Gurpreet Singh Lehal

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Dr Gurpreet Singh Lehal


Dr Gurpreet Singh Lehal (born 1963) is a professor in the Computer Science Department, Punjabi University, Patiala and Director of the Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi Language Literature and Culture. He has made tremendous inroads into the application of computer technology in the use of the Punjabi language both in the Gurmukhi and Shahmukhi script.

Back in the late 1960s, when Dr Lehal was a child, no one could have imagined that one day someone who had studied Punjabi language in school only for two years, will be known for his work for the technical development of Punjabi Language. A post graduate in Mathematics from Panjab University, he later shifted to computers and completed his M.Tech. degree in Computer Science from Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology. Later he did his Ph.D. in Computer Science on Gurmukhi Optical Character Recognition (OCR) System from Punjabi University, Patiala.

Background

Born in 1963 in New Delhi and educated in West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Chandigarh. Dr. Lehal started his career as a Systems Analyst at Thapar R&D Centre, Patiala in 1988. Later in 1995, he shifted to teaching and joined as Lecturer in the Department of Computer Science, Punjabi University Patiala. In 2000, he joined Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology as Assistant Professor and returned back as Professor in Punjabi University Patiala in 2003.

As a researcher, Dr. Lehal’s main contribution has been development of technologies related to computerization of Punjabi language. Prominent among these are first Gurmukhi OCR, first multi-font Punjabi spell checker, first high accuracy Gurmukhi-Shahmukhi and Shahmukhi-Gurmukhi transliteration systems and first Intelligent Predictive Roman-Gurmukhi transliteration techniques for simplifying Punjabi typing.

Dr. Lehal has published more than 50 research papers in various national and international journals and conference proceedings. He has also presented his research findings in 25 conferences held in 8 different countries. Dr. Lehal has handled research projects worth more than 30 million Rupees including two international projects, which were awarded in open competitions among contestants from more than 30 countries.

As a software engineer, Dr. Lehal has developed more than 20 software systems including the first commercial Punjabi word processor, Akhar.

As an academician, Dr. Lehal has taught and supervised research activity of postgraduate and doctorate students. He has guided more than 50 post graduate Research scholars and 4 PhD students. Currently ten students are pursuing PhD under him on various topics related to computerization of Punjabi such as Punjabi-English Machine Translation, Hindi-Punjabi Machine Translation, Online Gurmukhi Optical Character Recognition, Punjabi Text to Speech Synthesis System, Punjabi Grammar Checker etc.


Main achievements

Dr. Lehal has been working for more than ten years on different projects related to computerization of Punjabi and has been a pioneer in developing technical solutions for Punjabi language. For the first time, many new technologies have been developed by him including Intelligent Predictive Roman-Gurmukhi transliteration techniques for simplifying Punjabi typing, Punjabi spell checker, Punjabi font convertor and Gurmukhi OCR.

Many other products for popularising Punjabi and breaking the script and language barriers have been developed under his leadership. Some of these products which are being widely used include a multi-media based website for Punjabi teaching, Gurmukhi-Shahmukhi transliteration utility, Shahmukhi-Gurmukhi transliteration utility, Punjabi-Hindi translation software, Hindi-Punjabi translation software, Urdu-Hindi transliteration software, Punjabi Search Engine and Punjabi grammar checker. Dr. Lehal has also handled research projects worth more than 30 million rupees for technical development of Punjabi and other closely related languages.

Language Software and Technologies developed:

Aims of the Advanced Centre

The Advanced Centre for Technical Development of Punjabi language, Literature and Culture was established in February 2004 with the aim of conducting research and development in linguistic and computational aspects of Punjabi Language as well as Punjabi culture. The objectives of the centre are:

  • To evolve technical solutions for Punjabi
  • To participate in standardization efforts in Punjabi
  • To promote and assist in content development for Punjabi
  • To conduct research in the socio linguistic and cultural aspects of Punjab
  • To preserve and promote Punjabi culture

