Jagjit Singh Aurora

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Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora looks on while Lieutenant General Niazi, Commander of the Pakistan Army in the East signs the Instrument of Surrender

Lt-Gen Jagjit Singh Aurora (or Arora) (Punjabi: ਜਨਰਲ ਜਗਜੀਤ ਸਿੰਘ ਅਰੋੜਾ) (February 13, 1916 - May 3, 2005) was the Indian commander whose comprehensive defeat of the Western Pakistan Army in 1971 led to the creation of Bangladesh. He was born in Jhelum, British India (now, Pakistan) and died in New Delhi, India.

Early career

Jagjit Singh Aurora was born into a Sikh family, he was the son of an engineer in Jhelum. After his graduation from the Indian Military Academy, he was commissioned into the 2nd Punjab Regiment in 1939, a force which he commanded during the 1947-1948 hostilities with Pakistan in Kashmir. He had reached the rank of Brigadier by the time he was involved in border hostilities with Chinese troops in 1961.

East Pakistan

In 1971, Aurora was made commander of Indian forces in the east, and he was responsible for hostilities in East Pakistan. Under his command months of guerrilla warfare were ended in less than two week. Pakistan lost 55,000 square miles of territory and over 70 million (the majority) of its people, in the operation that had been meticulously prepared, months in advance by Aurora and others.

Aurora had also been closely involved in training and equipping the Mukti Bahini ("Liberation Army") of East Pakistan; a ragtag group of freedom fighters who were transformed into an effective guerrilla force that harassed and demoralised the (Western) Pakistani army.

Their efforts softened up the Pakistanis in readiness for India’s strike, which was launched after Pakistan carried out bombing raids on several Indian airfields on December 3, 1971. These had been preceded by several Pakistani attacks on the Mukhti Bahini camps located inside India. War was now inevitable.

Aurora had helped to oversee the logistical preparations for the coming battles, including the improvement of roads, communications and bridges, as well as the movement of 30,000 tons of supplies close to the border of East Pakistan.

Even so, the Indian Army could never have anticipated how quickly the Pakistanis would be routed. Instead of attacking Pakistani positions head-on, Aurora ordered his troops to bypass them wherever possible and head straight for Dhaka.

The key breakthrough came when thousands of forces succeeded in crossing the Meghna River, which the Pakistanis had left unguarded, having blown up the only bridge. Local people ferried the Indian troops across in huge numbers of small boats under cover of darkness: “That was the turning point,” Aurora later recalled.

Surrender of Pakistan

Click to enlarge

On December 16, 1971, a day familiar to every Bangladeshi, Aurora accepted the surrender of Pakistani forces led by General Niazi. The signing of the document ended the war, and led to the formation of Bangla Desh, the name of the new country (later reduced to a single word) was used in the Instrument of Surrender, which declared: “The Pakistan Eastern Command agree to surrender all Pakistan armed forces in Bangla Desh to Lieutenant-General Jagjit Singh Aurora, General Officer Commanding-in-Chief of the Indian and Bangla Desh forces in the Eastern Theatre.” Aurora accepted the surrender without a word, while thousands cheered. He was hoisted on soldiers’ shoulders amid shouts of jai Bangla (victory to Bangla).

Niazi, who had wished to surrender in his office, was 'persuaded' to surrender before the people of Dhaka. Niazi had to be swiftly spirited away when crowds began calling for him to be lynched. Back home, he was widely criticised for submitting to such humiliation. More than 90,000 Pakistani fighters were taken prisoner after the ceremony. Outraged and humiliated the Pakistanis officers promised to take Badla (revenge).

Account of prisoners:


The total number of uniformed personnel consisted of about 79,676 of which 55692 were Army, 16354 were paramilitary and 5296 were civilian police personnel. In addition, about 800 PAF and 1000 Pakistani Navy personnel

In honour of his contribution to Bangladesh liberation, Lieutenant-General Jagjit Singh Aurora was awarded the 'Bir Pratik' gallantry award by the newly formed Bangladesh nation.

Later life

After his retirement Aurora spent several years as an MP in the Rajya Sabha (Upper House of Parliament) for the Sikh party, the Akali Dal.

He fiercely opposed the 1984 army attack on the Golden Temple in Amritsar, the Sikhs’ holiest shrine, to flush out armed Sikh militants who had taken up positions inside the sacred complex. He was also a leading activist on behalf of the victims of the anti-Sikh riots in Delhi in 1984, which followed the assassination of the Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, by two of her Sikh bodyguards.

