Martyrdom of the 3 Sikhs

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The 3 Sikhs of Guru Tegh Bahadar

In November 1675 at Chandni Chowk in the historic city of Delhi India, Bhai Mati Dasi, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dayal Das, the three chosen companions of Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji, the 9th Sikh Guru were all martyred under the orders of the chief Qazi of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Bhai Mati Das was publicly sawn in two, Bhai Sati Das was covered with cotton and set alight on fire and Bhai Dayal Das was boiled alive in a boiling hot cauldron.

Over the period 18 November to 24 November, 1675 the three Sikhs were first tortured and then killed for their refusal to renounce their own chosen faith of Sikhi and embrace under duress the faith of the Mughal government which was Islam.


Bhai Mati Das

Bhai Mati Das was sawn into two, from head downwards
Main article: Bhai Mati Das


Bhai Mati Das (d. 24 November 1675) (Punjabi: ਭਾਈ ਮਤੀ ਦਾਸ) is one of the great martyrs in Sikh history. He along with his younger brother Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dyal Das, all disciples of the ninth Sikh Guru, Guru Teg Bahadur, were executed along with him at the Kotwali (police-station) near the Sunehri Masjid in the Chandni Chowk area of Old Delhi, under the express orders of emperor Aurangzeb.

Mati Das while standing erect was tied between two posts. He was asked if he had any parting words, to which Mati Das answered, "I request only that my head be turned toward my Guru as I am executed." Two executioners placed a double-handed saw on his head. Mati Das serenely uttered "Ek Onkar" and started reciting the Japji Sahib, the great morning prayer of the Sikhs. He was sawn in half from head to loins. It is said that even as the body was being sawn into two, the Japji continued to reverberate from each part until it was all over.

Bhai Sati Das

Bhai Sati Das
Main article: Bhai Sati Das

BHAI SATI DAS (d. 24 November 1675), (Punjabi: ਭਾਈ ਸਤੀ ਦਾਸ) was the second martyr who was executed in direct sight of Guru Tegh Bahadur in November 1675. He was the younger brother of Diwan Mati Das. According to Bhatt Vahl Talauda he served Guru Tegh Bahadur as a cook.


The Guru and his companions were arrested on the way and taken to Delhi in early 1675. Like his brother Mati Das, Sati Das refused to abandon his faith and refused to covert to Islam. He was therefore sentenced to death. As a way to provoke the Guru, he was tortured in direct sight of the ninth Sikh Guru. Wrapped up in cotton wool, he was set alight and was roasted alive. This happened on 15 November 1675, a few days after Bhai Mati Das was executed.

Bhai Dayal Das

Bhai Dayal Das being martyred by boiling alive in a hot couldron.
Main article: Bhai Dayal Das

Bhai Dayal Das (variously spelt as Bhai Dyala, Dayala, Diala)(died 24 November 1675) was son of Bhai Mati Das and younger brother of martyr Bhai Mani Singh ji. He was one of the earliest and greatest Martyrs to the Sikh faith. Along with his companions Bhai Mati Das and Bhai Sati Das as well as Ninth Guru, Guru Teg Bahadur, Bhai Dayala was martyred at Chandni Chowk at Delhi on 18 November 1675 on account of his refusal to barter his faith. He was the third Sikh to be executed by the Mughals in November 1675 before the Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadar.

Bhai Dayal Das was asked for a final time if he would leave his faith and embrace Islam. Bhai sahib defiantly and consistently answered, "No!" to the qazi's repeated requests. This infuriated the qazi who pronunced his immediate torture and death.

The executioners sat Bhai Sahib in the cauldron of water under which a large fire was lit. Slowly the water was let warm; then it was hot; soon it was too hot and then it was boiling. Bhai Dayala continued to his last breath to recite the Japji of Guru Nanak and the Sukhmani of Guru Arjan. He stayed on, sitting in the water, with an unwavering mind. His flesh separated from his bones and his soul departed to merge into the Supreme Being.


Martyrdom of 9th Guru

"There was sadness on Earth but joy in Heaven"
Guru Gobind Singh
Main article: Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadar

At Delhi, the Guru and his four companions were summoned into the council chamber of the Lal Kila (the Red Fort}. The Guru was asked numerous questions on religion, Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam. It was suggested to the Guru that he should embrace Islam. On the Guru's emphatic refusal to abjure his faith, he was asked why he was called Teg Bahadur (Brave Swordsman). Bhai Mati Das immediately replied that the Guru, then named Tyag Mal, had won the title by inflicting a heavy blow on the imperial forces at the young age of fourteen. He was reprimanded for his breach of etiquette and outspokenness. As Mati Das was a Brahmin, the Guru was asked why he had courted the company of such men when he did not believe in caste, and why he was defending the Brahmins of Kashmir. The Guru replied that when a person became a Sikh, he lost his caste. As for the Kashmiri Pandits, it was his duty to raise his voice against cruelty and injustice. The Guru and his companions were ordered to be imprisoned and tortured until they agreed to embrace Islam.

After a few days, Guru Teg Bahadur and three of his companions were produced before the Qazi of the city. Gurditta had managed to escape. He remained in hiding in the city, and in spite of all the efforts of the Government, he could not be traced. The Qazi turned to Mati Das first and asked him to embrace Islam. He refused to do so. He was condemned to an instantaneous death.

The executioners were called and the Guru and all the three of his companions were made to sit at the place of the execution. Bhai Mati Das approached the Guru with his palms pressed together , as he asked for his blessings, saying that he was happy to be the first to achieve martyrdom.

The Guru blessed him telling that they must resign themselves cheerfully to the will of the Lord. He praised him for his lifelong single-minded devotion to him and his cause. With tears in his eyes, he bade him farewell saying his sacrifice would occupy an abiding place in history. Mati Das touched the Guru's feet, embraced his friend and brother, and came to his place.

Mati Das while standing erect was tied between two posts. He was asked if he had any parting words, to which Mati Das answered, "I request only that my head be turned toward my Guru as I am executed." Two executioners placed a double-handed saw on his head. Mati Das serenely uttered "Ek Onkar" and started reciting the Japji Sahib, the great morning prayer of the Sikhs. He was sawn in half from head to loins. It is said that even as the body was being sawn into two, the Japji continued to reverberate from each part until it was all over.

Note: The Dates of events in this article have been changed in accordance with the Nanakshahi calendar and so may not be the same as in other articles.

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