Jalandhar

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Jalandhar (Punjabi: ਜਲੰਧਰ) is a district in the Indian state of Punjab and also the name of an ancient capital city in this District. It was the capital of Trigarttas (people living in the "land between three rivers": Ravi, Beas and Sutlej) in the times of Mahabharata war. It has an urban population of almost a million, and another million live in the rural areas outside the city. The city is located almost 375 kms from Delhi, and about 90 kms from Amritsar. Jalandhar is named after Jaldhar, a demon king who lived in water as his name suggests (Jal=water, dhar=in). It was the capital of Punjab until 1953, when it was replaced by Chandigarh. Others say Jalandhar is derived from the fact that it is located between two rivers JAL (water) & ANDHAR (inside). During British occupation in 1846, after the first Anglo Sikh Wars it was called Jullundur.

History

In ancient time, the district or Kingdom of Jalandhar comprised the whole of the Upper Doabas from the Ravi to the Satluj. According to the Padama Purana, as quoted by General Conningham the country takes its name from the great Daitya King Danava Jalandhara the son of the Ganga by Ocean.

In the Ancient times it was the seat of the Nath Yogis, (Ascetics), and Saints, who meditated in this region, more than 5000 years go. And before the arrival of Sikhism, Shiva, was worshiped by the whole population, and Hindu Temples, and Jathera's, (Ancestor Worshiping), were built which were common, in all of the Punjab, about 1000 years go, from about 2nd century A.D. upto 1500, when Sikhism, started to spread.

The earliest historical mention of Jalandhar occurs in the region of Kanishka, the Kushan King of northern India in whose time a council of Buddhists theologians was held near Jalandhar about 100 AD to collect and arrange the sacred writings of Buddhism and to bring about reconciliation between its various sects. This makes Jalandhar along with Multan the oldest surviving city of the Punjab region.

From the later half of the tenth century up to 1019, the district was included in the Hindu Shahi Kingdom of the Punjab and Jalandhar was an important city in the region, of this Great Hindu Shahi Dynasty. The City was named after Jalandhar Nath, a Yogi, who was defeated, In an fight with other Yogi's, making him leave his native Himalayan Mountains, migrating to Punjab, Where he later founded, Jalandhar, after his name.

In the 7th Century, when the famous Chinese traveller and pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited India during the reign of Harsha Vardhana, the Kingdom of Jalandhar or Trigartta under Raja Utito (Whom Alexender Cunningham identifies with the Rajput Raja Attar Chandra). It was said to have extended 167 miles (269 km) from east to west and 133 miles (214 km) from north to south, thus including the hill states of Chamba, Mandi and Suket (Himachal Pardesh) and Satadru or Sirhind in the plains. Raja Utito was a tributary of Harsh Vardhana. The Rajput Rajas appear to have continued to rule over the country right upto the 12th century, interrupted some time or the other, but their capital was Jalandhar and Kangra formed an important stronghold. According to Chinese pilgrim Fahien, who traveled India in the seventh century AD, there were so many Vihars of Buddhism in India. In the Jalandhar District, there were as many as 50 Vihars of Buddhism. Hinduism, was the main religion, in the region, and the Jatts of this area, worshiped Shiva, in very large numbers. until their conversion to Sikhism, in very large numbers, during the time of fifth Sikh Guru, Sixth Sikh Guru, seventh Sikh Guru, and Ninth Sikh Guru. Some Jatts of Jalandhar, worshiped, Sakhi Sarwar, a Mystical Saint, but they to had to abandon this. The Mughal Emperor Akbar, made Jalandhar Doab, a new Province of Punjab region, naming it Jalandhar Doab Sarkar. The Muslim Jatts of Jalandhar District, Tehsil Nawanshahr, Claim descendant from, Mehr Mithar, a Hindu Jatt, who converted to Islam, during the reign of Akbar, Many Jatts, accepted Islam. The Some Jatt Clans of Jalandhar District that converted to Islam, were Goraya, Kang, Sandhu, Sidhu, Atwal, only a small number, had accepted Islam.

In 1710, The Jatts of Jalandhar District, complained, about, the Mughal Faujdar, at jalandhar City, who was making their lives miserable, They told Baba Banda Singh Bahadur, who helped the Jatts, and took Jalandhar, adding it to the Khalsa Raj, by 1711.

Baba Sang Ji, who belonged to village Sang Dhesian, when he became a Sikh, during his childhood, along with his parents, later he was made the Preacher of Manjke Region, present day part of Jalandhar District, now part of Doaba. The fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev Ji got married In Jalandhar District, Southern Jalandhar District, known as Manjke, In 1583, to Mata Ganga Ji, who belonged to the village of Mau Sahib, In Tehsil Phillaur, Jalandhar District of Punjab. Guru Arjan Dev Ji, was the fist Sikh Guru, to make extensively preaching, in the District, visiting village after village, In which the Sikhs, grew in numbers, in the area, Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, blessed this area, and Preached. Guru Har Rai Sahib, Ji, said Anand Raho. and visited numerous villages, in the area.

Chaudhary Tilok Chand, was a Sahejdhari, Sikh Chieftain, of Tehsil Phillaur, Tehsil Nakodar, areas, southern Jalandhar District, along the Sutlej river, Phagwara, was his HQ. In 1751, he got married Bibi Rajinder Kaur (1739-1791), the daughter of Prince Bhumla Singh, and granddaughter of Baba Ala Singh (1790-1765), of Phulkian Misl. Chaudhary Tilok Chand died at very young age, she took the responsibility of family estate which consisted of over 200 villages. Later In 1759, Sardar Salig Singh, a Bhangu Jatt, Sikh Warrior, left his native village of Verpal, In Amritsar District, crossed the Beas, over, in to the Doab, taking the villages of Moron, another village, near Phagwara, and set up his own rule. Their were many Sikh Sardars In jalandhar District, like the Sikh Sardars of Village Naugaja, Sikh Sardars of Moron, Sikh Sardars of Thamanval, Sikh Sardars of Dhandoval, Sikh Sardars of Paddi Jagir, etc.