Research Funding, Consultancies and Grants

Year Funding Agency Project My role Budget
2009-2010 The Information Society Innovation Fund (ISIF) Grants, Australia Web based Transliteration and Translation System between Urdu and Hindi Languages Chief Coordinator US$ 29,896
2008-2009 Defence R&D Organization, India Transliteration system from Urdu to Devnagri Principal Investigator Rs. 9.9 Lakh
2008-2010 Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, India Development of a grammar checking system for Punjabi Principal Investigator Rs. 25.48 Lakh
2007 Defence R&D Organization, India Transliteration system from Urdu/Kashmiri to Roman script and reverse Principal Investigator Rs. 1.25 Lakh
2006-2009 Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, India Development of Robust Document Analysis and Recognition System for Printed Gurmukhi Script Chief Coordinator Rs. 36 Lakh
2006-2008 Pan Asia Grants, Singapore Shahmukhi to Gurmukhi Transliteration Solution for Networking Chief Coordinator US$ 30,000
2005 MP Local Area Development Fund, Maharani Perneet Kaur, MP Patiala Multi-media based Website for Online Teaching of Punjabi (learnpunjabi.org) & Establishment of Natural Language Processing Lab Project Leader Rs. 20 Lakh
2004-2009 University Grants Commission, India Special Assistance Programme(Thrust Research Areas : Punjabi Speech Synthesis and Gurmukhi OCR) Coordinator Rs. 45 Lakh
2000-2003 Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, India Resource Centre for Indian Language Technology Solutions- Punjabi Chief Coordinator Rs. 81 Lakh

Contact:

Phone : +91-175-3046171 (O)
+91-175-2283502 (R)
+91-9815473767 (M)
Fax : +91-175-3046313
Email : [email protected], [email protected]

Detailed CV

Degrees:

  • B.Sc. (Maths Hons.) , Punjab University, Chandigarh
  • M.Sc. (Maths Hons.) , Punjab University, Chandigarh
  • M.E. (Computer Science) Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology, Patiala
  • PhD (Computer Science), Punjabi University, Patiala

Employment:

  • 1988-1995, Systems Analyst/Research Engineer, Thapar Corporate Research & Development Centre, Patiala
  • 1995-2000, Lecturer in Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Punjabi University , Patiala
  • 2000-2003, Assistant Professor in Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Thapar Institute of Engineering & Technology , Patiala
  • From 2003, Professor in Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Punjabi University

Courses Taught:

  • Introduction to Information Technology
  • Data Structures
  • Theory of Computation
  • Operating System
  • Algorithm Analysis and Design
  • Computer Graphics
  • Object Oriented Programming and JAVA
  • Unix & C
  • Software Testing, Validation and Verification

Member:

  • 1. IEEE
  • 2. ACM


Publications:

Journals:

  • 1. G S Lehal, “A Survey of the State of the Art in Punjabi Language Processing”, Language In India, Volume 9, No. 10, pp. 9-23 (2009).
  • 2. V Goyal and G S Lehal, "Evaluation of Hindi to Punjabi Machine Translation System", International Journal of Computer Science Issues, Volume 4, No. 1, pp. 36-39 (2009).
  • 3. M K Jindal, G S Lehal and R K Sharma, “On Segmentation of Touching Characters and Overlapping Lines in Degraded Printed Gurmukhi Script”, International Journal of Image and Graphics, Volume 9, No. 3, pp. 321-353 (July 2009).
  • 4. V Gupta and G S Lehal, "A Survey of Text Mining Techniques and Applications", Journal of Emerging Technologies in Web Intelligence, Volume 1, No. 1, pp. 60-76 (August 2009).
  • 5. K K Batra and G S Lehal, “On Translation of Verb Phrases from Punjabi to English”, Atti Della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi (Italy), Volume LXIV, No. 2, pp. 245-251 (2009)
  • 6. M S Gill, G S Lehal and S S Joshi, “Parts of Speech Tagging for Grammar Checking of Punjabi”, The Linguistics Journal, Volume 4, No. 1, pp. 6-22 (May 2009).
  • 7. V Goyal and G S Lehal, “A Machine Transliteration System for Machine Translation System : An Application on Hindi-Punjabi Language Pair”, Atti Della Fondazione Giorgio Ronchi (Italy), Volume LXIV, No. 1, pp. 27-35 (2009)
  • 8. G S Josan and G S Lehal, “Size of N for Word Sense Disambiguation using N Gram Model for Punjabi Language”, International Journal of Translation, Vol. 20, No. 1-2, pp. 47-56 (2008).
  • 9. T S Saini and G S Lehal “Shahmukhi to Gurmukhi Transliteration System: A Corpus based Approach”, Research in Computing Science (Mexico), Volume 33, pp. 151-162 (2008).
  • 10. V Gupta and G S Lehal, " Proposed Architecture for Punjabi Language Question Answering using Text Mining", Karpagam Journal of Computer Science, Volume 2, No. 2, pp. 554-562 (Feb. 2008).
  • 11. V Goyal and G S Lehal “Comparative Study of Hindi and Punjabi Language Scripts”, Nepalese Linguistics, Volume 23, pp. 67-82 (2008).
  • 12. M S Gill, G S Lehal, and S S Joshi, “A full-form lexicon based morphological analysis and generation tool for Punjabi”, International Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, pp. 38-47 (October 2007).
  • 13. M K Jindal, R K Sharma and G S Lehal, "Segmentation of Horizontally Overlapping Lines in Printed Indian Scripts", International Journal of Computational Intelligence Research (IJCIR), Volume 3, No. 4, pp. 277-286 (Dec 2007).
  • 14. G S Lehal, "A Gurmukhi Collation Algorithm", International Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, pp. 60-64 (Jan 2007).
  • 15. V Gupta and G S Lehal, "Text Mining approach for Punjabi language Synonyms detection", International Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, pp. 65-69 (Jan 2007).
  • 16. G S Lehal, "Design and Implementation of Punjabi Spell Checker", International Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, pp. 70-75 (Jan 2007).
  • 17. G S Joshan and G S Lehal, "Evaluation of Direct Machine Translation System from Punjabi to Hindi", International Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, pp. 76-83 (Jan 2007).
  • 18. G. S. Lehal and Chandan Singh, "A Complete Machine Printed Gurmukhi OCR System", Vivek, pp. 10-17, Vol. 16, No. 3. (2006).
  • 19. M K Jindal, G S Lehal and R K Sharma, “Segmentation problems and solutions in printed degraded Gurmukhi text”, International Journal of Signal Processing, Volume 2, Number 4, pp. 258-267, (2005)
  • 20. M K Jindal, G S Lehal and R K Sharma, “A Study of touching characters in degraded Gurmukhi text”, Transactions On Engineering, Computing And Technology, Volume 4, pp. 121-124, (2005)
  • 21. G S Lehal and H S Bhatti, “Computer and Punjabi Language”, Punjabi Dunia, pp. 23-39, (Dec. 2004)
  • 22. G S Lehal and Chandan Singh, “A Post Processor for Gurmukhi OCR”, SADHANA Academy Proceedings in Engineering Sciences, Vol. 27, Part 1, pp. 99-112, (2002)
  • 23. G S Lehal and Chandan Singh, “Feature extraction and classification for OCR of Gurmukhi script”, Vivek, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 2-12 (1999).


International Conference Proceedings:

  • 1. G. S. Lehal, “A Two Stage Word Segmentation System For Handling Space Insertion Problem In Urdu Script”, Proceedings of World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, Vol. 60, pp 321-324. (2009)
  • 2. G. S. Lehal, “A Gurmukhi to Shahmukhi Transliteration System”, Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Natural Language Processing, pp. 167-173, Hyderabad, India. (2009)
  • 3. D. Sharma, G. S. Lehal, "Shape Encoded Post Processing of Gurmukhi OCR", Proceedings of 9th International Conference of Document Analysis and Recognition, Barcelona, IEEE Computer Society Press, California, USA, pp 788-792. (2009).
  • 4. D. Sharma, G. S. Lehal, "Form Field Frame Boundary Removal for Form Processing System in Gurmukhi Script", Proceedings of 9th International Conference of Document Analysis and Recognition, Barcelona, Spain. (2009).
  • 5. G.S. Lehal, "Optical Character Recognition of Gurmukhi Script using Multiple Classifiers", Proceedings of International Workshop of Multilingual OCR, Article No. 7, Barcelona, Spain. (2009).
  • 6. D. Sharma, G. S. Lehal, P. Kathuria "Digit Extraction and Recognition from Machine Printed Gurmukhi Documents", Proceedings of International Workshop of Multilingual OCR, Article No. 12, Barcelona, Spain. (2009).
  • 7. D. Sharma, G. S. Lehal, "A Fast Skew Detection and Correction Algorithm for Machine Printed Words in Gurmukhi Script", Proceedings of International Workshop of Multilingual OCR, Article No. 15, Barcelona, Spain. (2009).
  • 8. M.K. Jindal, R.K. Sharma, G.S. Lehal, "Segmentation of touching characters in upper zone in printed Gurmukhi script", Proceedings of the 2nd Bangalore Annual Compute Conference, Bangalore, Publisher ACM, USA, Paper No. 9. (2009).
  • 9. M. S. Gill and G. S. Lehal, “A Grammar Checking System for Punjabi”, Coling 2008: Companion volume: Posters and Demonstrations, Manchester, UK, pp. 149-152 (August 2008).
  • 10. G. S. Josan and G. S. Lehal, “A Punjabi to Hindi machine Translation System”, Coling 2008: Companion volume: Posters and Demonstrations, Manchester, UK, pp. 157-160 (August 2008).
  • 11. T. S. Saini, G. S. Lehal and V. S. Kalra, “Shahmukhi to Gurmukhi Transliteration System”, Coling 2008: Companion volume: Posters and Demonstrations, Manchester, UK, pp. 177-180 (August 2008).
  • 12. V. Goyal and G. S. Lehal, "Hindi Morphological Analyzer and Generator", Proceedings First International Conference on Emerging Trends in Engineering and Technology, Nagpur, IEEE Computer Society Press, California, USA, pp. 1156-1159 (2008).
  • 13. M.K. Jindal, R.K. Sharma, G.S. Lehal, "Structural Features for Recognizing Degraded Printed Gurmukhi Script", Proceedings International Conference on Information Technology : New Generations (ITNG 2008), Las Vegas, IEEE Computer Society Press, California, USA, pp. 668-673. (2008).
  • 14. M.K. Jindal, R.K. Sharma, G.S. Lehal, "A Study of Different Kinds of Degradation in Printed Gurmukhi Script,", Proceedings International Conference on Computing: Theory and Applications (ICCTA'07), Kolkata, IEEE Computer Society Press, California, USA, pp. 538-544. (2007).
  • 15. M.K. Jindal, R.K. Sharma, G.S. Lehal, "Segmentation of Horizontally Overlapping Lines in Printed Gurmukhi Script,", Proceedings 14th International Conference on Advanced Computing and Communications, Surathkal, IEEE Computer Society Press, NJ, USA, pp. 226-229. (2006).