He died on May 3, 2005, aged 89. He is survived by a son and daughter. After his death, the eternal gratitude of Bangladesh to General Aurora was emphasised in a message to India, from Morshed Khan, the Bangladeshi Foreign Minister, stating:

“Aurora will be remembered in the history of Bangladesh for his contribution during our war of liberation in 1971, when he led the allied forces.”

The site where the Pakistani surrender took place is being converted into what will be called Independence Square; an eternal flame is planned as part of the memorial.

News articles

Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Arora with Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, who took over as Bangladesh's Prime Minister after the liberation war, at his residence in Dhaka on 13 January 1972

HOMAGE TO A HERO By Haroon Habib in Dhaka, Bangaladesh from Frontline - Volume 22, Issue 13, 04-17 June 2005

Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Arora, who passed away recently on 03 May 2005, is fondly remembered in Bangladesh for his role as the commander of the India-Bangladesh joint forces in the 1971 Liberation War.

The death of Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Arora, on May 3rd, who as commander of the Indian Army's Eastern Command led the Bangladesh-India joint forces to their historic victory against the Pakistan Army in December 1971, rekindled memories of the events that shaped the destiny of Bangladesh. Lieutenant General Arora presided over the historic surrender of the Pakistan army in Dhaka on 16 December 1971, which finally ended the presence of the occupation forces in the former East Pakistan. This particular incident elevated him to the stature of a rescuer, as far as the people of Bangladesh are concerned. Lieutenant General Arora's death, at the age of 89, sparked off a series of spontaneous condolence meetings. These, together with the newspaper coverage of the death, gave the impression that the people, despite many ups and downs in Bangladesh politics, keep alive memories of the liberation war.

However, after 34 years of Independence, Bangladesh is not united in remembering the Indian General who commanded, in the final stage of the war, both the Mukhti Bahini (Bengali liberation fighters) and the Mitra Bahini (allied Indian forces), which forced 93,000 Pakistani troops to surrender in Dhaka along with their local collaborators. There are many reasons for the disunity. Bangladesh does not have the same philosophical mindset that it had in 1971, thanks to the military rulers who ruled the country directly or indirectly for nearly 15 years and undermined the nation's secular moorings. Following the assassination of their nationalist leader Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in 1975, the military rulers changed the country's Constitution, grossly undermined secular values and floated political parties which promoted anti-liberation and communal elements. The coalition of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP), the Jamaat-e-Islami and the Islami Oikya Jote, which is in power now, has added a new environment to the Bangladeshi polity by opposing everything that is pro-liberation. The Jamaat-e-Islami, the country's best organised fundamentalist outfit, had sided with the Pakistan Army to oppose independence.

Many commentators said that the state should have recognised and honoured Lieutenant General Arora during his lifetime for his historic role. But there are people who have tried to erase the history of the nation's war of independence by distorting it. In fact, the present generation of Bangladeshis seems to be confused about the nation's history. Nonetheless, an overwhelming majority of the nation's independent media took up the issue on Lieutenant General Arora's death. Those who participated in the war that left nearly three million people dead commemorated his accomplishments. Dozens of condolence meetings were held across the country, at which the role of the Indian people and the government led by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, and the sacrifices of soldiers of the Indian Armed Forces, who fought side by side with the Bengali freedom fighters, were recalled. India's High Commissioner in Dhaka, Veena Sikri, and Deputy High Commissioner, Sarbajit Chakrabarti, attended many such meetings, which were organised by various freedom fighter groups and political & socio-cultural organisations.

Lieutenant General Niazi, Commander of the Pakistan Army in the East, signs the Instrument of Surrender in the presence of Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora, at the Ramna Race Course in Dhaka on 16 December 1971

But, ironically, the government's response was very different. There were no official condolence messages from President Professor Iajuddin Ahmed and Prime Minister Begum Khaleda Zia. While leaders of all secular opposition parties, including the Awami League, which led the war of liberation, paid tributes to Lieutenant General Arora with a deep sense of gratitude, leaders of the BNP, the Jamaat-e-Islami and other constituents of the four-party ruling alliance kept away from condolence meetings. The Bangladesh Jatiya Sangsad (Parliament) did not include the name of Lieutenant General Arora in the obituary references in its last session. However, Speaker Jamiruddin Sircar agreed to include his name when the freedom fighter-turned-parliamentarian, Kader Siddiqui, pointed out the lapse. The late General was remembered also for his unique style of operation, which minimised civilian casualty at the time of the joint forces' advance towards Dhaka in the first week of December 1971. Sidetracking the Pakistani positions in the countryside, the advancing forces swiftly encircled Dhaka, where Pakistan's Eastern Headquarters was located. Civilian casualties were at a bare minimum.