In 1766, The Singhpuria Misl, took the northern areas of Jalandhar District, from the Afghans, And the Ramgarhia Misl also controlled, northern areas of Jalandhar. while the Southern parts of the District, were already Sikh. In 1811, Maharaja Ranjit Singh, took all of the Present day Jalandhar, area, from the Local Sikh Chieftains, without waging a war. And made Dewan Mokham Chand (d. 1814), a Hindu, the governor of Jalandhar District, He built a fort at Phillaur, on the edge of Sutlej river. His son, Moti Ram and grandson Ram Dayal continued to serve the Sikh State, at his place. In 1845, Rani Jind Kaur was proclaimed the Empress of the Sikh Empire, And started the First Anglo Sikh Wars to protect the Sikh Empire, especially Phillaur, area which was the key, to get into the Punjab. In 1846, Sikhs, lost a battle, and the a treaty was made, which meant the Sikh Court had to pay a very large sun, and also hand over the precious Agricultural Eastern Punjabi, territory of Jalandhar Doab, in year 1846, three years before the fall of the Sikh Empire, which was 1849. The Lahore Darbar, who did not want to loose that area, had to agree. The British governed Jalandhar Doab, through local Sikh Chieftains.

In, 1846 AD John Lawrence (1811-1879), 1st Baron Lawrence was appointed the commission of the Jalandhar Doaba on its annexation in 1846. He put a curfew around Ram Rai Pur the heart of the Sikh uproar known for organizing terror attacks against the British Raj and the surrounding villages, killing any one who did not adhere to his rules. In 1847 nine members of the Dhindsa family where shot and hanged in an action to scare other villages around Ram Rai Pur.

In 1914, a Gadar Lehr, was a famous, revolt against the British Rulers, Jalandhar District, was very Influenced by the Gadar Lehr, Thousands of Sikhs, from villages, joined the fight for freedom. In November 1921, Sardar Kishan Singh Gargajj, formed a secret organization called Chakravarti Jatha and started working among the peasantry and soldiers inciting them against the foreign rulers, a cyclostyled news sheet called the Babbar Akali Doaba had already been launched. In 1925, during the zenith of the Babbar Akali Movement, 500 Sikhs, from Jalandhar area, become Shaheed, the Babbar Akali Movement, was very strong in Jalandhar District, and also Hoshiarpur District of Punjab. Master Mota Singh, of village Patara, near Jalandhar, also the Sikh leader and a freedom fighter, who played a great role in Jalandhar, during the fight for freedom, upto 1947. He had also remarked that, We Sikhs should not join India, He felt, that India would one day betray them, But None listened, and it came true, in 1978 and 1984 to 1993, and 2009 to 2012. From 1911s many Sikhs mainly, from Jalandhar District, started migrating to countries like Canada, America, England, Australia, Singapore, Thailand, Kenya, Uganda. In 1920, when the Sikhs In very large numbers, to free Nankana Sahib, from the clutches of Hindu Mahant Narain Das, in Sheikhupura District, Sikhs from the Jalandhar District, formed majority of the Group that went, and attained Shaheedi. The great Shaheed Bhagat Singh (1907-1931), a Freedom fighter, was from, Jalandhar District, village Khatkar Kalan, his father Sardar Kishan Singh Sandhu, played a great role in the Gadar Lehr, of 1914. And his grandfather Sardar Arjan Singh Sandhu.

During Partition of year, 1947, The entire Muslim Population, moved to Pakistan, and settled in the Districts of Jhang, Chiniot, Lyallpur, of west Punjab, many Converted to Sikhism, Many were Saved by the Sikhs, and kept in their houses, during the time of Chaos, Riots, Mass looting, Killings. Many Sikh Families, from the districts of Gujranwala, Sialkot, Lyallpur, Migrated to Jalandhar District, ans settling along with the original Sikh Population. In 1984-1993, the time of troubles, and fight for Sikh Independence, Many Sikh, youngsters from the Jalandhar area, joined the Sikh Freedom Fighters.

In recent times, nearly 66% of Jalandhar District Sikh Population, have migrated abroad, earn a living. Jalandhar District, is a very forward area, with modern technology, with growing, Towns, Model Towns, Villages, roads, etc. large parts of Jalandhar District is empty due to mass migration to counties like, England, America, Germany, Italy, Spain, Canada, Thailand, Kenya, Cyprus, Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Belgium, and Holland etc.

The Sikhs of Jalandhar District, are Mazabhi Sikhs, Ramgarhia Sikhs, Jatt Sikhs, Ravi Dasia Sikhs, etc, Jalandhar District had the highest number of Intermarriages, between, Sikhs, Hindus. About 10% of the Jalandhar District Population, is made of Migrants from Other Indian States, Such as Bihar, Delhi, Kashmir, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh etc.


External Links

Districts of Punjab

Amritsar (District)BarnalaBathindaFirozpurFaridkotFatehgarhGurdaspurHoshiarpurJalandharKapurthalaLudhianaMansaMogaMuktsarNawanshahrPatialaRupnagarMohaliSangrur (District)Tarn Taran