  • 16. P. Singh and G S Lehal, "Text-to-Speech Synthesis system for Punjabi language", Proceedings International Conference on Multidisciplinary Information Sciences and Technologies, Merida, Spain, pp.388-391. (2006).
  • 17. D V Sharma and G S Lehal, “An Iterative Algorithm for Segmentation of Isolated Handwritten Words in Gurmukhi Script”, Proceedings 18th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Hong Kong, IEEE Computer Society Press, California, USA, Vol 2, pp 1022-1025. (2006).
  • 18. G S Lehal and M Bhagat, “Error Pattern in Punjabi Typed Text”, Proceedings of International Symposium on Machine Translation, NLP and TSS, New Delhi, pp. 128-141, (2004)
  • 19. G S Lehal , Chandan Singh and Renu Dhir, “Structural feature-based approach for script identification of Gurmukhi and Roman characters and words”, Document Recognition and Retrieval X, Proceedings SPIE, USA, Vol. 5010 (2003). (Accepted for publication)
  • 20. G S Lehal and Chandan Singh, “A complete OCR system for Gurmukhi script”, Structural, Syntactic and Statistical Pattern Recognition, T. Caelli, A. Amin, R.P.W. Duin, M. Kamel and D. de Ridder (Eds.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2396, Springer-Verlag, Germany, pp. 344-352, (2002)
  • 21. G S Lehal , Chandan Singh and Renu Dhir, “Automatic separation of Gurmukhi and Roman script words”, Proceedings Indo-European Conference on Multilingual Communication Technologies, Pune, R. K. Arora, M. Kulkarni and H. Darbari (Editors), Tata McGraw-Hill, pp. 32-38, (2002)
  • 22. G S Lehal and Chandan Singh, “Text segmentation of machine printed Gurmukhi script”, Document Recognition and Retrieval VIII, Paul B. Kantor, Daniel P. Lopresti, Jiangying Zhou, Editors, Proceedings SPIE, USA, Vol. 4307, pp. 223-231, (2001).
  • 23. G S Lehal and Chandan Singh, "A technique for segmentation of Gurmukhi text”, Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns, W. Skarbek (Ed.), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 2124, Springer-Verlag, Germany, pp. 191-200 (2001)
  • 24. G S Lehal, Chandan Singh and Ritu Lehal , "A shape based post processor for Gurmukhi OCR”, Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Document Analysis and Recognition, Seattle, USA, IEEE Computer Society Press, USA, pp. 1105-1109, (2001)
  • 25. G. S. Lehal and Nivedan Bhatt, “A recognition system for Devnagri and English handwritten numerals”, Advances in Multimodal Interfaces – ICMI 2001, T. Tan, Y. Shi and W. Gao (Editors), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 1948, Springer-Verlag, Germany, pp. 442-449. (2000).
  • 26. G S Lehal and Chandan Singh, “A Gurmukhi script recognition system”, Proceedings 15th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Barcelona, Spain, IEEE Computer Society Press, California, USA, Vol 2, pp 557-560. (2000).
  • 27. Ajay Goyal, G S Lehal and S S Deol, “Segmentation of Machine Printed Gurmukhi Script”, Proceedings 9th International Graphonomics Society Conference, Singapore, pp. 293-297, (1999)
  • 28. G S Lehal and Renu Dhir, “A Range Free Skew Detection Technique for Digitized Gurmukhi Script Documents”, Proceedings 5th International Conference of Document Analysis and Recognition, Bangalore, IEEE Computer Society Press, California, USA, pp. 147-152, (1999)
  • 29. G S Lehal and Sunil Madan, “A New Approach to Skew detection and Correction of Machine Printed Gurmukhi Script”, Proceedings 2nd International Conf. on Knowledge Based Computer Systems, Mumbai, India, pp. 215-224 (1998)