The Pakistani soldiers were destroying everything during their retreat, thanks to the combined assault by the Mukhti Bahini and the Mitra Bahini. The entire civilian population was badly exposed to the Pakistan Army's brutality. So, Lieutenant General Arora, as the man in charge of subduing the final resistance, had to proceed very carefully. He accomplished the task with remarkable precision. The 93,000 Pakistani troops, led by Lieutenant General A.A.K. Niazi, had to surrender. Lieutenant General Arora was also praised for the discipline with which he conducted the post-surrender phase. While the Geneva Convention was strictly honoured in protecting the Prisoners of War (PoWs), there was no butchery of the Pakistan Army's local collaborators, or looting of property. Although the chief of the Bangladesh liberation forces, General M.A.G. Osmany, died years ago, most of the sector commanders of the historic war fondly remember Lieutenant General Arora. Lieutenant General Niazi, Commander of the Pakistan Army in the East, signs the Instrument of Surrender in the presence of Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Aurora, at the Ramna Race Course in Dhaka on 16 December 1971.

"He was a great friend of Bangladesh and played his role sincerely," said A.K. Khondoker, deputy chief of the Bangladesh liberation forces during the war. Khondoker, also a former Air Chief, represented the Mukhti Bahini at the surrender ceremony at the Race Course (now Suhrawardi Uddyan). "Since my acquaintance with him in 1971, I met him several times and was present with General Osmany at the discussions with him. I saw him always trying to help us in all possible ways," said Khondoker, adding, "We learnt a lot from him." The retired Air Vice-Marshal, who participated in Lieutenant General Arora's funeral in Delhi, said: "All those who knew him will miss the great soldier." One of the leading sector commanders of the liberation war, Major Rafiqul Islam, who wrote the book Tale of Millions, said Lieutenant General Arora was deeply moved by the suffering of the Bangladeshi people. Major Islam said, "As a professional soldier, he could not imagine the genocide and brutality of Pakistani soldiers to our people. So, he decided to help us. He was sympathetic to us and committed to helping us for our cause."

Recalling the motivation that Bangladeshi forces received from Lieutenant General Arora, K.M. Shafiullah, then commander of the S-Force, said, "General Arora was a father figure for us." The former Army Chief said, "We got all sorts of help from him during the war...the role he played during the war makes us heavily indebted..." In a message to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, Sheikh Hasina, chief of the Awami League, conveyed her deep sympathy to the members of Lieutenant General Arora's bereaved family and said the people of Bangladesh would always remember his contribution in their liberation war. She also recalled the supreme sacrifice of Indian soldiers during the war. Foreign Minister M. Morshed Khan, in a message to his Indian counterpart K. Natwar Singh, said: "I am deeply shocked and grieved to learn of the passing away of Lieutenant General Jagjit Singh Arora." He expressed his sympathy to the bereaved family. Books written by various Indian generals who took part in the war have essentially highlighted the role of the Indian Armed Forces, but ignored the heroic role of the Mukhti Bahini. Lieutenant General Arora was an exception. He told this writer in an exclusive interview in 1994, "I would like to make a special mention about the Mukhti Bahini. I think the organisation, though suffering from many handicaps, rendered valuable service."

Lieutenant General Niazi, who did not think much of them militarily, had to concede in his own words that it made him "deaf and blind." Lieutenant General Arora said, "I took personal interest in the training and launching of the Mukhti Bahini groups before the active hostilities started. I was greatly impressed with the enthusiasm and devotion of those young people. Considering that they had no previous knowledge or experience of covert and subversive activities they adapted to these roles very quickly." Distortion of history has been a part of Bangladesh politics ever since the brutal assassination of Sheikh Mujibur Rahman, the architect of independent Bangladesh, in 1975. The level of distortion has been so acute that school textbooks, re-written during the present regime of Khaleda Zia, have grossly subverted the history of the socio-political and cultural movements against the Pakistani military rulers. The BNP-Jamaat coalition has also promoted Ziaur Rahman, the founder of the BNP, as the main leader of the nation's independence. Despite the distortions, one particular photograph of the country's history cannot be erased. The historic picture shows Lieutenant General Niazi signing the instrument of surrender in front of Lieutenant General Arora at Dhaka's Ramna Race Course.

Additional reading on the Liberation of Bangladesh

External links