Bavan Akhari, is the name given to two compositions of Gurbani found in the Guru Granth Sahib on pages 250 to 262 by the fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjan Dev and on pages 340 to 343 by Sikh Bhagat, Bhagat Kabir ji. It is a poem constructed upon 52 (bavan) letters (akhar) of the alphabet. In this form of poetry each verse begins serially with a letter of the alphabet. The origin of the genre is traced to ancient Sanskrit literature. Since the Devanagari alphabet, employed in Sanskrit, comprises fifty two (bavan means 52, in Hindi) letters (33 consonants, 16 vowels and 3 compounds), such compositions came to be called bavan akhari or bavan aksari. Not withstanding this nomenclature, no such composition consists exactly of fifty two stanzas as few stanzas will open with a vowel, and the compounds are generally left out of this scheme of poetry. Sometimes a letter is used to begin more than one stanza.
These two compositions by this title in the Guru Granth Sahib, both appear under Raga Gauri which appears on pages 151 to 346. The first is by Guru Arjan Dev (it is, perhaps, the earliest bavan akhari in Punjabi literature). The second is by Kabir (it dates chronologically prior to Guru Arjan's, but Kabir`s language is Sadh Bhakha inscribed in the Guru Granth Sahib in Gurmukhi characters).
Composition by Guru Arjan
The Bavan Akhari, by Guru Arjan, comprises fifty five pauris or stanzas of eight lines each, preceded by slokas all of which are couplets except the one preceding the last stanza which is of four lines. Besides, there is an additional couplet following the first pauri and a nine line long sloka at the very beginning of the composition which is repeated at the end as well.
Since all letters, especially the vowels and conjuncts, of Devanagri cannot be used in the Gurmukhi script, this Bavan AkAari does not follow either the order or pronunciation of Devanagri and even the number of stanzas is more than fifty two. Only twenty nine consonants in Gurmukhi (k to v) conform to those in the Devanagri script and stanzas 17 and 46 begin with these consonants, with "m" figuring twice.
The following stanza (47) begins with a "r", the consonant that follows "v" in Gurmukhi is redundant in Devanagri. The opening sixteen and the last eight stanzas do not follow the order or pronunciation of Devanagri or even of Gurmukhi; a few syllables open more than one stanza and a few which are redundant in Gurmukhi are missing.
The central theme of the composition is summed up in the couplet under rahau or "pause" which reads: "Extend Thy grace to the helpless one. Merciful Lord ! May my mind in humility adore the dust of the feet of Thy saints !!" "It is His grace one must seek. Through His grace one meets the true Guru who will show the path to liberation."
The opening sloka, which is also repeated at the end of the hymn, stresses the importance of the Guru who is likened to mother, friend, brother even God. He washes off one's sins and helps one swim across the worldly ocean. God is self existent. He is the subtle essence as well as the form (1). He is the Giver and dispenses largesse to all, yet His treasures never fail (34).
Words can comprehend and describe everything, but not Him (54). This human body has been attained after transmigrating through numerous lower births. This is now man`s opportunity, and he must make the most of it. Now he can have the cycle of birth and death rescinded (30). The purpose of human life is to realize God, but man gets entangled in the world and becomes oblivious of Him (6). Yet man need not resort to the forests in search of Him, for He dwells within him (30). He must abandon his ego. Abstinence and physical mortification do not bring enlightenment. The only way to realization is to become worthy of His grace (52).
His grace is attained through the aid of the Guru who brings purity to the life of the devotee and puts him on the path. Satsang, or company of the holy, is of crucial value. The mind gets detached from maya and is stilled only if one meditates on the Divine Name. The last stanza is an invocation to God seeking the gift of His Name.
Composition by Bhagat Kabir ji
The Bavan Akhari by Bhagat Kabir is one of his longer compositions, comprising 45 stanzas, included in the Guru Granth Sahib. The first five stanzas of this composition are introductory and the sixth begins with oankar, a word which itself begins with the opening vowel of the Sanskrit alphabet. Of the following thirty nine stanzas, thirty six are built around the consonants mostly in their Punjabi form, with certain consonants having been repeated.
Communion with the Supreme Being and the path leading to it form the principal theme of the poem. The letters, says Kabir, expressing the spiritual bliss of communion with the Supreme Reality are not the fifty two letters which are used in relation to mundane affairs: spiritual experience falls outside their realm. Within the spiritual state, all dilemmas are dissipated and one finally realizes God as pervasive Reality like the banyan tree in the tiny seed (3).
Once the lotus of the heart blooms with the rays of supreme knowledge, it never withers away in the illusive moonlight of maya (7), The spiritual bliss of a person whose heart is illuminated by the Supreme Light is ineffable. For such spiritual achievement, man needs guidance of the Guru, i.e. spiritual preceptor. A true follower of the Guru remains uninvolved in worldly affairs, and revels in the love of the Divine (9).
Kabir affirms the unicity and eternity and pervasive nature of God. One who is detached from this world can alone realize the Divine Essence. There is the thick veil of maya (delusion) over our eyes, which prevents us from perceiving the Ultimate Truth. One who discards evil, overcomes attachment, achieves serenity of mind and is emancipated from delusion.
The language of Kabir's Bavan Akhanis Sadhukari, with an admixture of Bhojpuri, Persian and Sanskrit words in their then current and popular form. The poem makes use of imagery commonly found in other compositions of the Guru Granth Sahib : "wife" for the self, "husband" for God, "temple" for the worldly abode, "lotus" for heart and "sun rays" for the illumination of mind.
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