped by the Indian Government.

October 23

No events available.

October 24

1605 Jahangir was throned as the Mughal emperor.

1781 Khalsa Dal attacked Anup-Shehar (UP) and arrested the British Commander, Lt. Col. Stuart as a prisoner of war.

1953 Punjabi Suba Convention at Amritsar inaugurated by Dr. Lanka Sundram. 1974 The "Khalsa Council" was established.

October 25

1708 Joti Jot, Tenth Patshah, Guru Gobind Singh Ji.

1710 Bahadur Shah received news, of Khalsa army's advances, at Sonepat under the leadership of Banda Bahadur.

1922 Babbar Amar Singh of Dhaliwal, Kapurthala, led the first Jatha of military pensioners furing Guru Ka Bagh morcha. He was arrested on July 22, 1923 and tried for his connection with Babbar Akali movement but was acquitted on Feb. 28, 1925.

1923 Dhanna Singh Behbalpuri, a Babbar Akali revolutionary, exploded a bomb and died while fighting the police at Mannanhana.

October 26

1619 Guru Hargobind was released along with 52 Kings from the Gwalior fort. Naik Hari Ram, Daroga, son of Naik Harbans Lal, Chandsbansi Jadav, Barhtian Kanawat, did deep mala (lighting small lamps all over the house) in honour of release of "bandi chhorh" Guru Hargobind from imprisonment, on the date of Diwali. The term "bandi chhorh", deliverer from prison, was first used for Guru Hargobind immediately after the release of 52 Rajput princes by Naik Hari Ram, Daroga of Gawalior fort, who had the first hand knowledge of the goings on leading to their release.

1831 Maharaja Dalip Singh, met Lord William Benedict in Ropar.

October 27

1676 A GurSikh flung two bricks at Aurangzeb. This was one of first acts of militancy at people's level after Guru Tegh Bahadur's martyrdom. The attmpts by common man to punish the imperious ruler of Delhi blazed a new trail of committment to an open struggle against organised operession of the state.

1761 Sikhs gathered on Amritsar for Diwali celebration and decided to attack Lahore. Khawaja Abed Khan was the then Governor of Lahore. -Ref. "Amritsar Ji Dae Darshan Eshnan Utay 500 Sala Di Ethasak Directory," Satnam Singh Khalsa Advocate, Page 83

1969 Sardar Darshan Singh Pheruman died after fasting for 74 days. The objective of his fast was to seek Chandigarh for Punjab. Even after his death and numerous other sacrifices Punjab has not been given her capital city, Chandigarh which was explicitly constructed for her. During all these years a deliberate discrimination campaign against the Sikhs has been the cause of several agitations which resulted in destruction of the holiest of the holy shrine Sri Akal Takhat Sahib and the desecration of the holy Harmandir Sahib, besides the massacre of thousands of Sikhs in Punjab and elsewhere throughout India. This fast was undertaken to tell the world that a Sikh never falters after he has once taken a vow to accomplish a deed.

1995 Human rights activist Jaswant singh khalra was killed around 8 pm at the Chhabal police station of Amritsar district, India and his body was thrown into the Harike canal. This was disclosed by Kuldip Singh, special police officer and prime witness in the sensational Khalra disappearance case. The entire operation at the Chhabal police station where Khalra had been kept after being kidnapped by the police under orders from SSP Ajit Singh Sandhu, was supervised by Deputy Superintendent of Police Jaspal Singh. Ajit Singh Sandhu had later committed suicide. Jaswant singh khalra had been collecting information on extra-judicial killings by the poilce. He was kidnapped and kept under illegal police custody despite order to the contrary by the Spreme Court of India. Kuldip Singh narrated the scene before Khalra was killed. "He was made to stand, thrashed and pushed onto the ground. His legs were stretched apart, more than 180 degrees. Seven policemen kicked him in the abdomen and chest. Save me. Please give me some water, he cried. As I was about to fetch some water, I heard two shots. I ran back into the room and found him bleeding profusely. He had stopped breathing."

October 28

1627 Emperor Jahangir died.

1688 Guru Gobind Singh Sahib Ji visited Jagadhri near Delhi.

1708 Emperor Bahadur Shah confers a "khillat", robe of honour, on Guru Gobind Singh's family. Surprisingly, he had bestowed the same honor upon Jamshed Khan, Guru Gobind Singh's assassin, only two days earlier. By treating the assailant and the victim at par, Bahadhur Shah lend credence to the theory that he, apart from the Subedar of Sirhind, was involved in the surreptitious attack on Guru Sahib.

1978 The 18th All India Akali Dal Conference was held in Ludhiana. At this conference, the Anandpur Sahib resolution was adopted by the Akali Dal.

1979 Gurudwara at Merut was sealed.

October 29

1921 SGPC asked the Sarbrah of the Golden Temple to hand over the keys to its President. Instead, the Deputy commissioner of Amritsar seized them to forestall the SGPC's decision. This led to the popular agitation known as the "Key's affair".

