Raagmala literally means a beaded string of musical melodies. "Mala" means "a beaded string" and "Raga" is a "musical composition". It is the name given to the last composition in the Guru Granth Sahib appearing after Mundavani (riddle) and a Salok by Guru Arjan Dev. Like Japji Sahib, which appears at the beginning of the Guru Granth Sahib, this composition has no heading to show the name of the author.
A few self proclaimed Sikh scholars differ in their opinion about the inclusion of Raagmala in the Granth. It must be noted that the only body which disputes the Ragmala are the Babu Teja Singh and Bhai Sahib Bhai Randhir Singh's Akhand Kirtani Jatha (AKJ).
The traditional position among all Sikhs and the official position of all Sikh Gurdwara management committees worldwide including the SGPC in Punjab is that Ragamala is a part of the Guru Granth Sahib and it must be included in all printed copies of this sacred scripture. That is the stand that is taken here (SlkhiWiki), as well.
Please do not add any disputed points to this page - Use the Discussion Page to voice your views if they differ from the above.
Raagmala & Raags in SGGS
The Adi Granth contains the following thirty-one ragas (in the serial order):
Sri raga, Manjh, Gauri, Asa, Gujri, Devagandhari, Bihagara, Wadahans, Sorath, Dhanasri, Jaitsri, Todi, Bairari, Tilang, Suhi, Bilaval, Gond (Gaund), Ramkali, Nut-Narayan, Mali-Gaura, Maru, Tukhar, Kedara, Bhairav (Bhairo), Basant, Sarang, Malar, Kanra, Kalyan, Prabhati and Jaijawanti.
It should be noted the following raags are mentioned in the section before Sri raga (pages 9 to 13).
- Raga Gujri (page 10)
- Raga Gauri dipaki and Asa (page 12) "dipaki" means "of light"
- Raga Dhanasri and Gauri purbi (page 13) "Purbi" means "eastern"
Ragmala given at the end of the SGGS gives the following eighty-four melodies.
Six are male (parent) ragas; the thirty raginis are their wives and the remaining forty-eight are their sons. The list is as follows:
- (1) Bhairao raga
Wives: Bhairavi, Bilawali, Punyaki, Bangli, Aslekhi.
Sons: Pancham, Harakh, Disakh, Bangalam, Maadh, Madhava, Lalat, Bilaval.
- (2) Malkaus raga
Wives: Gaundkari, Devagandhari, Gandhari, Seehute, Dhanasri.
Sons: Maru, Mewara, Parbal, Chand, Kausak, Ubara, Khokhat, Bhuranad.
- (3) Hindol raga
Wives: Telangi, Devkari, Basanti, Sindhoori, Aheeri.
Sons: Surmanand, Bhasker, Chandra-Bimb, Mangalan, Saras-baan, Binoda, Basant, Kamoda.
- (4) Deepak raga
Wives: Kachheli, Patmanjari, Todi, Kamodi, Gujri.
Sons: Kaalanka, Kuntal, Rama, Kamal-Kusum, Champak, Gaura, Kanra, Kalyana.
- (5) Sri raga
Wives: Bairare, Karnati, Gavri, Asavari, Sindhve.
Sons: Salu, Sarag, Sagra, Gond, Gambhir, Gund, Kumbah, Hamir.
- (6) Megh raga
Wives: Sorath, Gond, Malari, Asa, Soohou.
Sons: Bayra-dhar, Gaj-dhar, Kedara, Jabli-dhar, Nut, Jal-dhara, Sankar, Syama.
Raags in Guru Granth Sahib
If we compare the above scheme with the ragas of the Guru Granth Sahib, we find that only two major ragas - Sri raga and Bhairav have been included in the Scripture. The remaining male parent ragas, namely Malkaus, Hindol, Deepak and Megh have been excluded. Sri raga is the first raga in the Scripture instead of Bhairav raga of the Ragmala. Asawari used in the Scripture as a part of Asa raga is according to ragmala the wife of Sri raga. The following eleven wives (raginis) and eight sons of the parent-ragas are included in the Scripture:
23 raags that are utilised in the SGGS are mentioned in the Raagmala.
- Mali-Gaura is not included in Ragmala but Gaura is. "Mali" means gardener.
|Kirtan:||Raga · Taal · Ragmala · Classical Music · Sangeet · Dhuni · Divan · Asa di Var · Jatha · Simran · Shabad · Tuk · Rababi · Dhadhi|
|Ragas:||Asa · Bairari · Basant · Bhairon · Bihagara · Bilaval · Devagandhari · Dhanasari · Gauri · Gond · Gujari · Jaijavanti · Jaitsri · Kalian · Kanara · Kedara · Maajh · Malaar · Mali Gaura · Maru · Nat Narain · Prabhati · Ramkali · Sarang · Sri · Sorath · Suhi · Tilang · Todi · Tukhari · Vadahans|
|Ragis:||Harjinder Singh · Maninder Singh · Amolak Singh · Darshan Singh · Balwinder Singh · Harbans Singh · Anoop Singh · Niranjan Singh · Amrik Singh · Avtar Singh · Snatam Kaur ·Kamaljit Kaur · Dileep Kaur · Joginder Singh · SS Maskeen|
|Saaj:||Harmonium · Tabla · · Tanpura · Taus · Rabab · Sarangi · Dilruba · · Saranda · Sarode · Sitar · Santoor · Pakhawaj · Dhadh · Dholak · Dool|