National Conference Proceedings:

  • 1. V Gupta, G S Lehal and H Aggarwal, “Creation of Thesaurus from Dictionary and Corpus”, Proceedings of National Conference on Recent advances and Future Trends in IT, Punjabi University, Patiala, pp. 62-64, (2005)
  • 2. A K Goyal, G S Lehal and J Behal, “Machine Printed Gurmukhi Script Character Recognition Using Neural Networks”, Cognitive Systems Reviews and Previews, J. R. Isaac and K. Batra (Editors), ICCS ’99, Delhi, Phoenix Publishing House Pvt Ltd, pp. 141-150, (1999)
  • 3. G S Lehal and Kulwinder Singh, “A study of data structures for implementation of Punjabi dictionary”, Cognitive Systems Reviews and Previews, J. R. Isaac and K. Batra (Editors), ICCS ’99, Delhi, Phoenix Publishing House Pvt Ltd, pp. 489-497, (1999)
  • 4. G S Lehal and Sunil Madan, “A New Approach to Skew detection and Correction of Machine Printed Gurmukhi Script”, Proceedings 2nd International Conf. on Knowledge Based Computer Systems, Mumbai, India, pp. 215-224 (1998)


Invited Speaker

  • 1. 2010 : Punjab State IAS Officer Association Meet, Chandigarh (Topic : Simplifying Punjabi Word Processing)
  • 2. 2009 : World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 2009, Bangkok, Thailand. (Session Chair and Talk on: A Two Stage Word Segmentation System For Handling Space Insertion Problem In Urdu Script)
  • 3. 2009 : 7th International Conference on Natural Language Processing, Hyderabad. (Topic : A Gurmukhi to Shahmukhi Transliteration System)
  • 4. 2009  : National Conference on ICTs for the Differently abled in Education, Employment and Entrepreneurship, Chennai. (Resource Person)
  • 5. 2009 : National Conference on Emerging Principles and Practices of Computer Science and Information Technology, Guru Nanak Engineering College, Ludhiana (Expert Talk : Multilingual Processing and Punjabi Language)
  • 6. 2009  : Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Sciences, Bangalore (Expert Talk : Combining multiple classifiers for improving the performance of OCR)
  • 7. 2009 : Workshop for implementation of Internationalized Domain Names (IDNs) in Indian languages, C-DAC Pune.
  • 8. 2009 : Seminar on ICT Developments : Past, Present and Future, Panjab University, Chandigarh. (Expert Talk : Multi Lingual Computing with special emphasis on Punjabi Language)
  • 9. 2008 : ISIF Grants Workshop, Hyderabad. Organised by Information Society innovation Fund, Australia (Topic : Web based Transliteration and Translation System between Urdu and Hindi Languages)
  • 10. 2008 : Workshop on Punjabi teaching materials for internet use, The Center for Sikh and Punjab Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA.
  • 11. 2008 : 22nd International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Manchester, UK . (Software Demonstration : A Grammar Checking System for Punjabi ).
  • 12. 2007 : Workshop on Font Encoding Converters, IIIT Hyderabad. (Topic : Introduction to Punjabi Font Convertors)
  • 13. 2007 : Department of Computer Science & Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar (Topic : Multi Lingual Computing).
  • 14. 2007 : Workshop on Punjabi teaching materials for internet use, The Center for Sikh and Punjab Studies, University of California, Santa Barbara, USA.
  • 15. 2007 : National Seminar on Creation of Lexical Resources for Indian Language Computing and Processing, CDAC Mumbai. (Topic : Design and Development of Punjabi Spell Checker)
  • 16. 2007 : Learning Forum by ASIAN MEDIA INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION CENTRE, Singapore.
  • 17. 2007 : Brainstorming Workshop on OCR for Indian Languages, International School of Information Management, Mysore (Topic : Gurmukhi OCR).
  • 18. 2006: National Conference on Emerging Principle and Practices of Computer Science and IT, Guru Nanak Engineering College, Ludhiana (Keynote Address: Roman to Gurmukhi Transliteration System).
  • 19. 2003 : 2nd World Punjabi Conference, Prince George, Canada. ( Topic: Computers and Punjabi).
  • 20. 2002: Workshop on Indian Language Spell checker Design, Indian Statistical Institute, Calcutta. ( Topic: Punjabi Spell Checker).
  • 21. 2002: Indo-European Conference on Multilingual Communication Technologies, CDAC, Pune. (Topic : Automatic Separation of Gurmukhi and Roman Script Words).
  • 22. 2002: Workshop on Indian Language OCR Systems, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad. (Topic : Gurmukhi OCR).
  • 23. 2001: 6th International Conference of Document Analysis and Recognition, Seattle, USA (Topic : A shape based post processor for Gurmukhi OCR).
  • 24. 1999: 5th International Conference of Document Analysis and Recognition, Bangalore. (Topic : A Range Free Skew Detection Technique for Digitized Gurmukhi Script Documents).
  • 25. 1999: 9th International Graphonomics Society Conference, Singapore. (Topic : Segmentation of Machine Printed Gurmukhi Script)
  • 26. 1999: 5th National Conference on Cognitive Systems, Delhi. (Topic : A study of data structures for implementation of Punjabi dictionary)
  • 27. 1998: 2nd International Conference on Knowledge Based Computer Systems, Mumbai. (Topic : A New Approach to Skew detection and Correction of Machine Printed Gurmukhi Script)


Visits Abroad

  • 1. 2009 : UK, Canada, Thailand
  • 2. 2008 : UK, USA
  • 3. 2007 : Singapore, USA, Canada, UK
  • 4. 2006 : UK, Canada
  • 5. 2005 : UK, Canada, Singapore, Malaysia
  • 6. 2004 : Pakistan, USA, Canada
  • 7. 2003 : Canada, USA
  • 8. 2001 : USA, Canada
  • 9. 1999 : Singapore