1922 GurSikhs arrested during Guru Kae Bagh morcha were moved from Amritsar to Attock jail.

1977 Prof. Sahib Singh, an eminent scholar of GurSikhism passed away.

1982 The occasion of the anniversary of the birth of Guru Nanak Sahib, a Sikh procession at Jallandhar was attacked with a grenade by Hindus. The bomb wounded 10 Sikhs, four of them seriously. At that time there were 40 battalions of the C.R.P. but no action was taken because those who were accused were Hindus. -Ref. THE SIKHS' STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, An Historical Perspective By Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer and Dr. Awatar Singh Sekhon By: A.T. Kerr Page 110-119

October 30

1748 Mir Mannu and Adina Begh seized Amritsar fort, Ram Rehni on the observence day of Diwali, with 2,000 Sikh inside. The seize went on for 4 months. All the Sikhs inside died of hunger. Sardar Jassa Singh Ramgharia, compelled by the situation, killed his daughter. -Ref. "Amritsar Ji Dae Darshan Eshnan Utay 500 Sala Di Ethasak Directory," Satnam Singh Khalsa Advocate, Page 80

1751 On the observance of Diwali, Diwan Kodha Mal got the kar-sewa of Amrisar Sarowar performed. After cleansing the structure, he got wells dug and equiped with well-gear to fill the sarowar with water. -Ref. "Amritsar Ji Dae Darshan Eshnan Utay 500 Sala Di Ethasak Directory," Satnam Singh Khalsa Advocate, Page 80

1902 Chief Khalsa Diwan was established at Amritsar, with Bhai Sahib Arjan Singh, Chief of Bagarian, as President and Sunder Singh Majithia as Secretary. Its aims and objects were as follows: 1. Uplift of the Sikhs in all spheres - political, social, moral, and economic. 2. Propagation of the Guru's Divine World, carrying of his teachings to the farthest hamlet, and the spread of the fragrance of naam all around. 3. Removal of illiteracy and the spread of education among all, irrespective of caste and creed. 4. Protection of the political rights of the Sikhs and the redressal of their grievances through constitutional means. It paved the way for national revival by its impact on society, education, and religion. Though it toed the line of the rulers, yet it always tried to bring Sikh grievances to their notice. The contribution of the Chief Khalsa Diwan cannot be under estimated. It spearheaded the movement to open colleges and schools throughout the State. The Sikh Education Conference was its annual feature since 1908 and it was able to add every year one High School.

1902 Chief Khalsa Diwan launched at Lahore

1922 The Panja Sahib incident took place.

1928 Simon Commission visited Lahore.

1972 Sant Fateh Singh died.

October 31

1752 Numerous atrocities committed against Sikh women and childern under orders of Mir Mannu. However, the Sikhs weren't frightened. They kept saying "Mannu Sadi Datari Asi Manu Day Soay Jio Jio Sanu Wadahda Asi Dun Sawae Hoay" Sardar Chattar Singh, Sardar Jay Singh got the Sikh women freed from the Lahore jails. Sikhs were always in chardikala. -Ref. "Amritsar Ji Dae Darshan Eshnan Utay 500 Sala Di Ethasak Directory," Satnam Singh Khalsa Advocate, Page 81

1758 Sikhs gathered for Diwali observance at Amrisar and bathed in the Sarowar "Mohe Marnae Ka Chau Hae Marao Ta Har Kae Duyar ||" Only the Sikhs of Punjab faced the treacherous Mughal rulers, rescued Hindu women from the cluthes of the Mughals. However, no Hindu-Pandir sacrificed his/her life either for their nation, caste, idol, temple, or their women's honor. -Ref. "Amritsar Ji Dae Darshan Eshnan Utay 500 Sala Di Ethasak Directory," Satnam Singh Khalsa Advocate, Page 82

1922 The Babbar Akalis attended "Charan Ki Chhinj" at Achalpur.

1984 Sardar Beant Singh gunned down Indira Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India, to avenge the destruction of Sri Akal Takhat Sahib and desecration of holy Harimander Sahib, the holy Sarowar, and for burning rare records and buildings of the complex. Indian Army was sent by her to attack the holy complex. However, Sardar Beant Singh was gunned down on the spot. Sardar Satwant Singh and Sardar Kehar Singh were co-accused with Sardar Beant Singh . They were hanged until death on Jan. 6,

1989. Sikh Panth holds Indira Gandhi, then Prime Minister of India, responsible for the desecration of Harimander Sahib in 1984's operation Bluestar.

1984 Black November-1984 started. Oct 31 through Nov 7 thousands of Sikhs were killed in butchery by the Hindus with the help of ministers, police, and army. The international leadership witnessed the savagery from a few hundred meters. "Who are Guilty" named 16 senior Congress Party leaders, 13 Police officials and 198 others among the major killers of the Sikhs. Rajiv Gandhi himself was behind the carnage. Later he justified by saying: whenever a big tree falls the earth is shaken". -Ref. THE SIKHS' STRUGGLE FOR SOVEREIGNTY, An Historical Perspective By Dr. Harjinder Singh Dilgeer and Dr. Awatar Singh Sekhon By: A.T. Kerr Page 110-119 / WITCHES NIGHT: October 31 by Khushwant Singh